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[Slideshare] fiqh-course(batch-5-january 2016) -introdn #7 -khilafiyyah-(9-march-2016)

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“IKHTILAAF“
DIFFERENCE OF OPINION
AMONGST THE MADZAAHIB

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[Slideshare] fiqh-course(batch-5-january 2016) -introdn #7 -khilafiyyah-(9-march-2016)

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) LESSON # 7 –LESSON # 7 – ““IIKHKHTILAAF“TILAAF“ DIFFERENCE OF OPINIONDIFFERENCE OF OPINION AMONGST THE MADZAAHIBAMONGST THE MADZAAHIB Using text & curriculum he has developed especially forUsing text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims.Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. ““To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” UPDATED – 9UPDATED – 9 March 2016March 2016 BATCH # 5 INTAKE – [ January - May 2016 ] Intermediate Level course in English for AdultsIntermediate Level course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismailconducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledgeAnd say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge
  2. 2. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  3. 3. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. ““O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and thoseO ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you.charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and HisIf ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger if ye do believe in Allah and the Last DayMessenger if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best,: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.”and most suitable for final determination.” ((Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 49Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 49)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  4. 4. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  5. 5. During the Battle of the Confederates, the ProphetDuring the Battle of the Confederates, the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ isis reported to have said to his Companions:reported to have said to his Companions: "Do not perform the mid-afternoon (`asr) swolah until you"Do not perform the mid-afternoon (`asr) swolah until you get to the [place of] Banu Qurayzah."get to the [place of] Banu Qurayzah." While still on their way, the time of the swolah came ....While still on their way, the time of the swolah came .... PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHETPRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHET 1 ((Hadith reported by Bukhary and MuslimHadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  6. 6. ... Some of the companions said, "... Some of the companions said, "We will not perform theWe will not perform the swolah until we get to the [place of] Banu Qurayzahswolah until we get to the [place of] Banu Qurayzah" while" while some others said, "some others said, "We shall pray. That [saying of theWe shall pray. That [saying of the Prophet] will not prevent us [from praying now].Prophet] will not prevent us [from praying now]."" The matter was later brought before the ProphetThe matter was later brought before the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ andand he did not disapprovehe did not disapprove of either group.of either group. ((Hadith reported by Bukhary and MuslimHadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim)) 1 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHETPRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHET
  7. 7. `Amr ibn al `Aas r.a. said: “One cold night during the Dhaat alOne cold night during the Dhaat al Salaasil campaign, I had a wet dream.Salaasil campaign, I had a wet dream. I feared that if I performedI feared that if I performed Ghusl’Ghusl’ [necessary bath after ritual[necessary bath after ritual impurity] I would die [from the cold].impurity] I would die [from the cold]. So I performedSo I performed TayammumTayammum [dry ablution] instead, then[dry ablution] instead, then performed the Fajr’ swolah (dawn prayer) with myperformed the Fajr’ swolah (dawn prayer) with my companions. ...companions. ... ANOTHER PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHETANOTHER PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHET 2 ((Hadith reported by Abu Dawud and HakimHadith reported by Abu Dawud and Hakim)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  8. 8. .... This was mentioned to the Prophet.... This was mentioned to the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ who asked:who asked: ““Amr! You performed the prayer with your companionsAmr! You performed the prayer with your companions while you were in a state of impurity [junub]?”while you were in a state of impurity [junub]?” Whereupon I recalled to him the verse of the Qur'an:Whereupon I recalled to him the verse of the Qur'an: `And kill not yourselves. Indeed Allah has been most`And kill not yourselves. Indeed Allah has been most Merciful to you.' (Qur’an: Surah An-Nisa’: 4: 29)Merciful to you.' (Qur’an: Surah An-Nisa’: 4: 29) The Prophet laughed and said nothing.The Prophet laughed and said nothing. ((Hadith reported by Abu Dawud and HakimHadith reported by Abu Dawud and Hakim)) 2 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) ANOTHER PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHETANOTHER PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHET
  9. 9. Abu Sa’ed al-Khudri r.a. said: “Two men went on a journey. The time for prayer (Swolah) came and, as there was no water, they performed Tayamum (dry ablution). Then they continued and later came upon water, while stillThen they continued and later came upon water, while still within the time of the prayer. So,within the time of the prayer. So, one of them took ablution andone of them took ablution and re-performedre-performed the (same) prayer (the (same) prayer (SwolahSwolah),), while the other manwhile the other man did not.did not. When they met the Messenger of AllahWhen they met the Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬., they enquired from., they enquired from him as to the proper procedure in such a case....him as to the proper procedure in such a case.... ANOTHER PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHETANOTHER PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHET 3 ((Hadith reported by Abu Dawud and Nasa-’ieHadith reported by Abu Dawud and Nasa-’ie)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  10. 10. ... He (Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬,) said to the one who did not repeat the prayer (Swolah), : “You have acted (correctly) according to the Sunnah and your prayer is sufficient for you.” He then turned to the other man and said: “He then turned to the other man and said: “You will get doubleYou will get double the reward.the reward.”” ((Hadith reported by Abu Dawud and Nasa-’ieHadith reported by Abu Dawud and Nasa-’ie)) 3 All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) ANOTHER PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHETANOTHER PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHET
  11. 11. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  12. 12.  ““ikhtilaafikhtilaaf” denotes taking a different position” denotes taking a different position or course from that of another person either in opinion,or course from that of another person either in opinion, utterance, or action. To differ or have a different opinion.utterance, or action. To differ or have a different opinion.  The related word “The related word “khilaafkhilaaf” (discord) - although from” (discord) - although from the same root as “the same root as “ikhtilaafikhtilaaf” sometimes used synonymously” sometimes used synonymously - mean “- mean “difference, disagreement, or even conflictdifference, disagreement, or even conflict” is” is broader in meaning with implication of concept of directbroader in meaning with implication of concept of direct opposition; whereas “opposition; whereas “ikhtilafikhtilaf” is to be “” is to be “different which doesdifferent which does not necessarily imply conflictnot necessarily imply conflict” .” . All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  13. 13.  “Dialectics” (Jadal) implies “carrying out a discussion in a contentious manner in order to gain the upper hand.” The term ‘jadal’ in the original is used in the sense of "braiding" a rope. It conveys the sense of stretching and arm-twisting exercised by disputants while each endeavours to force the other to accept his point of view. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  14. 14.  Sometimes a dispute may become severe and harsh withSometimes a dispute may become severe and harsh with the disputant's only concern being, to get the better ofthe disputant's only concern being, to get the better of his opponent. There is no concern for finding out thehis opponent. There is no concern for finding out the truth or for clarifying what is right. This precludes anytruth or for clarifying what is right. This precludes any form of mutual understanding or agreement. The termform of mutual understanding or agreement. The term “dissension” (“dissension” (shiqaaqshiqaaq) may be applied to) may be applied to such a situation (disunity; a breach in relation, etc.).such a situation (disunity; a breach in relation, etc.). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  15. 15.  The differences or “ikhtilaf ” which occurred among our forebears in early Muslim history, and which continue to be with us, are part of this natural manifestation of variety.  Thus as a phenomenon – “ikhtilaf ” could prove to be positive and extremely beneficial, provided that such differences do not exceed their limits; and provided they remain within the standard norms of ethics and proper behaviour – ADAB. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  16. 16. IKHTILAF (holding to deferring views) MUNAZA-’A (asserting a difference in one’s opinion) MUJADALAH (disputation - argumentation) MUFARRAQOH – INSHIQAQ (divisive - enmity) IF NOT M ANAGED W ILL GO DOW N THE SLIPERY SLOPE IF NOT M ANAGED W ILL GO DOW N THE SLIPERY SLOPE All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  17. 17. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  18. 18. ““ If Allah had willed, those [generations] succeeding themIf Allah had willed, those [generations] succeeding them would not have fought each other after the clear proofswould not have fought each other after the clear proofs had come to them.had come to them. But they differed (IBut they differed (IKHKHTALAFUU),TALAFUU), andand some of them believed and some of them disbelieved. Andsome of them believed and some of them disbelieved. And if Allah had willed, they would not have fought each other,if Allah had willed, they would not have fought each other, but Allah does what He intends.”but Allah does what He intends.” ((Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 253Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 253)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  19. 19. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  20. 20. ““And hold fast, all together by the rope which AllahAnd hold fast, all together by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and(stretches out for you), and be not divided amongbe not divided among yourselvesyourselves; (; (LAA- TAFAR-RO-QUULAA- TAFAR-RO-QUU) and) and remember withremember with gratitudegratitude Allah's favour on you; forAllah's favour on you; for ye were enemies and Heye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love so that by His Grace, ye becamejoined your hearts in love so that by His Grace, ye became brethrenbrethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of fire, and He; and ye were on the brink of the pit of fire, and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make his signs clear tosaved you from it. Thus doth Allah make his signs clear to you: that ye may be guided.”you: that ye may be guided.” ((Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 104Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 104)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  21. 21. ““And obey Allah and His Messenger; andAnd obey Allah and His Messenger; and do not fall intodo not fall into disputes (LAA-TANA-ZA-’U), lest ye lose heart and yourdisputes (LAA-TANA-ZA-’U), lest ye lose heart and your power departpower depart; and be patient and persevering: for Allah is; and be patient and persevering: for Allah is with those who patiently persevere.”with those who patiently persevere.” ((Qur’an: Anfal: 8: 46Qur’an: Anfal: 8: 46)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  22. 22. 1.1. The Companions (The Companions (AS-HAABIAS-HAABI), may Allah be pleased with them,), may Allah be pleased with them, tried as far as possible not to disagree. They did not make muchtried as far as possible not to disagree. They did not make much about marginal issues but treated the matters that posedabout marginal issues but treated the matters that posed controversy in the light of the Prophet's guidance. This mannercontroversy in the light of the Prophet's guidance. This manner of dealing with actual situations normally does not leave muchof dealing with actual situations normally does not leave much room for argumentation, let alone dispute and discord.room for argumentation, let alone dispute and discord. 2.2. If differences still occurred despite attempts to avoid them, theIf differences still occurred despite attempts to avoid them, the Companions would quickly refer the disputed issue to theCompanions would quickly refer the disputed issue to the Qur'an and to the ProphetQur'an and to the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬, and any controversy would be, and any controversy would be quickly dispelled.quickly dispelled. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  23. 23. 3.3. The Companions reacted with a ready obedience and commitmentThe Companions reacted with a ready obedience and commitment to the judgment of the Qur'an and the Prophetto the judgment of the Qur'an and the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ and theirand their complete and total submission to it.complete and total submission to it. 4.4. The ProphetThe Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ used to point out to his Companions what wasused to point out to his Companions what was right and what was wrong with regards to controversial questionsright and what was wrong with regards to controversial questions open to interpretation.open to interpretation. 5.5. On their part, the Companions had mutual trust, honesty andOn their part, the Companions had mutual trust, honesty and respect in the genuineness of each other's judgments. Thisrespect in the genuineness of each other's judgments. This approach guaranteed the preservation of mutual respect amongapproach guaranteed the preservation of mutual respect among fellow Muslims who differed, and also kept fanaticism and bigotryfellow Muslims who differed, and also kept fanaticism and bigotry at bay.at bay. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  24. 24. 6.6. Commitment to God-consciousness (Commitment to God-consciousness (TAQWATAQWA) and avoidance of) and avoidance of personal whims (personal whims (HAWAHAWA) made the pursuit of truth alone the) made the pursuit of truth alone the goal of those who differed over an issue. It did not matter togoal of those who differed over an issue. It did not matter to anyone in a discussion whether the truth was voiced by him oranyone in a discussion whether the truth was voiced by him or by another person.by another person. 7.7. They adhered steadfastly to the Islamic norms of behaviourThey adhered steadfastly to the Islamic norms of behaviour during argumentation (during argumentation (ADAAB-UL-IADAAB-UL-IKHKHTILAFTILAF). They discussed). They discussed matters politely and amicably, avoiding the use of vile andmatters politely and amicably, avoiding the use of vile and insulting language. Each was prepared to listen attentively toinsulting language. Each was prepared to listen attentively to the other.the other. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  25. 25. 8.8. They eschewed hypocrisy and flattery as far as possible andThey eschewed hypocrisy and flattery as far as possible and exerted every effort to investigate an issue objectively. Thisexerted every effort to investigate an issue objectively. This practice, characterized by the seriousness of the argument andpractice, characterized by the seriousness of the argument and respect for the other person, would force the disputant intorespect for the other person, would force the disputant into either accepting the other point of view or advancing a bettereither accepting the other point of view or advancing a better opinion.opinion. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  26. 26. ““Whosoever engages in anyWhosoever engages in any disputation (debate) withoutdisputation (debate) without (basing his argument with) knowledge(basing his argument with) knowledge, Allah’s anger is, Allah’s anger is upon him until he leaves it (the disputation).”upon him until he leaves it (the disputation).” ((Hadith quoted by Imam Ibn Hajar in “Az-ZawajirHadith quoted by Imam Ibn Hajar in “Az-Zawajir”)”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  27. 27. ““Three things will afflict (calamity upon) the religion:Three things will afflict (calamity upon) the religion: Learned scholarsLearned scholars who arewho are immoralimmoral;; leadersleaders who arewho are unjustunjust (oppressive); and(oppressive); and those who give religious decreethose who give religious decree (Ijtihad) are(Ijtihad) are ignorantignorant.”.” ((Hadith reported by Ad-Dailamy from Ibn ‘Abbas r.a.)Hadith reported by Ad-Dailamy from Ibn ‘Abbas r.a.)”)”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  28. 28. “Amongst you, after receiving guidance, you will not go astray except for those who then enter into debates (merely for argument sake) .” Then he (Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ )) recited a verse (Qur’an: Zukhruf: 43: 58): “They raise not the objection save for argument. Nay! but they are a contentious folk.” (Hadith quoted by Imam Ibn Hajar in “Az-Zawajir”) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  29. 29. ““Whoever seeks knowledge (intending) to argue withWhoever seeks knowledge (intending) to argue with the learned (scholars), or to brag with the foolish;the learned (scholars), or to brag with the foolish; or with it to attract peoples’ attention to himself;or with it to attract peoples’ attention to himself; Allah will make him to enter the Hell-fire.”Allah will make him to enter the Hell-fire.” ((Hadith also reported by Tirmidzi and Ibn MajahHadith also reported by Tirmidzi and Ibn Majah)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  30. 30. ““((‘ilm‘ilm) Knowledge without) Knowledge without AdabAdab,, is like (having) fire (but) without wood (fuel);is like (having) fire (but) without wood (fuel); andand AdabAdab without knowledge (without knowledge (‘ilm‘ilm) ,) , is like (having) the Soul (but) without body.”is like (having) the Soul (but) without body.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  31. 31. ““To leave (i.e. to refrain from) responding to the ignorant,To leave (i.e. to refrain from) responding to the ignorant, is (already itself) a response.”is (already itself) a response.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  32. 32. ““For he who seek the Truth, one proof (basis) is sufficient;For he who seek the Truth, one proof (basis) is sufficient; Whereas to a contentious arrogant person,Whereas to a contentious arrogant person, a thousand (proofs) will never satisfy him.”a thousand (proofs) will never satisfy him.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  33. 33.  The Muslims from whicheverThe Muslims from whichever MADZAAHIBMADZAAHIB, are in agreement with most, are in agreement with most rulings inrulings in FIQHFIQH..  It is only in areas of details (i.e. where several interpretations are possibleIt is only in areas of details (i.e. where several interpretations are possible from thefrom the Qur’anQur’an andand AhadithAhadith); or when no explicit basis (); or when no explicit basis (QAT-’IEQAT-’IE) can be) can be adduced from these primary sources - thatadduced from these primary sources - that IJTIHADIJTIHAD are permitted to beare permitted to be done.done.  It is in this context ofIt is in this context of IJTIHADIJTIHAD by the different schools or by scholars thatby the different schools or by scholars that issues ofissues of KHILAAFIYAHKHILAAFIYAH occurs.occurs. This point is to be understood.This point is to be understood. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  34. 34.  RegardingRegarding IJTIHADIJTIHAD, the Prophet Muhammad, the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ said:said: ““When a jurist judges by makingWhen a jurist judges by making IJTIHADIJTIHAD (exhausting his scholarly ability(exhausting his scholarly ability to derive the ruling) and his ruling is correct, his reward will be double,to derive the ruling) and his ruling is correct, his reward will be double, And when hisAnd when his IJTIHADIJTIHAD is in error, (still) he receives one reward.”is in error, (still) he receives one reward.” ((Hadith reported by Bukhary and MuslimHadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  35. 