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[Slideshare] fiqh-course(batch-5-january 2016) -introdn #1b -(27-january-2016)

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INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH

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[Slideshare] fiqh-course(batch-5-january 2016) -introdn #1b -(27-january-2016)

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) LESSON # 1 b –LESSON # 1 b – INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQHINTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF FIQH And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge Using text & curriculum he has developed especially forUsing text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims.Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. ““To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” UPDATED – 27UPDATED – 27 January 2016January 2016 BATCH # 5 INTAKE – [ January - May 2016 ] Intermediate Level course in English for AdultsIntermediate Level course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismailconducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
  2. 2. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON
  3. 3. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. ““It is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the UnletteredIt is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves, toa messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and torehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom― although theyinstruct them in Scripture and Wisdom― although they had been, before, in manifest error― .“had been, before, in manifest error― .“ ((Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 2Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 2)) PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  4. 4. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. ““As well as (to confer all these benefits upon) others of them, whoAs well as (to confer all these benefits upon) others of them, who have not already joined them: and He is Exalted in Might, Wise.”have not already joined them: and He is Exalted in Might, Wise.” ((Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 3Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 3)) PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  5. 5. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. “Such is the Bounty of Allah, which He bestows on whom He will: and Allah is the Lord of the highest bounty.” (Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 62: 4) PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  6. 6. PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  7. 7. ““Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent fromNor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves toevery expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion (studies in religion (LIYA-TAFAQQAHU -FID-DEENLIYA-TAFAQQAHU -FID-DEEN) and admonish the) and admonish the people when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) topeople when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).”guard themselves (against evil).” ((Qur’an: Taubah: 9:122Qur’an: Taubah: 9:122)) PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  8. 8. PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  9. 9. “Whomsoever that Allah wishes for him goodness, He will make him a FAQIH (learned) in matters of the religion(Deen); and for everything there is a pillar, and the pillar of this religion is AL-FIQH – (the profound understanding of the Deen); a learned scholar (of the Deen) is more difficult upon satan than a thousand worshippers.” ((Reported by Bukhary and MuslimReported by Bukhary and Muslim)) PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  10. 10. ““The best ones amongst you is the person who makes youThe best ones amongst you is the person who makes you remember Allah when you look upon him; and whenever he speaksremember Allah when you look upon him; and whenever he speaks it increases you your knowledge (of the Deen), and with his deeds itit increases you your knowledge (of the Deen), and with his deeds it inspires (motivates) you to strive for your Hereafter.”inspires (motivates) you to strive for your Hereafter.” ((Hadith reported by Hakim from Ibnu ‘Umar r.aHadith reported by Hakim from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a.).) PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  11. 11. PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  12. 12. * Muhammad ibn al-Hassan Abu ’Abdallah al-Shaibany r.h.m. said: ““Give yourself up to the study of jurisprudence (FIQH), for the knowledge of jurisprudence is the best guide to piety and the fear of God and it is the straightest path to the ultimate goal.”.” • REFLECTION:REFLECTION: ““FiqhFiqh” – literally means “profound understanding (of the” – literally means “profound understanding (of the Deen)” – ref: al-Qur’an Surah Taubah : 9: 122, which laterDeen)” – ref: al-Qur’an Surah Taubah : 9: 122, which later was used to refer to the studies of Islamic jurisprudence.was used to refer to the studies of Islamic jurisprudence. PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  13. 13. PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  14. 