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[Slideshre] fiqh-course(batch-5-january 2016) -introdn #12 - islamic-scholarship-(20-april-2016)

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“TRADITIONAL AND CONTEMPORARY
ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP”
( a preliminary reflection )

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[Slideshre] fiqh-course(batch-5-january 2016) -introdn #12 - islamic-scholarship-(20-april-2016)

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) LESSON # 12LESSON # 12 ““TRADITIONAL AND CONTEMPORARYTRADITIONAL AND CONTEMPORARY ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP”ISLAMIC SCHOLARSHIP” (( a preliminary reflectiona preliminary reflection )) Using text & curriculum he has developed especially forUsing text & curriculum he has developed especially for Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims.Muslim converts and young Adult English-speaking Muslims. ““To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” UPDATED – 20UPDATED – 20 April 2016April 2016 BATCH # 5 INTAKE – [ January - May 2016 ] Intermediate Level course in English for AdultsIntermediate Level course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismailconducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail And say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledgeAnd say: O Lord! Increase for me my knowledge
  2. 2. Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail ““INTRODUCTION TOINTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OFTHE STUDY OF FIQHFIQH ”” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English forIntermediate Level Islamic course in English for AdultsAdults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismailconducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. 20 APRIL 201620 APRIL 2016Wednesday night @Wednesday night @ 8pm – 10pm8pm – 10pm Wisma Indah, 450Wisma Indah, 450 Changi Road,Changi Road, #02-00 next to#02-00 next to Masjid KassimMasjid Kassim “Special lecture” For further information and registrationFor further information and registration contact Econtact E-mail :-mail : ad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.comad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.com or +65 81234669 / +65 96838279or +65 81234669 / +65 96838279 a preliminary reflectiona preliminary reflection All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  3. 3. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  4. 4. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE,MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL.MOST MERCIFUL. ““Which then is best?― he that layeth his foundation onWhich then is best?― he that layeth his foundation on pietypiety ((TAQWATAQWA) to Allah and His Good pleasure () to Allah and His Good pleasure (REDHAREDHA)?―)?― or he that layeth his foundation on an undermined sand-or he that layeth his foundation on an undermined sand- cliff ready to crumble to pieces? And it doth crumble tocliff ready to crumble to pieces? And it doth crumble to pieces with him, into the fire of Hell. And Allah guideth notpieces with him, into the fire of Hell. And Allah guideth not people that do wrong.”people that do wrong.” ((Qur’an: Taubah: 9:109Qur’an: Taubah: 9:109)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  5. 5. ““When peopleWhen people TATRUKUTATRUKU - leave (- leave (set asideset aside) the affairs) the affairs of theirof their DEENDEEN – religion, because of their– religion, because of their concern inconcern in improving their worldly mattersimproving their worldly matters, then Allah will open, then Allah will open upon them much danger (harm).”upon them much danger (harm).” ((Hadith reported by AhmadHadith reported by Ahmad)) W ARNING All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  6. 6. In 1998, while in PERGAS, I responded to criticisms upon the Madrasah by writing a paper from my research (copy available on my web link “http://An-naseehah.blogspot.com” ). In that paper, I’ve argued that the current “Madrasah education” (although it has the potential to be Islamic), yet it is not necessarily equal to what a truly “Islamic education” really is. In fact, the Muslims have, since colonial times, moved from a single holistic system of education (TAUHIDIC) into adopting a dualistic system - dichotomising the religious from the secular. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  7. 7. In fact with this, the Muslims have somewhat moved away fromIn fact with this, the Muslims have somewhat moved away from anan ““eclectic to specialist approacheclectic to specialist approach”” (the Islamic approach of(the Islamic approach of prioritizingprioritizing Fardhu ‘ainFardhu ‘ain knowledgeknowledge before knowledge ofbefore knowledge of FardhuFardhu kifaayakifaaya) into accepting an education system that is less and less) into accepting an education system that is less and less eclectic but emphasise more on specialization – driven by socio-eclectic but emphasise more on specialization – driven by socio- economic needs rather than developing theeconomic needs rather than developing the FitrahFitrah in people toin people to their fullest potential.their fullest potential. Today - a system that educates or rather ‘develops’ people forToday - a system that educates or rather ‘develops’ people for the work-force - as though people are to be exploited as futurethe work-force - as though people are to be exploited as future market resources – i.e. driven by politico-economic policy.market resources – i.e. driven by politico-economic policy. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  8. 8. I was asked: “Is it still possible for Muslims to strive to become Islamic scholars in the likes of the such illustrious, eclectic, profound Ulama’ – (scholar / thinker / philosopher) like e.g. Al- Ghazali, Ibn Rushd, Al-Biruni, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Sinna etc. ? ” Actually this concern was already raised by many, especiallyActually this concern was already raised by many, especially since the dismantling of the last Ottoman Caliphate. The waningsince the dismantling of the last Ottoman Caliphate. The waning influence of the Muslims and their being colonized and exposedinfluence of the Muslims and their being colonized and exposed to imperialists’ rule had indeed drastically changed ourto imperialists’ rule had indeed drastically changed our approach to education.approach to education. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  9. 9. Whatever remaining Islamic institutions of learning becameWhatever remaining Islamic institutions of learning became more concerned towards essentially preserving only themore concerned towards essentially preserving only the ““knowledge of theknowledge of the DeenDeen””, because with limited resources and, because with limited resources and antagonistic colonial rulers, to be safeguarding this was of theantagonistic colonial rulers, to be safeguarding this was of the highest priority. Thehighest priority. The ummahummah was under siege.was under siege. Thus it is the traditional ”Thus it is the traditional ”MadrasahMadrasah” in our community evolving” in our community evolving to be what it is today, the urgent need was indeed to fulfil ato be what it is today, the urgent need was indeed to fulfil a very important command in the Qur’an:very important command in the Qur’an:  All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  10. 