35. TAUFIQTAUFIQ HIDAAYAHIDAAYA (astray)(astray) (success) (guidance) PARABLE OF THE ROAD All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  36. 36. TAUFIQTAUFIQ (missed completely) (‘Bulls-eye’) (on target) HIDAAYAHIDAAYA (missed completely) PARABLE IN ARCHERY All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  37. 37.  Thus, those who are quick to brand as reprehensible innovationThus, those who are quick to brand as reprehensible innovation ((BID’AHBID’AH ), regarding the other), regarding the other MADZAAHIBMADZAAHIB’s religious ruling on a’s religious ruling on a matter which differ from theirs – and thence judged them asmatter which differ from theirs – and thence judged them as ‘astray’(‘astray’(DHOLALAHDHOLALAH), only exposes their ignorance (or rather, bias,), only exposes their ignorance (or rather, bias, self-conceit and arrogance) on the matter.self-conceit and arrogance) on the matter.  This is because, sinceThis is because, since IKHTILAFIKHTILAF is in principle, the outcome ofis in principle, the outcome of IJTIHADIJTIHAD (even if found to be wrong, it is still in compliance with this Sunnah),(even if found to be wrong, it is still in compliance with this Sunnah), so how can it then become aso how can it then become a BID’AH DHOLALAH (innovation)BID’AH DHOLALAH (innovation)?? All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  38. 38.  An Islamic scholar who has a different view point (on issues whichAn Islamic scholar who has a different view point (on issues which has nohas no QAT-’IEQAT-’IE basis) and chose not to follow other scholars inbasis) and chose not to follow other scholars in matters of theirmatters of their IJTIHADIJTIHAD (thus the(thus the IKHTILAFIKHTILAF)), yet they would never, yet they would never condemn the others’ opinion and claim his own view to be the onlycondemn the others’ opinion and claim his own view to be the only correct one.correct one.  NOTENOTE: There cannot be any: There cannot be any IJTIHADIJTIHAD in matters which havein matters which have conclusive basis from primary sources or clearly upon (conclusive basis from primary sources or clearly upon (UUSSULUL)) principles or which have been unanimously agreed upon (principles or which have been unanimously agreed upon (IJMA’IJMA’).). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  39. 39.  Just as in any legal ruling, jurist would only present his legal basis –Just as in any legal ruling, jurist would only present his legal basis – ratio decidendiratio decidendi – so that it may be checked or compared with what– so that it may be checked or compared with what the other scholars (jurists) have relied upon which differ from histhe other scholars (jurists) have relied upon which differ from his ruling. Purpose is to show why his opinion, although may beruling. Purpose is to show why his opinion, although may be different, yet can be validly substantiated.different, yet can be validly substantiated.  By this, it imply that though other juristic rulings are generally alsoBy this, it imply that though other juristic rulings are generally also correct, but his do differ with them due some preferred basis on hiscorrect, but his do differ with them due some preferred basis on his part, or available evidence regarded as more accurate or havingpart, or available evidence regarded as more accurate or having stronger basis.stronger basis. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  40. 40.  Those who imagine thatThose who imagine that KHILAAFIYAHKHILAAFIYAH ought to be eradicated (thusought to be eradicated (thus their aversion totheir aversion to MADZAAHIBMADZAAHIB), must examine their own), must examine their own understanding ofunderstanding of FIQHFIQH, as well as their reason for wanting to do this, as well as their reason for wanting to do this now, whennow, when Ulama’Ulama’ before them had always tolerated these withbefore them had always tolerated these with ADABADAB..  They seem to forget the humility of Imam Malik r.a. who refused theThey seem to forget the humility of Imam Malik r.a. who refused the Caliph’s suggestion to make his “Caliph’s suggestion to make his “Al-MuwattaAl-Muwatta’” as the official text for’” as the official text for every one.every one. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  41. 41.  Also, they obviously (or conveniently?) forget thatAlso, they obviously (or conveniently?) forget that IKHTILAAFIKHTILAAF hadhad always existed even amongst thealways existed even amongst the ASHAABIYASHAABIY (companions) of the(companions) of the ProphetProphet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ who, himself, had tolerated them in most instances.who, himself, had tolerated them in most instances.  AlthoughAlthough there are exceptionsthere are exceptions as when a different opinion of certainas when a different opinion of certain companion was rejected by the Prophetcompanion was rejected by the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ , but the types of, but the types of opinions he warned them against (or corrected even), were thoseopinions he warned them against (or corrected even), were those hastilyhastily done, ordone, or made from ignorancemade from ignorance (without knowledge), or which(without knowledge), or which may lead to immoralitymay lead to immorality, or in matters, or in matters contradicting known principlescontradicting known principles ofof the Qur’an and As-Sunnah.the Qur’an and As-Sunnah. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  42. 42. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  43. 43. Jaabir r.a. Narrated, “We were on a journey and one of us wasJaabir r.a. Narrated, “We were on a journey and one of us was injured. Later he had a wet dream (thus ininjured. Later he had a wet dream (thus in JanabahJanabah). He asked his). He asked his companions “Can I performcompanions “Can I perform TayamumTayamum (dry ablution using dust)?”(dry ablution using dust)?” They said “No, not if you have water!”They said “No, not if you have water!” So he performedSo he performed Ghusl’Ghusl’ (full obligatory bathe) and, he died.(full obligatory bathe) and, he died. When they came to the Messenger of AllahWhen they came to the Messenger of Allah ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ . , they informed. , they informed him concerning what had happened. ........him concerning what had happened. ........ PRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHETPRECEDENCE DURING TIME OF THE PROPHET All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  44. 44. ... He (the Messenger... He (the Messenger ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬.) said:.) said: ““They killed him, Allah will kill them. Do you not ask if you do notThey killed him, Allah will kill them. Do you not ask if you do not know?know? The remedy for ignorance is to ask questionThe remedy for ignorance is to ask question!! He could have performedHe could have performed TayamumTayamum and prevent water from hisand prevent water from his wound or wrapped it with something and wipe over the wrapping,wound or wrapped it with something and wipe over the wrapping, and wash the rest of the body.”and wash the rest of the body.” ((Hadith reported by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Daruqutni and Ibn SakinHadith reported by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Daruqutni and Ibn Sakin)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  45. 45. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  46. 46. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  47. 47. ““(Honour) My successors ((Honour) My successors (Khulafa’Khulafa’), may Allah s.w.t. be), may Allah s.w.t. be Merciful towards them!.”Merciful towards them!.” He was asked:He was asked: ““Who are your successors (Who are your successors (Khulafa’Khulafa’) O Messenger of Allah?”) O Messenger of Allah?” And he said:And he said: ““They are those who revive myThey are those who revive my SunnahSunnah (Way or traditions)(Way or traditions) and teaches them to the servants of Allah.”and teaches them to the servants of Allah.” ((Hadith of the Prophet s.a.wHadith of the Prophet s.a.w.).) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  48. 48. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  49. 49. "Verily Allah does not remove knowledge from the (hearts of the)Verily Allah does not remove knowledge from the (hearts of the) people, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away itspeople, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away its people (the true scholars –people (the true scholars – ‘ULAMA‘ULAMA), until there are no more), until there are no more scholars, the people then take leaders that are ignorant, andscholars, the people then take leaders that are ignorant, and when they are asked, and givewhen they are asked, and give fatwasfatwas – religious rulings, (they– religious rulings, (they give) without knowledge, so they misguide and are misguided.“give) without knowledge, so they misguide and are misguided.“ ((Hadith reported by Ashaab as-Sunnan from Ibnu ‘Umar r.aHadith reported by Ashaab as-Sunnan from Ibnu ‘Umar r.a.).) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  50. 50. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  51. 51. ““When a trust (When a trust (AMANAHAMANAH) is neglected,) is neglected, then wait for the time (of its destruction).”then wait for the time (of its destruction).” Somebody ask:Somebody ask: ‘‘How shall this be neglected O Messenger of Allah?’How shall this be neglected O Messenger of Allah?’ HeHe ‫ﷺ‬‫ﷺ‬ the replied: “When a matter (affair) is given over,the replied: “When a matter (affair) is given over, not to its rightful (legitimate) person (not to its rightful (legitimate) person (AHLIHAAHLIHA),), then wait for its time (of destruction).”then wait for its time (of destruction).” ((Hadith reported by BukharyHadith reported by Bukhary)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  52. 52. ““If anyone contends (If anyone contends (YU-SHAA-QIQYU-SHAA-QIQ) with the Messenger even) with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and followsafter guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shalla path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell,leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.”what an evil refuge.” ((Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115)Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 115) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  53. 53.  We are aware of certain groups whose agenda is to encourage ideasWe are aware of certain groups whose agenda is to encourage ideas of ‘of ‘liberalismliberalism’ , inciting’ , inciting anarchyanarchy andand deviationist ideasdeviationist ideas amongst theamongst the general Muslim mass, but they cite the teachings of tolerance forgeneral Muslim mass, but they cite the teachings of tolerance for KHILAAFIYYAHKHILAAFIYYAH” as an excuse or justification for themselves.” as an excuse or justification for themselves.  