14. WARNING WARNING ““Whoever seeks knowledge (Whoever seeks knowledge (intendingintending) to argue with) to argue with the learned (scholars), or to brag with the foolish;the learned (scholars), or to brag with the foolish; or with it to attract peoples’ attention to himself;or with it to attract peoples’ attention to himself; Allah will make him to enter the Hell-fire.”Allah will make him to enter the Hell-fire.” ((Hadith also reported by Tirmidzi and Ibn MajahHadith also reported by Tirmidzi and Ibn Majah)) PREVIOUS LESSONPREVIOUS LESSON All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  15. 15. TO CONTINUE …TO CONTINUE … All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  16. 16. Amongst the definitions:Amongst the definitions: ““....... Knowledge is the arrival (....... Knowledge is the arrival (huhussulul- )- )** of the meaningof the meaning ((ma’nama’na- ) of a thing or object of knowledge in the soul of- ) of a thing or object of knowledge in the soul of the subject; and simultaneously,..... Knowledge is the soul’sthe subject; and simultaneously,..... Knowledge is the soul’s arrival (arrival (wuwussulul- ) at the meaning of that thing or the- ) at the meaning of that thing or the object of knowledge.”object of knowledge.” By “meaning” (By “meaning” (ma’nama’na- ) is: “- ) is: “the recognition of the properthe recognition of the proper place of anything in a systemplace of anything in a system ...”...” ** ““attainment; acquirement” is a better translationattainment; acquirement” is a better translation.. EPISTEMOLOGY Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  17. 17. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  18. 18. INPUT - PROCESSING - OUTPUTINPUT - PROCESSING - OUTPUT EPISTEMOLOGY All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  19. 19. • KEYBOARD • MOUSE • THUMB/DISK DRIVE • SCANNER • BLUE- TOOTH/WIRELESS  THE FIVE SENSES: SIGHT, SOUND, TOUCH, SMELL, TASTE.  TRUE REPORT  EXTRA-SENSORY -INSPIRATION, DREAM, INTUITION, BURST OF BRILLIANCE COMPUTERCOMPUTER HUMAN BEINGHUMAN BEING EPISTEMOLOGY All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  20. 20.  MemoryMemory  Linguistic & literacyLinguistic & literacy  Logic & musicLogic & music  Deductive - inductiveDeductive - inductive  Speculative extrapolationSpeculative extrapolation  Emotive - empathyEmotive - empathy  Contemplative - intuitionContemplative - intuition  Extraneous linkageExtraneous linkage COMPUTERCOMPUTER HUMAN BEINGHUMAN BEING EPISTEMOLOGY • Control unit – storage, speed • ROM – Read only memory • RAM – Random access memory • BIOS – Basic input-output System • DOS – Disk operating System; Drivers etc. • ALU – Arithmetic logic unit All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  21. 21.  SpeechSpeech  ActionsActions  CreativityCreativity  BehaviourBehaviour  Disposition (Disposition (akhlaqakhlaq)) COMPUTERCOMPUTER HUMAN BEINGHUMAN BEING EPISTEMOLOGY • Monitor – screenMonitor – screen • Printer – scannerPrinter – scanner • Thumb-driveThumb-drive • Disk-driveDisk-drive • Sound-systemSound-system • ProjectorProjector • Other devicesOther devices All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  22. 22. Whatever is outside of person –Whatever is outside of person – to be regarded as informationto be regarded as information ( ) – and not knowledge( ) – and not knowledge (( ).). Information may not necessarilyInformation may not necessarily convey any meanings, but can beconvey any meanings, but can be subjected to process orsubjected to process or interpretation – by a human - tointerpretation – by a human - to arriving at meaning.arriving at meaning. Every one may have equal accessEvery one may have equal access to a given information.to a given information. Knowledge resides in theKnowledge resides in the person – and is also anperson – and is also an attribute (attribute (sifatsifat) of himself.) of himself. Knowledge has to do withKnowledge has to do with “meanings” – which may“meanings” – which may include abstract concepts andinclude abstract concepts and construct beyond the materialconstruct beyond the material forms.forms. Yet, there can be difference inYet, there can be difference in levels and depths of knowledgelevels and depths of knowledge to a given information,to a given information, depending upon whodepending upon who contemplates upon it.contemplates upon it. INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  23. 23. INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE Just as raw data input areJust as raw data input are meant to be processed by themeant to be processed by the computer; observations, news,computer; observations, news, data and information etc. aredata and information etc. are objects to be understood andobjects to be understood and possible meanings from it to bepossible meanings from it to be comprehended by man.comprehended by man. THUS the Qur’an categorizeTHUS the Qur’an categorize these (information) as: “Signs”these (information) as: “Signs” –– aayataayat ( )( ) Al-Qur’an –Al-Qur’an – aayat Qawliyyahaayat Qawliyyah Universe –Universe – aayat Kauniyahaayat Kauniyah It is when cognition of man areIt is when cognition of man are applied to process theseapplied to process these information, that he may be saidinformation, that he may be said to arrive at knowledge (i.e. whento arrive at knowledge (i.e. when it becomes meaningful).it becomes meaningful). THUS the Qur’anic approach forTHUS the Qur’anic approach for man’s education enjoins him toman’s education enjoins him to “Read” (“Read” ( ) these signs tothese signs to arrive at the “meanings” – thearrive at the “meanings” – the REALITY.REALITY. NoteNote: The Arabic word “universe” and: The Arabic word “universe” and “a scholar; one who knows or is“a scholar; one who knows or is knowledgeable” are both speltknowledgeable” are both spelt as:as: ( )( ) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  24. 24. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  25. 25. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  26. 26. "Verily Allah does not removeVerily Allah does not remove knowledge from the (hearts of the)knowledge from the (hearts of the) peoplepeople, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away its people (the, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away its people (the true scholars –true scholars – ‘ULAMA‘ULAMA), until there are no more scholars, the people), until there are no more scholars, the people then take leaders that are ignorant, and when they are asked, and givethen take leaders that are ignorant, and when they are asked, and give fatwasfatwas – religious rulings, (they give) without knowledge, so they– religious rulings, (they give) without knowledge, so they misguide and are misguided.“misguide and are misguided.“ ((Hadith reported by Ashaab as-Sunnan from Ibnu ‘Umar r.aHadith reported by Ashaab as-Sunnan from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a.).) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  27. 27. ““O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey theO ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority fromMessenger and those charged with authority from among you (among you (ULIL-’AMRI - MIN-KUMULIL-’AMRI - MIN-KUM).”).” ((Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  28. 28. ““If ye differ in anything among yourselves,If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it torefer it to Allah and His MessengerAllah and His Messenger ** if ye do believe in Allah andif ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for finalthe Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.”determination.” ((Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 59)) ** i.e. by thei.e. by the ULIL ‘AMRIULIL ‘AMRI competent in this, not just any one.competent in this, not just any one. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  29. 29. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) ““ThoseThose who listen to the Word, and follow the best (meaning)who listen to the Word, and follow the best (meaning) in it:in it: those are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the onesthose are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the ones endued with understanding.”endued with understanding.” ((Qur’an: Az-Zumar:39:18Qur’an: Az-Zumar:39:18))
  30. 30. ““If anyone contends with the MessengerIf anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance haseven after guidance has been plainly conveyed to himbeen plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he hasbecoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.”chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.” ((Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115)Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  31. 31. ““Say, "O Allah,Say, "O Allah, Owner of SovereigntyOwner of Sovereignty, You give sovereignty to whom You, You give sovereignty to whom You will and You take sovereignty away from whom You will. You honourwill and You take sovereignty away from whom You will. You honour whom You will and You humble whom You will. In Your hand is [all] good.whom You will and You humble whom You will. In Your hand is [all] good. Indeed, You areIndeed, You are over all things competentover all things competent.”.” ((Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 26)Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 26) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  32. 32. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  33. 33. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  34. 34. ““O YOU who have attained to faith! Be everO YOU who have attained to faith! Be ever ((QAWWAMQAWWAM) steadfast in your devotion to Allah,) steadfast in your devotion to Allah, bearing witness (bearing witness (SHUHADASHUHADA) to the truth in all equity) to the truth in all equity ((QISTwQISTw) ; and never let hatred of anyone lead you into) ; and never let hatred of anyone lead you into the sin of deviating from justice. (the sin of deviating from justice. (A’-DILUA’-DILU) Be just: this) Be just: this is closest to being God-conscious (is closest to being God-conscious (AQRABU-LIT-AQRABU-LIT- TAQWATAQWA). And remain conscious of Allah (). And remain conscious of Allah (TAQWATAQWA):): verily, Allah is aware of all that you do.”verily, Allah is aware of all that you do.” ((Qur’an: Ma-idah: 5:8Qur’an: Ma-idah: 5:8)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  35. 35. 1. (1. (QAWWAMQAWWAM) “steadfast” in your devotion to Allah) “steadfast” in your devotion to Allah 2. (2. (SHUHADASHUHADA) “bearing witness” to the truth) “bearing witness” to the truth 4. (4. (A’-DILUA’-DILU)) “be just” – the most basic level of justicebe just” – the most basic level of justice 3. (3. (QISTwQISTw)) “striving with equity” – higher level of justicestriving with equity” – higher level of justice 5. (5. (TAQWATAQWA): “And remain conscious of Allah with fear of): “And remain conscious of Allah with fear of transgression”transgression”