10. ““Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingentNor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devotefrom every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion and admonish the peoplethemselves to studies in religion and admonish the people when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) towhen they return to them― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).”guard themselves (against evil).” ((Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122Qur’an: Taubah: 9: 122)) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  11. 11. Apart from the lack of resources, those scholars andApart from the lack of resources, those scholars and philanthropists within thephilanthropists within the UmmahUmmah barely managed to preservebarely managed to preserve this traditional full-timethis traditional full-time MadrasahMadrasah, whereas the majority, whereas the majority Muslims opted into sending their children to the conventionalMuslims opted into sending their children to the conventional schools established by the colonial masters.schools established by the colonial masters. Interestingly a general but relevant question was raised from anInterestingly a general but relevant question was raised from an ‘aleem‘aleem from the Nusantara, to Syed Rashid Redha (offrom the Nusantara, to Syed Rashid Redha (of ““al-al- ManarManar”)”) which was then given over to be responded bywhich was then given over to be responded by AmirAmir Shakib ArslanShakib Arslan as a book entitled:as a book entitled: ““Limaa-dza ta-akharalLimaa-dza ta-akharal Muslimuuna...Muslimuuna...”” – which analysed the reasons for Muslims– which analysed the reasons for Muslims decline.decline. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  12. 12. Author:Author: Amir Shakib Arslan; Rashid Rida (foreword)Amir Shakib Arslan; Rashid Rida (foreword) Publisher:Publisher: Islamic Book Trust (2004)Islamic Book Trust (2004) Pages: 148 Binding: PaperbackPages: 148 Binding: Paperback Description from the publisher:Description from the publisher: New Revised Edition, Paperback, 172 pagesNew Revised Edition, Paperback, 172 pages First published in the 1930sFirst published in the 1930s, this was a response to a letter from Shaykh, this was a response to a letter from Shaykh Muhammad Bisyooni Umran of Indonesia requesting the author to explain theMuhammad Bisyooni Umran of Indonesia requesting the author to explain the causes of Muslim weakness at the present and the causes of the strength of thecauses of Muslim weakness at the present and the causes of the strength of the Europeans and the Japanese, the factors behind their glorious empires andEuropeans and the Japanese, the factors behind their glorious empires and sovereignty, their power and wealth. His response, written in a state of greatsovereignty, their power and wealth. His response, written in a state of great agitation became one of the masterpieces of eloquence and a proof of his wisdom.agitation became one of the masterpieces of eloquence and a proof of his wisdom. A RECOMMENDED READINGA RECOMMENDED READING All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  13. 13. But the most significant happened in 1977 with theBut the most significant happened in 1977 with the First WorldFirst World Conference on Muslim Education held in Makkah.Conference on Muslim Education held in Makkah. ConcernedConcerned Muslims must read the deliberations of these prominent MuslimMuslims must read the deliberations of these prominent Muslim scholars in the “Islamic Education Series” published by Kingscholars in the “Islamic Education Series” published by King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah.Abdulaziz University, Jeddah. (ISBN 0-340-23607-8)(ISBN 0-340-23607-8) TOPICS IN THIS SERIES:-TOPICS IN THIS SERIES:-  Crisis in Muslim EducationCrisis in Muslim Education  Aims & Objective of Islamic EducationAims & Objective of Islamic Education  Muslim Education in the Modern WorldMuslim Education in the Modern World  Curriculum and Teacher EducationCurriculum and Teacher Education  Philosophy Literature and Fine ArtsPhilosophy Literature and Fine Arts ...... Etc....... Etc. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  14. 14. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  15. 15. Syed M. Naquib Al-AttasSyed M. Naquib Al-Attas asserts, it is: “... to produce a goodasserts, it is: “... to produce a good man. What is meant by ‘man. What is meant by ‘good’good’ in our concept of ‘in our concept of ‘good mangood man’?’? The fundamental element inherent in the concept ofThe fundamental element inherent in the concept of education in Islam is the inculcation of ‘education in Islam is the inculcation of ‘adabadab’ (’ (ta’dibta’dib), for it is), for it is ‘‘adabadab’ in the all-inclusive sense I mean, as encompassing the’ in the all-inclusive sense I mean, as encompassing the spiritual and material life of a man that instils the quality ofspiritual and material life of a man that instils the quality of goodness that is sought after. Education is what the Prophetgoodness that is sought after. Education is what the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. meant byMuhammad s.a.a.w. meant by AdabAdab :: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  16. 16. Syed M. Naquib Al-AttasSyed M. Naquib Al-Attas asserts, it is: “... to produce a goodasserts, it is: “... to produce a good man. What is meant by ‘man. What is meant by ‘good’good’ in our concept of ‘in our concept of ‘good mangood man’?’? The fundamental element inherent in the concept ofThe fundamental element inherent in the concept of education in Islam is the inculcation of ‘education in Islam is the inculcation of ‘adabadab’ (’ (ta’dibta’dib), for it is), for it is ‘‘adabadab’ in the all-inclusive sense I mean, as encompassing the’ in the all-inclusive sense I mean, as encompassing the spiritual and material life of a man that instils the quality ofspiritual and material life of a man that instils the quality of goodness that is sought after. Education is what the Prophetgoodness that is sought after. Education is what the Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w. meant byMuhammad s.a.a.w. meant by AdabAdab :: “My Lord educated me (ADABANI) , and made my education (TA’DIB) most excellent.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  17. 17. ““Educate (nurture – ‘Educate (nurture – ‘addibuaddibu’) your children with the’) your children with the best education (best education (ADABADAB).”).” ((Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. narrated by Ibnu MajahHadith of the Prophet s.a.w. narrated by Ibnu Majah)) OTHER AHADITH OTHER AHADITH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  18. 18. ““From amongst the rights of a child upon theirFrom amongst the rights of a child upon their parents are, that they be instilled (to be educated byparents are, that they be instilled (to be educated by them) withthem) with AdabAdab and to be given a good name.”and to be given a good name.” ((Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reportedHadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by Baihaqy from Ibnu ‘Abbas r.aby Baihaqy from Ibnu ‘Abbas r.a.).) OTHER AHADITH OTHER AHADITH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  19. 19. “Educate (nurture with Adab – ‘addibu ’) your children upon three things: To Love your Prophet (s.a.w.), and to love the Family members of his household (Aali Muhammad), and (learn) to recite Al-Qur’an.” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. narrated by Tabarani) OTHER AHADITH OTHER AHADITH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  20. 20. ““ Teach your children and your family members with the best, andTeach your children and your family members with the best, and educate them (instil in themeducate them (instil in them AdabAdab).”).” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by ‘Abdur Razaq and Sa’id ibn Manshur as quoted by Dr. ‘Abdullah Nashih ‘Ulwan) OTHER AHADITH OTHER AHADITH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  21. 21. ““There is no gift (that you can give) to your childrenThere is no gift (that you can give) to your children better than (instilling in them) the goodbetter than (instilling in them) the good AdabAdab.”.” ((Hadith of the Prophet reported by TirmidziHadith of the Prophet reported by Tirmidzi )) OTHER AHADITH OTHER AHADITH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  22. 22. “Honour your children by (educating) instilling in them the best Adab.” (Hadith of the Prophet s.a.w. reported by Ibnu Majah from Ibnu ‘Abbas r.a.) OTHER AHADITH OTHER AHADITH All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  23. 23. “Ta’-dib” ( ) – preferred term for ‘education’, from the term ‘Adab’ (                         ) meaning: – “good breeding, nurture, manners, refinement, cultured, decorum, propriety, social grace, educated, etc.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  24. 24. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  25. 25. ““THE SIGN OF THE TRULY LEARNED ISTHE SIGN OF THE TRULY LEARNED IS HUMILITY IN THE PRESENCE OF THE ALL-HUMILITY IN THE PRESENCE OF THE ALL- KNOWING – WHILE THE HEEDLESS ANDKNOWING – WHILE THE HEEDLESS AND ARROGANT MAY BREACH THE ADAB”ARROGANT MAY BREACH THE ADAB” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  26. 26. This is based on my limited reading, understanding, and personal experiences - semblance of these approaches I have seen in my teachers’ mentoring approaches upon individuals and myself, even though it was done privately and not in educational institutions. What many have forgotten is that ‘ulama (Islamic Scholars) are the effect of the nurturing by true teachers (murobbi’), not merely from which educational institutions a person comes out from. It is the teacher, not the school which is the crucial factor. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  27. 27. Many students currently may still be developed traditionally, utilizing whatever is available – in madrasah, mosque, halaqah, home - in replicating the earlier Islamic scholars exposure and path of learning, in spite of the many disadvantages faced. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  28. 28. Starts at home: nurtured with Adab, inculcation of basic obligatory practices of a Muslim and linguistic proficiency. Sent to “Kuttab” – recitation and memorization of Al-Qur’an; may proceed to include other important texts, poetry etc. – importance of rote-learning for the young. Sitting (talaqqi) with scholars (in Jami’ [mosque] or madrasah or halaqah) to expand upon the knowledge of the Deen, both horizontally (eclectic) and vertically (depth and profoundness). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  29. 29. His field of study may be expanded to include various worldly sciences, where the interest in those relevant field of study are also progressively nurtured. Some may be sent to guilds to also to be mentored to acquire skills, crafts or trades, and contemporary empirical knowledge which today we call “worldly sciences” – relevant to his development, while still continuing in their learning path, primarily of the knowledge of the Deen. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  30. 30. Thus for example, we learnt that Abu ‘Ali Ibn Sina (AVICCENA) already was acknowledged at 17 years old, to be a scholar in the knowledge of the Deen but his passion to learn every other knowledge and sciences available then, was also pursued by him with equal religious fervour and passion. IBNU SINAIBNU SINA All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  31. 31. He was already known to be well-versed in the sciences of the Deen, but the world today seemed to only appreciate and highlight his expertise in the medical science – especially the Latin translation :“Canon Medicinæ” or “Canon of Medicine” (“Qanun fi-al-Tibb”) which impacted the Western civilization. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  32. 32. Abu amed Mu ammad ibn Mu ammadḤ ḥ ḥAbu amed Mu ammad ibn Mu ammadḤ ḥ ḥ al-Ghazali (ALGAZALE)al-Ghazali (ALGAZALE) began to receivebegan to receive instruction ininstruction in FIQHFIQH (Islamic jurisprudence)(Islamic jurisprudence) under illustrious scholars of the time untilunder illustrious scholars of the time until he assumed a very high scholarship in Islam.he assumed a very high scholarship in Islam. Later he was immersed into Sufism for which Al-GhazaliLater he was immersed into Sufism for which Al-Ghazali contributed significantly to the development of a systematic viewcontributed significantly to the development of a systematic view ofof TASAWWUFTASAWWUF and its integration and acceptance in mainstreamand its integration and acceptance in mainstream Islam. He was also well versed in Greek philosophy and refutedIslam. He was also well versed in Greek philosophy and refuted several of the views which was held by the Mu’tazilite of his time.several of the views which was held by the Mu’tazilite of his time. AL-GHAZALIAL-GHAZALI All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  33. 33. Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibnAbu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Rushd (AVERROES).Rushd (AVERROES). His education followed aHis education followed a traditional path, beginning with studiestraditional path, beginning with studies inin hadithhadith, linguistics, jurisprudence (, linguistics, jurisprudence (FIQHFIQH)) and scholastic theologyand scholastic theology (‘ILM UL-KALAM(‘ILM UL-KALAM).). The earliest biographers and Muslim chroniclers speak little aboutThe earliest biographers and Muslim chroniclers speak little about his education in science and philosophy; where most interest fromhis education in science and philosophy; where most interest from Western scholarship in him lies; but note his propensity towards theWestern scholarship in him lies; but note his propensity towards the law and his life as a jurist (law and his life as a jurist (QADHIQADHI).). IBNU RUSHDIBNU RUSHD All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  34. 34. It is generally believed thatIt is generally believed that Ibn RushdIbn Rushd waswas influenced by the philosophy ofinfluenced by the philosophy of Ibn BajjahIbn Bajjah ((AVEMPACEAVEMPACE), and perhaps was once tutored), and perhaps was once tutored by him. His medical education was directedby him. His medical education was directed underunder Abu Jafar ibn HarunAbu Jafar ibn Harun of Trujillo.of Trujillo. His aptitude for medicine too was noted by his contemporaries andHis aptitude for medicine too was noted by his contemporaries and his major enduring workhis major enduring work Kitab al-Kulliyat fi al-TibbKitab al-Kulliyat fi al-Tibb ((GeneralitiesGeneralities),), together with another book (ontogether with another book (on ParticularsParticulars) written by) written by Abu MarwanAbu Marwan Ibn ZuhrIbn Zuhr, became the main medical textbooks for physicians in the, became the main medical textbooks for physicians in the Jewish, Christian and Muslim worlds for centuries to come.Jewish, Christian and Muslim worlds for centuries to come. IBNU RUSHDIBNU RUSHD All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  35. 35. Although essentially these scholars are scholars of the Deen, yet their eclectic exposure motivated them to expand and profoundly learnt other sciences which their learning paths had exposed them to. The concept of “ITQAN ” and the principle would be adhered to in their “learning culture / discipline”. WHAT CAN BE LEARNTWHAT CAN BE LEARNT All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  36. 