We must reiterate that we are only to tolerateWe must reiterate that we are only to tolerate KHILAAFIYYAHKHILAAFIYYAH amongst true practicing Islamic scholars –amongst true practicing Islamic scholars – ‘ULAMA AL-’AAMILEEN.‘ULAMA AL-’AAMILEEN.  KHILAAFIYYAHKHILAAFIYYAH does not include those of the ignorant, or those cleardoes not include those of the ignorant, or those clear erroneous and deviant teachings of the ‘pseudo-scholars’.erroneous and deviant teachings of the ‘pseudo-scholars’. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  54. 54.  We have to be warned that, there are Orientalists and their Western-We have to be warned that, there are Orientalists and their Western- schooled ‘Muslim academician’ with similar traits, undermining theschooled ‘Muslim academician’ with similar traits, undermining the position and attempting to usurp the position of true traditionalposition and attempting to usurp the position of true traditional Islamic scholars.Islamic scholars.  TheseThese pseudo-’ULAMApseudo-’ULAMA introduce deviant teachings disguised asintroduce deviant teachings disguised as KHILAAFIYYAKHILAAFIYYA, by conveniently omitting (hide, ignoring etc.) or, by conveniently omitting (hide, ignoring etc.) or pretending that they did not exist to conceal the real or principle issuepretending that they did not exist to conceal the real or principle issue which the truewhich the true ‘ULAMA‘ULAMA had already highlighted and proven as anhad already highlighted and proven as an obvious deviancy. They knew that most ordinary Muslims areobvious deviancy. They knew that most ordinary Muslims are unaware.unaware. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  55. 55.  Their approach is so that they can then introduce innovation (Their approach is so that they can then introduce innovation (BID’AHBID’AH)) in the form of methodologies and alien standards or criteria they havein the form of methodologies and alien standards or criteria they have learnt from the non-Muslims - imposing it upon the Muslims’learnt from the non-Muslims - imposing it upon the Muslims’ academic discourse e.g.academic discourse e.g. HermeneuticsHermeneutics,, humanism, femininism,humanism, femininism, modernism, Secularism, pragmatism, contextualism,modernism, Secularism, pragmatism, contextualism, etc. Their actualetc. Their actual agenda is to furthering their orientalists, liberal, modernist oragenda is to furthering their orientalists, liberal, modernist or secularist ideology for the contemporary Muslims to adopt or adapt.secularist ideology for the contemporary Muslims to adopt or adapt.  This is the classic example of “This is the classic example of “the rise of false leadersthe rise of false leaders” which Prof.” which Prof. Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas reminded us to be very wary of.Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas reminded us to be very wary of. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  56. 56.  They insist that Islam ought to be changed in accordance with theseThey insist that Islam ought to be changed in accordance with these ‘progressive’ standards – without critically analyzing these in the light‘progressive’ standards – without critically analyzing these in the light of theof the SHARI-’AHSHARI-’AH first.first.  As long as Muslims adhere toAs long as Muslims adhere to ADABADAB, such people cannot easily usurp, such people cannot easily usurp the position of our respectedthe position of our respected ‘ULAMA‘ULAMA. When ‘. When ‘light of the sunlight of the sun’ is’ is present, these pretentious ‘scholars’ cannot but be exposed as fraud.present, these pretentious ‘scholars’ cannot but be exposed as fraud.  Thus these ‘Thus these ‘false leadersfalse leaders’ would always attempt at dismissing the’ would always attempt at dismissing the need for Muslims to conform toneed for Muslims to conform to ADABADAB. Inciting attitude of arrogance. Inciting attitude of arrogance and ‘leveling’ in the Muslims of the trueand ‘leveling’ in the Muslims of the true ‘ULAMA‘ULAMA – a state of– a state of anarchy.anarchy.All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  57. 57.  Muslims must learn theMuslims must learn the DEENDEEN as traditionally conveyed, thoroughly andas traditionally conveyed, thoroughly and withwith ADABADAB so as to benefit from the wisdom and legacy of Islamicso as to benefit from the wisdom and legacy of Islamic scholars because ourscholars because our Islamic scholars have already refuted most ofIslamic scholars have already refuted most of these ‘orientalist’ works and ‘false-standards’.these ‘orientalist’ works and ‘false-standards’.  Many of these ‘pseudo-scholars’ are either dishonest by pretendingMany of these ‘pseudo-scholars’ are either dishonest by pretending that previous refutations never existed, or perhaps they themselves arethat previous refutations never existed, or perhaps they themselves are unaware of it because most of them either; they do not read originalunaware of it because most of them either; they do not read original Arabic works but rely upon ‘academic’ discourses of the orientalists; orArabic works but rely upon ‘academic’ discourses of the orientalists; or seeking to promote themselves by being ‘controversial’.seeking to promote themselves by being ‘controversial’. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  58. 58.  As most of their works are in English, thus English-speaking MuslimsAs most of their works are in English, thus English-speaking Muslims may be very susceptible to such controversies disseminated by them.may be very susceptible to such controversies disseminated by them.  Such ideas are mostly disseminated on the internet, in books,Such ideas are mostly disseminated on the internet, in books, through closed door seminars, research groups, etc. done withinthrough closed door seminars, research groups, etc. done within certain exclusive circles or study-groups in non-Arabic languages,certain exclusive circles or study-groups in non-Arabic languages, even sponsored by Western universities and ‘Foundations’ – whileeven sponsored by Western universities and ‘Foundations’ – while omitting , challenging, attacking and even distorting some of theomitting , challenging, attacking and even distorting some of the views of the traditional Islamic scholars amongst the Ummah,views of the traditional Islamic scholars amongst the Ummah, pretentiously styling themselves as ‘contemporary reformers.’pretentiously styling themselves as ‘contemporary reformers.’ All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  59. 59.  There may be amongst them known ‘Islamic scholars’ exiled to orThere may be amongst them known ‘Islamic scholars’ exiled to or domiciled in the West. Some are true and sincere scholars whiledomiciled in the West. Some are true and sincere scholars while there are others who may have been rejected by their peers forthere are others who may have been rejected by their peers for some deviancy or even heresy which they held and promoted.some deviancy or even heresy which they held and promoted.  Some other ‘pseudo-scholars’ or even ‘Some other ‘pseudo-scholars’ or even ‘wannabeswannabes’ may be seeking’ may be seeking recognition via associating themselves with such scholars. Othersrecognition via associating themselves with such scholars. Others perhaps may even be “perhaps may even be “academics-for-hireacademics-for-hire” type obviously are under” type obviously are under the payroll of their ‘the payroll of their ‘patronspatrons’, with certain agenda against Islamic’, with certain agenda against Islamic ascendancy and the spread of traditional Islam.ascendancy and the spread of traditional Islam. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  60. 60. ““An immoral man of learning is a great evil,An immoral man of learning is a great evil, yet a greater evil is an ignoramus leading a ‘godly’ life.yet a greater evil is an ignoramus leading a ‘godly’ life. Both are a great trial (Both are a great trial (FITNAHFITNAH) everywhere,) everywhere, to whomever depends to them both (for guidance),to whomever depends to them both (for guidance), in holding on to his religion”in holding on to his religion” REFLECTIONREFLECTION:: We would indeed be afflicted with thisWe would indeed be afflicted with this FitnahFitnah (trial). Only with appropriate(trial). Only with appropriate knowledge andknowledge and irshaadah (guidance)irshaadah (guidance), and more importantly, and more importantly Taufiq wal-Hidaa-yaTaufiq wal-Hidaa-ya from Allah SWT. would we be saved from its evil.from Allah SWT. would we be saved from its evil. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  61. 61. ““O ye who believe! if you are conscious of and fear AllahO ye who believe! if you are conscious of and fear Allah ((TAQWATAQWA), He will grant you a criterion (), He will grant you a criterion (FURQANFURQAN-to judge-to judge between right and wrong), remove from you (all) evil (that maybetween right and wrong), remove from you (all) evil (that may afflict) you, and forgive you: for Allah is the Lord of graceafflict) you, and forgive you: for Allah is the Lord of grace unbounded.”unbounded.” ((Qur’an: Anfaal: 8: 29Qur’an: Anfaal: 8: 29)) REMEMBER THIS IMPORTANT COMMANDREMEMBER THIS IMPORTANT COMMAND All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  62. 62. LESSON # 8 –LESSON # 8 – CONTROVERSIESCONTROVERSIES BID’AH – A CLARIFICATIONBID’AH – A CLARIFICATION ““INTRODUCTION TO THEINTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OFSTUDY OF FIQHFIQH ”” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for AdultsIntermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismailconducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. TO BE CONTINUEDTO BE CONTINUED All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  63. 63. ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –NAA - BAH ““O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be trueO Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us the ability to follow it.and grant us the ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be falseAnd make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.”and grant us the ability to reject it.” IMPORTANT DU’AIMPORTANT DU’A All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  64. 64. http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All welcome to visit my web-blog:All welcome to visit my web-blog: 64All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))

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