  36. 36. ““O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice (O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice (QISTwQISTw), as), as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents,witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin ...”or your kin ...” ((Qur’an: an-Nisa’: 4 : 135Qur’an: an-Nisa’: 4 : 135 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  37. 37. ( “( “’’A-da-laA-da-la ” ) – to act justly, equitable,” ) – to act justly, equitable, treating everyone with indiscriminate justice,treating everyone with indiscriminate justice, etc. it also implies ( “etc. it also implies ( “ ‘adl‘adl ” ) to” ) to straighten, to be straightforward, justice,straighten, to be straightforward, justice, rectify, put in order, balance etc.rectify, put in order, balance etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  38. 38. ( “( “QistwQistw ” ) meaning: “justice, fairness, equity, fair-” ) meaning: “justice, fairness, equity, fair- mindedness, etc.” as in allotment of share or portion, alsomindedness, etc.” as in allotment of share or portion, also in the appropriate instalments.in the appropriate instalments. ThusThus ““( “( “muqsitwmuqsitw ”) – is “acting justly, or with fairness,”) – is “acting justly, or with fairness, correctness and appropriateness.”correctness and appropriateness.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  39. 39. Although both terms imply “Although both terms imply “justicejustice”, yet there is a”, yet there is a slight difference in their meanings :slight difference in their meanings : In a transaction between 2 parties (e.g. Buying andIn a transaction between 2 parties (e.g. Buying and selling), to accord to both parties their due rightsselling), to accord to both parties their due rights whence both are satisfied (win-win) – the Arabic termwhence both are satisfied (win-win) – the Arabic term . (. (QISTwQISTw ) is used. This may require) is used. This may require willingness on one or both party to show benevolence,willingness on one or both party to show benevolence, goodwill and generosity to the other.goodwill and generosity to the other. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  40. 40. In an adjudication (In an adjudication (judgingjudging ), where justice requires that one), where justice requires that one party gains and one party has to suffer loss, the Arabic termparty gains and one party has to suffer loss, the Arabic term ((‘‘ADLADL )) is used. This, perhaps is the minimal form ofis used. This, perhaps is the minimal form of justice required.justice required. Even to those amongst your enemy whom you hate, you must notEven to those amongst your enemy whom you hate, you must not deprive them of thedeprive them of the ‘ADL‘ADL.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  41. 41. Thus, (Thus, (QISTwQISTw ) would be a higher form of) would be a higher form of justice – a justice tempered withjustice – a justice tempered with IIHHSANSAN andand generosity. Examples:generosity. Examples: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  42. 42. Thus, (Thus, (QISTwQISTw ) would be a higher form of) would be a higher form of justice – a justice tempered withjustice – a justice tempered with IIHHSANSAN andand generosity. Examples:generosity. Examples: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) “And therein We had ordained for them: 'A life for a life, and an eye for an eye, and a nose for a nose, and an ear for an ear, and a tooth for a tooth, and for all wounds, like for like. But whosoever forgoes it by way of charity, it will be for him an expiation. Those who do not judge by what Allah has revealed are indeed the wrong-doers..” (Qur’an: Maa-idah: 5: 45)
  43. 43. Thus, (Thus, (QISTwQISTw ) would be a higher form of) would be a higher form of justice – a justice tempered withjustice – a justice tempered with IIHHSANSAN andand generosity. Examples:generosity. Examples: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) “And if you punish [an enemy, O believers], punish with an equivalent of that with which you were harmed. But if you are patient - it is better for those who are patient.” (Qur’an: An-Nahlu: 16: 126)
  44. 44. Thus, (Thus, (QISTwQISTw ) would be a higher form of) would be a higher form of justice – a justice tempered withjustice – a justice tempered with IIHHSANSAN andand generosity. Examples:generosity. Examples: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) “When you are greeted with a salutation then return it with a better one, or at least the same. Surely Allah takes good count of everything.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 86)
  45. 45. Thus, (Thus, (QISTwQISTw ) would be a higher form of justice) would be a higher form of justice – a justice tempered with– a justice tempered with IIHHSANSAN and generosity.and generosity. As Muslims, we are to strive for this higher standard, .As Muslims, we are to strive for this higher standard, . ((QISTwQISTw ), if not, then uphold the minimal .), if not, then uphold the minimal . (( ‘ADL‘ADL ).). ““ADAABADAAB “ encompass both these understandings.“ encompass both these understandings. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  46. 46. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  47. 47. Analysis of Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-AttasAnalysis of Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas THE PROBLEM THE PROBLEM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  48. 48. 48 (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge Figure 1 [1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. [2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012))