36. To understand this, refer to Adab of students in Imam Ghazali’s “Ihya ‘ulumuddeen” Kitaab al- ’ilm”) “Every matter (knowledge, skill, etc.), for which an obligation cannot be fulfilled except by (possessing) it (i.e. knowledge and skill), its acquisition is (therefore) obligatory (waajib).” - An Islamic principle. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  37. 37. From the preceding background that has been explained,From the preceding background that has been explained, our next pertinent and relevant question is ….our next pertinent and relevant question is …. ““ CAN WE MUSLIMS, DOCAN WE MUSLIMS, DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT, NOW ? ”SOMETHING ABOUT IT, NOW ? ” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  38. 38. There cannot be any effective solution without knowing the historyThere cannot be any effective solution without knowing the history All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  39. 39. Western colonial powers introduced their schooling system,Western colonial powers introduced their schooling system, even though natives already have their own- i.e. eithereven though natives already have their own- i.e. either vernacular or religious based.vernacular or religious based. When linked to economic and job opportunities, whichWhen linked to economic and job opportunities, which favoured cohorts from such schools, private native orfavoured cohorts from such schools, private native or religious full-time schools lost its appeal. Yet, Muslimsreligious full-time schools lost its appeal. Yet, Muslims students generally were providedstudents generally were provided Islamic religious classesIslamic religious classes outside school hours at home, mosques or the madrasahoutside school hours at home, mosques or the madrasah (part-time).(part-time). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  40. 40. Full-timeFull-time madrasahmadrasah gradually evolved distinctly to focus ingradually evolved distinctly to focus in producing the elite – “producing the elite – “teachers of Islamteachers of Islam” - to ensure the rest of” - to ensure the rest of the Muslims are guided with their Islamic knowledge.the Muslims are guided with their Islamic knowledge. Thus, other Muslim students were made to adapt to thisThus, other Muslim students were made to adapt to this ““dualistic education systemdualistic education system” – full-time conventional school” – full-time conventional school (academic) and part-time (religious) taught by these teachers.(academic) and part-time (religious) taught by these teachers. The full-timeThe full-time MadrasahMadrasah is therefore an exception rather thanis therefore an exception rather than the rule; fully private and independent, constituting only lessthe rule; fully private and independent, constituting only less than 4% of the total cohorts; sustained by the community &than 4% of the total cohorts; sustained by the community & philanthropists.philanthropists. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  41. 41. Students who were sent to these full-timeStudents who were sent to these full-time MadrasahMadrasah originally, were those with parents with altruistic-religiousoriginally, were those with parents with altruistic-religious reasons, not due to economic gains as their primary reason.reasons, not due to economic gains as their primary reason. The basic curriculum at the primary level were equallyThe basic curriculum at the primary level were equally needed by those who do not attend full-timeneeded by those who do not attend full-time MadrasahMadrasah. To. To accommodate these, traditionalaccommodate these, traditional MadrasahMadrasah extended theirextended their function or assign their students to conduct part-timefunction or assign their students to conduct part-time MadrasahMadrasah.. We in Singapore have had over 30 registeredWe in Singapore have had over 30 registered independent madrasahs but today it dwindled to only 6independent madrasahs but today it dwindled to only 6 which are as full-time schools.which are as full-time schools. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  42. 42. When at one time, IRK (Islamic Religious Knowledge) wasWhen at one time, IRK (Islamic Religious Knowledge) was incorporated in government schools which somewhat took on theincorporated in government schools which somewhat took on the function which independentfunction which independent MadrasahMadrasah had fulfilled, its proliferationhad fulfilled, its proliferation and existence then became regarded as less urgent. Lulled into theand existence then became regarded as less urgent. Lulled into the availability of ‘availability of ‘alternativealternative’, many of these part-time’, many of these part-time MadrasahMadrasah lostlost its appeal leading to lesser cohorts and gradually became neglected.its appeal leading to lesser cohorts and gradually became neglected. When IRK was scrapped from being taught in government schools, itWhen IRK was scrapped from being taught in government schools, it hence left a major void.hence left a major void. We have not yet fully recovered from this ‘traumatic’ lossWe have not yet fully recovered from this ‘traumatic’ loss. The. The truncation from our tradition andtruncation from our tradition and loss of Adabloss of Adab - has now caused- has now caused many to ‘experiment’ with many kinds of curriculum or approaches.many to ‘experiment’ with many kinds of curriculum or approaches. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  43. 43. COHORTS FROM CURRENTCOHORTS FROM CURRENT FULL-TIME MADRASAHFULL-TIME MADRASAH SYSTEMSYSTEM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  44. 44. The direction of where the current full-time Madrasah education is heading to, may be becoming vague. It seemed to be imitating what conventional schools are doing - many seemed to have forgotten that being independent (just like seminary), it should pursue its own course of aim and objective for which it was instituted, and not allow itself to be dictated by others with their extraneous interest and agendas. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  45. 45. Whereas now, economic concern and paper chase (exam- based) curriculum are being imitated, and students are unnecessarily burdened, requiring them to also compete with those in conventional schools. Thus, they lose focus of their primary objective to become the future vanguard Islamic scholars into joining the general student cohorts destined for the ‘rat-race’. If these full-time madrasah are meant to supply religious teachers, they should not be “distracted” and become “diverted” from its original aim. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  46. 46. Psychologically, the students from full-time Madrasah are affected negatively - being made to compare themselves with those of the mainstream. Surely, its like trying “to compare apples with oranges – although both are fruits.” Already disadvantaged with many inadequacies, their morale are further affected by confusion in terms of management, leadership, staffing, curriculum, etc. And now, it may face closure if cohorts do not meet the national school PSLE standards. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  47. 47. They are our precious hope to become personalities exuding honour, self-esteem, courage, sagacity and pillar of strength as successors of the legacy of prophets – whereas now the opposite effect is undermining their growth and development. They are our community’s hope to become religious guides and lead future generations, yet are left neglected and made to be at a disadvantage. Their future are made to look bleak, many of these cohorts may have already contemplated discarding their task of replacing our ulama’ - as future religious teachers- to pursue other career. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  48. 48. Actually, the so-called ‘economic or pragmatic argument’ is irrelevant. The issue here is about “Amanah” (a sacred trust). The Muslim community must recognize the real value of this group in their social contribution and most importantly as guardians of ‘ulum al-Deen - to provide our community Irshadah (guidance). The disparity between their true worth and their economic worth must be corrected by the Muslim community themselves; in creating jobs and set their appropriate remunerations which should not to be determined by market forces but based on realistic societal-value. Utilize funds from “Baytul-maal” if need be. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  49. 49. Some who attempt to integrate the syllabus with the so-called “dunyawi - ukhrawi ” labelling are themselves unclear of how actual Islamic categorization of knowledge should be. Some peoples’ claim that what they do for the Madrasah’s curriculum is “Islamizing” it. Yet, it may in fact be “de-Islamizing” because the definitive Islamic character of Madrasah and its graduates which they should aspire to is neglected to merely imitating the conventional school. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  50. 50. Thus, its aim may have already been eroded and replaced by something else, and the graduates now are not very different from that of the mainstream schools. So have we truly upheld the trust Amanah and aspiration of our predecessors? All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  51. 51. COHORTS FROMCOHORTS FROM CONVENTIONALCONVENTIONAL ( NON – MADRASAH )( NON – MADRASAH ) SYSTEMSYSTEM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  52. 52. Students from this system who do not have Islamic lessons in theirStudents from this system who do not have Islamic lessons in their schools have to be given separate Islamic education outside theirschools have to be given separate Islamic education outside their school hours. This is especially crucial ever since IRK (Islamicschool hours. This is especially crucial ever since IRK (Islamic Religious knowledge) was scrapped.Religious knowledge) was scrapped. Many may not even have any rudimentary lesson on Islam,Many may not even have any rudimentary lesson on Islam, especially once they start going to conventional schools or becauseespecially once they start going to conventional schools or because their parents and family are neglectful or are not well-endowed withtheir parents and family are neglectful or are not well-endowed with religious knowledge themselves.religious knowledge themselves. Those who still regard their child’s Islamic upbringing as importantThose who still regard their child’s Islamic upbringing as important may seek for them whatever Islamic religious classes outside school.may seek for them whatever Islamic religious classes outside school. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  53. 53. Those who pursue in part-time Madrasah may just receive aThose who pursue in part-time Madrasah may just receive a “watered-down” and a very general curriculum of“watered-down” and a very general curriculum of Fardhu ‘AinFardhu ‘Ain, and, and may lack the motivation or passion in attending these classes.may lack the motivation or passion in attending these classes. Given the emphasis on Academic excellence, their “Given the emphasis on Academic excellence, their “Aqeedah-micAqeedah-mic”” aspect of development takes a back-seat or even totally neglected.aspect of development takes a back-seat or even totally neglected. The way lessons on Islam taught to them generally are disparateThe way lessons on Islam taught to them generally are disparate and unstructured. Usually conducted based on subjects, butand unstructured. Usually conducted based on subjects, but without emphasis of their interconnectedness and the absence ofwithout emphasis of their interconnectedness and the absence of urgency (compulsion) regarding their acquisition. Many assumedurgency (compulsion) regarding their acquisition. Many assumed merely to be attending only in one of these weekly as sufficient.merely to be attending only in one of these weekly as sufficient. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  54. 54. As long as this education is kept “As long as this education is kept “dualisticdualistic” without the proper and” without the proper and correct orientation towards understanding the Islamic worldview,correct orientation towards understanding the Islamic worldview, the Muslims in general are made to somehow accept the secularthe Muslims in general are made to somehow accept the secular philosophy of dichotomizing knowledge into secular-vs-religious.philosophy of dichotomizing knowledge into secular-vs-religious. The reality is that every contemporary science and knowledge areThe reality is that every contemporary science and knowledge are not neutral but are mostly based upon the secular-humanisticnot neutral but are mostly based upon the secular-humanistic worldview. Although some may regard it as being free of religion,worldview. Although some may regard it as being free of religion, yet those who teach them or specialize in them usually advocateyet those who teach them or specialize in them usually advocate ““secularismsecularism” - as a philosophical agenda. And ironically they do it” - as a philosophical agenda. And ironically they do it ‘religiously’ but claiming themselves as being neutral (areligious).‘religiously’ but claiming themselves as being neutral (areligious). All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  55. 55. Thus it is that many Muslim professionals from this system mayThus it is that many Muslim professionals from this system may even encounter a kind of dilemma in their respective career. Aeven encounter a kind of dilemma in their respective career. A remarkable example was the experience of Prof. Malik Badri whoremarkable example was the experience of Prof. Malik Badri who explained his life-experience in his excellent book (published 1979)explained his life-experience in his excellent book (published 1979) –– “The dilemma of Muslim Psychologists”.“The dilemma of Muslim Psychologists”. Although it deals with psychology, yet it typicallyAlthough it deals with psychology, yet it typically represent similar dilemma of Muslims in otherrepresent similar dilemma of Muslims in other fields of specialization - career - especially whenfields of specialization - career - especially when they were taught social sciences and humanisticthey were taught social sciences and humanistic studies from conventional university.studies from conventional university. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  56. 56. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  57. 57. Amongst the remedies is the “Amongst the remedies is the “ISLAMIZATIONISLAMIZATION” movement –” movement – for both types in these dualistic education system – envisagedfor both types in these dualistic education system – envisaged since 1977.since 1977. Although this process can be applied wherever required inAlthough this process can be applied wherever required in whichever system, yet it is to bewhichever system, yet it is to be most effective at the highermost effective at the higher level (tertiarylevel (tertiary) prior to these graduates assuming their roles as) prior to these graduates assuming their roles as scholars - educators of thescholars - educators of the UmmahUmmah.. The anti-thesis to “The anti-thesis to “IslamizationIslamization” is really “” is really “SecularismSecularism” which” which every Muslim aspiring to be scholars must know profoundlyevery Muslim aspiring to be scholars must know profoundly too, so that they can appreciate the relevant responses, sotoo, so that they can appreciate the relevant responses, so that a complete and Islamized education can be achieved.that a complete and Islamized education can be achieved. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  58. 58. The author deals with fundamental problems faced by contemporary Muslims and provides real solutions, beginning with a discussion on ‘The Contemporary Western Christian Background’ in Chapter (I), followed by his analysis of the concepts (which he newly defines) of ‘secular’, ‘secularization’, and ‘secularism’ in Chapter (II). All this is then contrasted in Chapter (IV) of the book entitled ‘Islam: The Concept of Religion and the Foundation of Ethics and Morality’. Based on all the preceding explanation, the author proceeds to analyze the Muslim ‘dilemma’ by declaring that it should be resolved primarily through what he calls the “dewesternization of knowledge” or, conversely, the “islamization of contemporary knowledge”, an original concept conceived and elucidated by the author for the past three decades. A RECOMMENDED READINGA RECOMMENDED READING ISLAM AND SECULARISMISLAM AND SECULARISM All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  59. 59. Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam by Muhammad Naquib Syed Al-Attas This is a very important book. No book of its kind, in profundity as well as magnitude of scope and comprehensive grasp of modern intellectual challenges facing the contemporary Muslim World, appeared in the last century. A RECOMMENDED READINGA RECOMMENDED READING All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  60. 60. Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud, The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al Attas, ISTAC, Kuala Lumpur,‑ Malaysia A RECOMMENDED READINGA RECOMMENDED READING Although there are several groups promoting the ‘Islamization’ agenda especially in the West, the use of this term and its idea was first mooted by Prof. Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas. Many who are critical of ‘Islamization’ may have mistaken what others are attempting without knowing what was advocated originally by him. The author have presented how Al-Attas’ seminal ideas may have been ‘hijacked’ and misrepresented. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  61. 61. A RECOMMENDED READINGA RECOMMENDED READING This is one of the most important writings of the author on the subject of the encounter and interrelation between Islam and modernism. Addressed at once to Muslims and Westerners, the author deals in depth with the intellectual and spiritual crisis of modern man as well as the dilemmas of the contemporary Muslim faced with the daunting challenge of the modern world. Islam And The Plight Of Modern ManIslam And The Plight Of Modern Man by Seyyed Hossein Nasrby Seyyed Hossein Nasr All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  62. 62. A RECOMMENDED READINGA RECOMMENDED READING Traditional Islam in the Modern WorldTraditional Islam in the Modern World by Seyyed Hossein Nasrby Seyyed Hossein Nasr An elaboration and defence of "traditional" Islam, as opposed to the modernist and fundamentalist forms, by one of the best-informed, most articulate Muslims of our time. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  63. 63. A RECOMMENDED READINGA RECOMMENDED READING ““Today, there are few intellectual issues moreToday, there are few intellectual issues more important to the contemporary Islamic worldimportant to the contemporary Islamic world than the relation of Islam and modern sciencethan the relation of Islam and modern science and in this central discourse the voice ofand in this central discourse the voice of Osman Bakar remains among the mostOsman Bakar remains among the most pertinent. Among his many writings, thepertinent. Among his many writings, the present book holds a privileged position andpresent book holds a privileged position and the appearance of a new edition of it is itselfthe appearance of a new edition of it is itself proof of the pertinence of this opus and theproof of the pertinence of this opus and the continuous interest in it. “continuous interest in it. “ --Seyyed Hossein Nasr--Seyyed Hossein Nasr Tawhid and ScienceTawhid and Science By : Osman BakarBy : Osman Bakar All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  64. 64. A RECOMMENDED READINGA RECOMMENDED READING “The lives and the ideas of the three thinkers discussed in Classification of Knowledge in Islam - al-Farabi (870-950AD), al-Ghazzali (1058-1111AD) and Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236-1311AD) - cover the pivotal period of Islamic history from the first flourishing of the philosophical sciences to the sacking of Baghdad by the Mongols. In addition, each of these three thinkers was either a founder or an eminent representative of a major intellectual school in Islam.” Classification of Knowledge in Islam: A Study in Islamic Philosophies of Science By : Osman BakarBy : Osman Bakar All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  65. 65. What are the proven desired outcomes …. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  66. 66. God-fearing,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  67. 67. God-fearing,God-fearing, erudite eclecticerudite eclectic, profound,, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  68. 68. God-fearing, erudite eclectic,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profoundprofound,, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  69. 69. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopherthinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  70. 70. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformeradvocate-reformer,, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  71. 71. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdomperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  72. 72. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom,perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetascetic yet worldly-wiseworldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just,, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  73. 73. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise,worldly-wise, spiritual warriorspiritual warrior, sagacious, just,, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  74. 74. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacioussagacious, just,, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  75. 75. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, justjust,, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  76. 76. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionatehumble and compassionate, and many more ..., and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  77. 77. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate,humble and compassionate, and many more ...and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  78. 78. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual studentsperpetual students.. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  79. 