  49. 49. 49 (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge Figure 1 “This state of perpetual confusion at all levels of societal leadership is ingeniously termed by al-Attas as the loss of ADAB. This can be describe as follows: 1) Confusion and error in knowledge; creating the condition for: [1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. [2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012))
  50. 50. 50 External Loss of ADAB (B) Internal (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge Figure 1 “This state of perpetual confusion at all levels of societal leadership is ingeniously termed by al-Attas as the loss of ADAB. This can be describe as follows: 1) Confusion and error in knowledge; creating the condition for: 2) The loss of ADAB within the Community. The condition arising out of (A) and (B) is: [1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. [2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012))
  51. 51. 51 (C) Rise / election of False leaders External Loss of ADAB (B) Internal (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge Figure 1 “This state of perpetual confusion at all levels of societal leadership is ingeniously termed by al-Attas as the loss of ADAB. This can be describe as follows: 1) Confusion and error in knowledge; creating the condition for: 2) The loss of ADAB within the Community. The condition arising out of (A) and (B) is: Rise of False leaders [1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. [2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012))
  52. 52. 52 (C) Rise / election of False leaders External Loss of ADAB (B) Internal (A) Confusion and Error in Knowledge Figure 1 “This state of perpetual confusion at all levels of societal leadership is ingeniously termed by al-Attas as the loss of ADAB. This can be describe as follows: 1) Confusion and error in knowledge; creating the condition for: 2) The loss of ADAB within the Community. The condition arising out of (A) and (B) is: “The rise of leaders who are not qualified for valid leadership of the Muslim Community, who do not possess the high moral, intellectual and spiritual standards required for Islamic leadership, who perpetuate the condition in (1) [1] above and ensure the continued control of the affairs of the Community by leaders like them who dominate in all fields.” [2] [1] The loss of Adab in the community. Thus restoration of Adab has higher priority for Adab precedes even learning. [2] Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud’s “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” (ISTAC publication 1998) p 74
  53. 53. WHO SPEAKS FOR ISLAM ? All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  54. 54. In the legal profession for instance, can just anybody, even theyIn the legal profession for instance, can just anybody, even they who may be well-read in law, be given the right to interfere withwho may be well-read in law, be given the right to interfere with legal rulings of High court judges?legal rulings of High court judges? To even consider advice or comment upon legal questions, oneTo even consider advice or comment upon legal questions, one should refer to those qualified such as lawyers or jurists; orshould refer to those qualified such as lawyers or jurists; or recognised academician of jurisprudence, etc.recognised academician of jurisprudence, etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  55. 55. In engineering, merely having the knowledge or training inIn engineering, merely having the knowledge or training in engineering is insufficient for the person ‘unless he has beenengineering is insufficient for the person ‘unless he has been certified’ by credible practitioners of whichever field ofcertified’ by credible practitioners of whichever field of engineering profession.engineering profession. And in the field of medicine, can those who are not trained andAnd in the field of medicine, can those who are not trained and certified as qualified physician be allowed to meddle and prescribecertified as qualified physician be allowed to meddle and prescribe medical advices to the masses, styling himself or herself as amedical advices to the masses, styling himself or herself as a medical doctor?medical doctor? All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  56. 56. Merely having read manuals on medicine, or even having workedMerely having read manuals on medicine, or even having worked with a doctor but not as yet assessed by authoritative body of thiswith a doctor but not as yet assessed by authoritative body of this profession, or even a student not as yet given permission to practice –profession, or even a student not as yet given permission to practice – are not enough to qualify one to that role.are not enough to qualify one to that role. Such ‘malpractices’ can harm humanSuch ‘malpractices’ can harm human life in this temporary worldlife in this temporary world.. Yet, when it is in matters of theYet, when it is in matters of the DEENDEEN (religion) that pertains to well-(religion) that pertains to well- being of our soul or spirit (being of our soul or spirit (RURUHH) in the) in the eternal Hereaftereternal Hereafter, why are, why are Muslims so careless?Muslims so careless? All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  57. 57. In our community, the term “In our community, the term “UstazUstaz” may have been loosely” may have been loosely used (abused) to refer to just any one who teaches somethingused (abused) to refer to just any one who teaches something connected to Islam, irrespective of their standing amongst theconnected to Islam, irrespective of their standing amongst the Islamic scholarsIslamic scholars (‘ULAMA(‘ULAMA) and genuine students of knowledge) and genuine students of knowledge ((TOLIB AL-’ILMTOLIB AL-’ILM) of Islam in our community.) of Islam in our community. Other terms in our concern includes viz. –Other terms in our concern includes viz. – ‘ALEEM‘ALEEM ((‘ULAMA‘ULAMA),), SHEIKH, KIYAI, IMAM, MURSHID, KHALIFAH, AMEERSHEIKH, KIYAI, IMAM, MURSHID, KHALIFAH, AMEER, etc., etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  58. 58. Another term perhaps ‘abused’ isAnother term perhaps ‘abused’ is ULIL-AMRIULIL-AMRI – being applied to– being applied to whomsoever assume leadership of the Muslim community, withoutwhomsoever assume leadership of the Muslim community, without even considering whether such ‘leaders’ fulfill the criteria spoken of aseven considering whether such ‘leaders’ fulfill the criteria spoken of as thethe ULIL -AMRI - MINKUMULIL -AMRI - MINKUM in the Qur’an and elaborated in As-Sunnah.in the Qur’an and elaborated in As-Sunnah. Originally, theOriginally, the WALIYUL ‘AMRIWALIYUL ‘AMRI was the leader who was both anwas the leader who was both an ‘ALEEM‘ALEEM (recognized as learned Islamic scholar) as well as being the(recognized as learned Islamic scholar) as well as being the AMEERAMEER (political leader of the community) – modeled after the Prophet(political leader of the community) – modeled after the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ Even if he was not the best Islamic scholars of the time, he is expectedEven if he was not the best Islamic scholars of the time, he is expected to seek the advice of the best learned scholars (to seek the advice of the best learned scholars (‘ULAMA‘ULAMA) in the) in the community.community. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  59. 59. THE PROPHETTHE PROPHET ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ ‘ALEEM and AMEER Powers both spiritual and temporal, yet commanded to consult (SHURA) KHULAFA’ RASHIDUUNKHULAFA’ RASHIDUUN ‘‘ALEEMALEEM andand AMEERAMEER Both spiritual and temporal,Both spiritual and temporal, Yet consultation with the seniorYet consultation with the senior and other learned Companionsand other learned Companions ‘‘ULAMAULAMA andand SHUYUKHSHUYUKH of theof the UmmahUmmah. UMMAYYAD DYNASTY AsAs AMEERAMEER only.only. Held temporal power,Held temporal power, but sought legitimacybut sought legitimacy from endorsementfrom endorsement of theof the ‘ULAMA‘ULAMA .. ABBASID DYNASTY BEGINNING OF SEPARATION ‘‘ULAMAULAMA Spiritual – religiousSpiritual – religious leadership. Some patronizeleadership. Some patronize the ruler or served asthe ruler or served as judges and administrators,judges and administrators, yet many remainyet many remain Independent from theseIndependent from these rulers but were there torulers but were there to serve theserve the Ummah.Ummah. …. and so on etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  60. 60. Later these two roles (function) of an Islamic leadership becameLater these two roles (function) of an Islamic leadership became separated, one is theseparated, one is the UMARA’UMARA’ (Administrative – political leadership) and(Administrative – political leadership) and the otherthe other ‘ULAMA‘ULAMA (Religious leadership - authority).(Religious leadership - authority). It is theIt is the ‘ULAMA ,‘ULAMA , (specifically the(specifically the FUQAHA’ –FUQAHA’ – the jurists-scholars), whothe jurists-scholars), who must remain true (trustworthy) to the legacy of the Prophetmust remain true (trustworthy) to the legacy of the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ andand be courageous to speak-up independently, advise and, even if need be,be courageous to speak-up independently, advise and, even if need be, to exhort or warn those who are ruling over the community.to exhort or warn those who are ruling over the community. Their accountability ultimately is to Allah SWT and His MessengerTheir accountability ultimately is to Allah SWT and His Messenger ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬,, and not to these rulers nor to whatever written constitution formulatedand not to these rulers nor to whatever written constitution formulated by human beings whenever they are opposed to the principle teachingsby human beings whenever they are opposed to the principle teachings ofof Ad-Deen Al-IslamAd-Deen Al-Islam.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  61. 61. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  62. 