79. God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound,God-fearing, erudite eclectic, profound, thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer,thinker-philosopher, advocate-reformer, perpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yetperpetual seeker of truth & wisdom, ascetic yet worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just,worldly-wise, spiritual warrior, sagacious, just, humble and compassionate, and many more ...humble and compassionate, and many more ... But they would always regard themselves asBut they would always regard themselves as perpetual students.perpetual students. NOTE:NOTE: THIS LIST IS NOT EXHAUSTIVE,THIS LIST IS NOT EXHAUSTIVE, ONLY TO HIGHLIGHT THOSEONLY TO HIGHLIGHT THOSE WHICH ARE SIGNIFICANTLYWHICH ARE SIGNIFICANTLY OVERLOOKED BY MANY WHO MAYOVERLOOKED BY MANY WHO MAY ONLY EMPHASISE PAPERONLY EMPHASISE PAPER QUALIFICATIONQUALIFICATION AND NOT THEIR PERSONALAND NOT THEIR PERSONAL ISLAMIC VIRTUES AND CHARACTERISTICS.ISLAMIC VIRTUES AND CHARACTERISTICS. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  80. 80. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  81. 81. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  82. 82. This advice is for those who are upon the course of study,This advice is for those who are upon the course of study, generally regarded as “Islamic Studies” – a label ofgenerally regarded as “Islamic Studies” – a label of convenience in the ‘Dualistic’ system of education – theconvenience in the ‘Dualistic’ system of education – the effect of secularism.effect of secularism. Sadly:Sadly: ““...... many Muslims may have learnt Islam as a subject, but notmany Muslims may have learnt Islam as a subject, but not subjecting themselves to Islamsubjecting themselves to Islam.”.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  83. 83. Because currently we Muslims tend to imitate conventionalBecause currently we Muslims tend to imitate conventional approach, our students specializing in the sciences of theapproach, our students specializing in the sciences of the DeenDeen ((DeeniyatDeeniyat)) may not have had adequatemay not have had adequate Fardhu ‘ainFardhu ‘ain groundings.groundings. By this I mean – a generic butBy this I mean – a generic but eclectic exposureeclectic exposure of variousof various knowledge, which must include other (knowledge, which must include other (ukhra - aakharukhra - aakhar)) contemporary worldly sciences, knowledge and life-skills, craftscontemporary worldly sciences, knowledge and life-skills, crafts and trades etc.and trades etc. complimentingcomplimenting with the Islamic knowledgewith the Islamic knowledge gained.gained. This linkage betweenThis linkage between Deeniyat-DunyawiDeeniyat-Dunyawi -- perhaps can beperhaps can be explained in the basic “explained in the basic “ISLAM-IIMAN-IHSANISLAM-IIMAN-IHSAN” –” – TauhidicTauhidic paradigmparadigm of a Muslim’s basic education.of a Muslim’s basic education. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  84. 84. 84All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  85. 85. TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm ‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  86. 86. ‘ILM TAUHEED - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   Purpose / Objective Development of Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Reality / Truth Develop discernment between Truth & Falsehood, What is involved? ‘Aql - (proper use of Reason / Intellect) Fitrah - Instincts & innate feeling (perception) Tauqifiy – Revelations & reliable traditions What is the Effect? To develop firm conviction, strong principle, Commitment to concept of Unity & Justice of Allah (Tauheed); knowing the true purpose, role and Destiny of Man. 86 TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  87. 87. ‘ILM TAUHIID - ‘AQIDAH (Creed or Theology)   Purpose / Objective Development of Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Reality / Truth Develop discernment between Truth & Falsehood, What is involved? ‘Aql - (proper use of Reason / Intellect) Fitrah - Instincts & innate feeling (perception) Tauqifiy – Revelations & reliable traditions What is the Effect? To develop firm conviction, strong principle, Commitment to concept of Unity & Justice of Allah (Tauheed); knowing the true purpose, role and Destiny of Man. 87 RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARYRELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE:KNOWLEDGE: Languages, Logic & philosophy,Languages, Logic & philosophy, Epistemology, Biology, Botany,Epistemology, Biology, Botany, Chemistry, Physical sciences,Chemistry, Physical sciences, Astronomy, Geology, History,Astronomy, Geology, History, Anthropology, Marine & Space,Anthropology, Marine & Space, Etc.Etc. TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  88. 88. TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  89. 89. ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life What is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. 89 TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  90. 90. ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life What is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. 90 BROAD EXTENT OF TOPICS COVERED IN FIQHBROAD EXTENT OF TOPICS COVERED IN FIQH ‘‘ibadahibadah (personal devotion / worship)(personal devotion / worship) MuamalahMuamalah (social transaction)(social transaction) MunakahahMunakahah (Marriage & family)(Marriage & family) Irth / fara’idIrth / fara’id (Distribution of wealth)(Distribution of wealth) JinayahJinayah (crimes & punishment)(crimes & punishment) Qodha’iyahQodha’iyah (judiciary)(judiciary) jihad / Da’wahjihad / Da’wah (struggle in war & peace)(struggle in war & peace) imarahimarah (Leadership/government)(Leadership/government) TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  91. 91. ‘ILM FIQH (Practical Laws for life; Learning of the Shari’ah)   Purpose / Objective Development of Correct Practices; Submission & Obedience to Will of Allah (Islam) What is involved? Knowing the law, rules as Guidance to every aspect of life Capability to implementing them in life What is the Effect? To develop a community of people, Inviting to what is good Enjoining what is right, and forbidding evil, Advocating the fulfilment of AMANAH (Trust) As Allah’s Khalifah (vicegerent), Establishing the Brotherhood of Man in The servitude of One God. 91 RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE:RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE: All applied sciences, technologyAll applied sciences, technology and skills, knowledge of economics, politics, social &and skills, knowledge of economics, politics, social & administrativeadministrative sciences etc. that can assist in thesciences etc. that can assist in the fulfilment of establishing justice, order, peace,fulfilment of establishing justice, order, peace, harmony, prosperity, physicalharmony, prosperity, physical with moral progress, and the well-beingwith moral progress, and the well-being of Man & society, etc.of Man & society, etc. TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  92. 92. TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  93. 93. ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   Purpose / Objective Development of Righteous Personality Purification/perfection of the Self What is involved? Reforming or purification of the Self (Nafs) Best behaviour in relationship with Allah, within oneself, and with others. Knowledge of Self and of Allah (Gnosis) What is the Effect? Development of Most noble personality traits Founded on Love of Allah, of all His prophets [Nabiyyin] especially the Seal of Prophethood Muhammad s.a.w., his Household [itrah or Ahlul-bayti wa Aali -Rasul] and loyal Companions [Ashaab], In fellowship with the Truthful [siddiqqin], the Witnesses & martyrs [shuhada] and the Righteous servants of Allah [Solihin]; Striving to purify the Self (Nafs) and adorning it with the Exalted Moral traits of Our Beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. (The Perfected Man – “Insan Kaamil”) 93 TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  94. 