62. ““(Honour) My successors ((Honour) My successors (KHULAFA’KHULAFA’), may Allah s.w.t. be), may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.”Merciful towards them!.” HeHe ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ was asked:was asked: ““Who are your successors (Who are your successors (KHULAFA’KHULAFA’) O Messenger of) O Messenger of Allah?” And heAllah?” And he ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ said:said: ““They are those who revive myThey are those who revive my SunnahSunnah (Way or traditions)(Way or traditions) and teaches them to the servants of Allah.”and teaches them to the servants of Allah.” ((Hadith of the Prophet s.a.wHadith of the Prophet s.a.w.).) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  63. 63. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  64. 64. ““When a trust (When a trust (AMANAHAMANAH)is neglected,)is neglected, then wait for the time (of its destruction).”then wait for the time (of its destruction).” Somebody ask:Somebody ask: ‘‘How shall this be neglected O Messenger of Allah?’How shall this be neglected O Messenger of Allah?’ He then replied: “When a matter (affair) is given over,He then replied: “When a matter (affair) is given over, not to its rightful (legitimate) person (not to its rightful (legitimate) person (AHLIHAAHLIHA),), then wait for its time (of destruction).”then wait for its time (of destruction).” ((Hadith reported by BukharyHadith reported by Bukhary)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  65. 65. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  66. 66. ““TheThe FUQAHAFUQAHA (Muslim jurists-scholars) are the trustees(Muslim jurists-scholars) are the trustees ((UMANAA-UUMANAA-U) of the Messenger, as long as they do not insert) of the Messenger, as long as they do not insert worldly interest into it (their religious guidance andworldly interest into it (their religious guidance and teachings).” He was then asked: “What is ‘to insert worldlyteachings).” He was then asked: “What is ‘to insert worldly interest into it’ ?” (The Prophetinterest into it’ ?” (The Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ said: “(It is when they)said: “(It is when they) follow the Sultan (i.e. those wielding political power)!follow the Sultan (i.e. those wielding political power)! So when they do that (follow the dictates of these leaders),So when they do that (follow the dictates of these leaders), be cautious towards them (i.e. these Muslim jurist-scholars)be cautious towards them (i.e. these Muslim jurist-scholars) in regard to your Deen (religion).”in regard to your Deen (religion).” ((Hadith reported by TirmidziHadith reported by Tirmidzi)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  67. 67. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) (It was narrated from Tariq bin Shihab r.a. that : a man asked the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬, when he had put his leg in the stirrup): "Which kind of the Jihad is best?'" He ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ said: " a word of truth spoken before an unjust rulers.“ (Hadith reported by Nasa-i)
  68. 68. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  69. 69. ““The pursuit of knowledge is not carried on without sixThe pursuit of knowledge is not carried on without six things which I shall inform you through words that are clear:things which I shall inform you through words that are clear: [1] Ingenious acumen,[1] Ingenious acumen, [2] fervent desire,[2] fervent desire, [3] patience,[3] patience, [4] sufficient sustenance,[4] sufficient sustenance, [5] guidance of a teacher, and[5] guidance of a teacher, and [6] length of time.”[6] length of time.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  70. 70. A SCHOLARS’ ADVICE FROM KITAB “TA’LIM MUTA’LLIM”A SCHOLARS’ ADVICE FROM KITAB “TA’LIM MUTA’LLIM” ““He who does not exert abstinence (He who does not exert abstinence (WARA’)WARA’) while learning, God (Allah) thewhile learning, God (Allah) the Almighty chastise [him] in one of three ways:Almighty chastise [him] in one of three ways: [1] either deprives him of life in his youth, or[1] either deprives him of life in his youth, or [2] exiles him into [far-off] regions, or[2] exiles him into [far-off] regions, or [3] punishes him [by forcing him to enter] the service of the Sultan.”[3] punishes him [by forcing him to enter] the service of the Sultan.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  71. 71. ““An immoral man of learning is a great evil,An immoral man of learning is a great evil, yet a greater evil is an ignoramus leading a ‘godly’ life.yet a greater evil is an ignoramus leading a ‘godly’ life. Both are a great trial everywhere,Both are a great trial everywhere, to whomever depends to them both,to whomever depends to them both, in holding on to his religion”in holding on to his religion” REFLECTIONREFLECTION:: We would indeed be afflicted with thisWe would indeed be afflicted with this FitnahFitnah (trial). Only with appropriate(trial). Only with appropriate knowledge andknowledge and irshaadahirshaadah, and more importantly, and more importantly Taufiq wal-Hidaa-yaTaufiq wal-Hidaa-ya fromfrom Allah SWT. would we be saved from its evil.Allah SWT. would we be saved from its evil. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  72. 72. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  73. 73. “ If not for my (Islamic) teacher-educator (*MUROBBI) I would never have known my Lord (ROBBI) ” LAU-LAA-AL-MUROB-BEE – MAA – ‘ARAF-TU- ROB-BEE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014)All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2014) ““AN-NASEEHAH”AN-NASEEHAH” ““Sincere advice”Sincere advice” IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOSTMOST COMPASSIONATE,COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFULMOST MERCIFUL Allah SWT says: “ O mankind, worship your Lord (ROBB), who created you and those before you, that you may become righteous” (Qur’an: Surah al-Baqarah: 2: 20) ** Note: the first MUROBBI are our MuslimNote: the first MUROBBI are our Muslim parents-guardian; then Asaatizah / Ustaazat etc.parents-guardian; then Asaatizah / Ustaazat etc. REMEMBER WITH REMEMBER WITH MUCH GRATITUDE MUCH GRATITUDE
  74. 74. “ Educators are like gardeners, the best of them are the local gardeners with the most experience, who have been living with and nurturing the plants and being the caretaker of its ornaments. Although they are often unassuming by avoiding the gaze of people admiring the garden, yet ignoring them is indeed ignorant heedlessness, compounded with ingratitude, while preferring others less able over them is injustice ”  'If you are grateful, I will surely increase you [in favour]; but if you deny, indeed, My punishment is severe” (Qur’an: Surah Ibrahim: 14: 7) IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFULMOST MERCIFUL AN-NASEEHAH Sincere Advice All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013))
  75. 75. "O you who have believed, be conscious and mindful of your duty to Allah (TAQWA) as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [state of ISLAM: submission to Him]. ” (Qur’an: Surah Aali ‘Imran: 3: 102102)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2013)) IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFULMOST MERCIFUL.. AN-NASEEHAHAN-NASEEHAH
  76. 76. TO BE CONTINUEDTO BE CONTINUED All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  77. 77. TO BE CONTINUEDTO BE CONTINUED All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  78. 78. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  79. 79. ““O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true andO Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us the ability to follow it.grant us the ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false and grantAnd make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.”us the ability to reject it.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  80. 80. O Allah! Make us to be people who guide (others) andO Allah! Make us to be people who guide (others) and who are (always) Guided (by Your Guidance) .who are (always) Guided (by Your Guidance) . All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  81. 81. Not of those who are astray andNot of those who are astray and who lead people astray.who lead people astray. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  82. 82. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) O Lord! Grant upon us profound understanding, (as also grant upon) our family members. .
  83. 83. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) And also to those in the Faith who are close to us , Amongst fellow citizens, the female and the male.
  84. 84. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) O Allah! Make us to be people who guide (others) and who are (always) guided (by Your Guidance)
  85. 85. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) Not of those who are astray and who lead people astray.Not of those who are astray and who lead people astray.
  86. 86. O Allah! Guide us allO Allah! Guide us all with Your Guidance.with Your Guidance. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  87. 87. And make us people who hasten towardsAnd make us people who hasten towards what pleases You.what pleases You. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  88. 88. And do not let us be protected (by others) except onlyAnd do not let us be protected (by others) except only with Your Protection (as our Guardian).with Your Protection (as our Guardian). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  89. 89. And do not make us to be of those who differ from YourAnd do not make us to be of those who differ from Your command and who are disobedient towards You.command and who are disobedient towards You. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  90. 90. And sufficient is Allah for us,And sufficient is Allah for us, for He is the Best Protectorfor He is the Best Protector All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  91. 91. And there is no power nor strength exceptAnd there is no power nor strength except with Allah The Most High, the Most Esteem.with Allah The Most High, the Most Esteem. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  92. 92. And salutations of Allah and Peace be upon ourAnd salutations of Allah and Peace be upon our Leader Muhammad, and upon His householdLeader Muhammad, and upon His household and Companions .and Companions . All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  93. 93. And all the Praises belongs to Allah,And all the Praises belongs to Allah, Lord Sustainer of all the worldLord Sustainer of all the world All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  94. 94. http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All welcome to visit my web-blog:All welcome to visit my web-blog: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))

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