94. ‘ILM AKHLAQ / TASAWWUF / IRFAN (Science of human Disposition/ Sufism)   Purpose / Objective Development of Righteous Personality Purification/perfection of the Self What is involved? Reforming or purification of the Self (Nafs) Best behaviour in relationship with Allah, within oneself, and with others. Knowledge of Self and of Allah (Gnosis) What is the Effect? Development of Most noble personality traits Founded on Love of Allah, of all His prophets [Nabiyyin] especially the Seal of Prophethood Muhammad s.a.w., his Household [itrah or Ahlul-bayti wa Aali -Rasul] and loyal Companions [Ashaab], In fellowship with the Truthful [siddiqqin], the Witnesses & martyrs [shuhada] and the Righteous servants of Allah [Solihin]; Striving to purify the Self (Nafs) and adorning it with the Exalted Moral traits of Our Beloved Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. (The Perfected Man – “Insan Kaamil”) 94 RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE:RELEVANT COMPLEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE: This aspect of development requiresThis aspect of development requires practical behaviour, the aspect of beingpractical behaviour, the aspect of being and becoming. Its area of developmentand becoming. Its area of development is the inner Self, the ‘human psyche’ oris the inner Self, the ‘human psyche’ or the state of the Soul reflected in histhe state of the Soul reflected in his Disposition (Disposition (AkhlaqAkhlaq). Therefore, the close). Therefore, the close equivalent may perhaps be ‘human’ psychology,equivalent may perhaps be ‘human’ psychology, behavioural sciences, manners & discipline, etc.behavioural sciences, manners & discipline, etc. TauTauhheedic paradigmeedic paradigm All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  95. 95. Unfortunately, their specialization in onlyUnfortunately, their specialization in only ‘‘Ulum-ud-deenUlum-ud-deen (but(but imitating conventional system in producing specialist – in their caseimitating conventional system in producing specialist – in their case “religious sciences”) may have been prematurely embarked too soon“religious sciences”) may have been prematurely embarked too soon which, unfortunately led to their discarding the traditional criteria forwhich, unfortunately led to their discarding the traditional criteria for what constitutewhat constitute Fardhu ‘AinFardhu ‘Ain knowledge, which has to be eclectic toknowledge, which has to be eclectic to include acquisition of contemporary science and knowledge (relevantinclude acquisition of contemporary science and knowledge (relevant & complimentary) vis-a-vis to what they are learning in Islam& complimentary) vis-a-vis to what they are learning in Islam ((DeeniyatDeeniyat)).. Even when these contemporary sciences and knowledge are taught, itEven when these contemporary sciences and knowledge are taught, it seem to be merely imitating mechanically what is done inseem to be merely imitating mechanically what is done in conventional schools without concern for how it is relevant to theirconventional schools without concern for how it is relevant to their Islamic development – instead of to clear the PSLE examination.Islamic development – instead of to clear the PSLE examination. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  96. 96. It is found that when they are exposed further at tertiary level toIt is found that when they are exposed further at tertiary level to contemporary science, knowledge and ideologies (secular humanistcontemporary science, knowledge and ideologies (secular humanist philosophy) in conventional learning centres or university, most ofphilosophy) in conventional learning centres or university, most of them would not be able to critically sieve and react to those teachingsthem would not be able to critically sieve and react to those teachings which are antithetical to Islamic worldview from those that are not.which are antithetical to Islamic worldview from those that are not. It has happened to severalIt has happened to several MadrasahMadrasah students, some were prominentstudents, some were prominent graduates from ‘graduates from ‘PesantrenPesantren’ even, who sadly, have become totally’ even, who sadly, have become totally transformed (secularized) after being sent abroad to continue theirtransformed (secularized) after being sent abroad to continue their tertiary or post-graduate education in Western universities. Many oftertiary or post-graduate education in Western universities. Many of them now are in fact leading the “them now are in fact leading the “Liberal Islam networkLiberal Islam network” groups.” groups. We cannot accept this scandalous “We cannot accept this scandalous “brain-drainbrain-drain” to continue to persist.” to continue to persist. Let’s face it - Secularization of Muslim as a program, is real.Let’s face it - Secularization of Muslim as a program, is real. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  97. 97. We should introduce intervention – e.g. diagnostic of what mayWe should introduce intervention – e.g. diagnostic of what may have been missed in their education - has to be done. Also, tohave been missed in their education - has to be done. Also, to conduct a re-orientation of their attitude, philosophy andconduct a re-orientation of their attitude, philosophy and motivation (drivers) and proactively prepare them with those thatmotivation (drivers) and proactively prepare them with those that a true Islamic Scholar should have – this is imperative. Thus some-a true Islamic Scholar should have – this is imperative. Thus some- kind of “kind of “clinic, therapy, counsellingclinic, therapy, counselling”- (not merely in academic but”- (not merely in academic but also in terms of spiritual and especiallyalso in terms of spiritual and especially AdabAdab) to address this, for) to address this, for each student, throughout their stint in the Madrasah.each student, throughout their stint in the Madrasah. This can be through mentoring by a qualified “This can be through mentoring by a qualified “murobbimurobbi” who” who traditionally, will usually begin with this “traditionally, will usually begin with this “diagnosisdiagnosis” and” and henceforth monitor the student’s educational development.henceforth monitor the student’s educational development. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  98. 98. To become an Islamic scholar specializing in religious sciencesTo become an Islamic scholar specializing in religious sciences ((DeeniyatDeeniyat), his grasp of the general), his grasp of the general Fardhu ‘ainFardhu ‘ain knowledge must beknowledge must be of a much higher standard than that for a lay Muslim’s. This is quiteof a much higher standard than that for a lay Muslim’s. This is quite similar perhaps in medical profession i.e. before a doctor proceedsimilar perhaps in medical profession i.e. before a doctor proceed towards becoming a specialist, he or she is required to havetowards becoming a specialist, he or she is required to have obtained good competency in the general medical course first.obtained good competency in the general medical course first. In fact the general perception of what constituteIn fact the general perception of what constitute Fardhu ‘AinFardhu ‘Ain knowledge for Muslims, needs to be clarified and anyknowledge for Muslims, needs to be clarified and any misconceptions regarding it, corrected for all Muslims – especiallymisconceptions regarding it, corrected for all Muslims – especially to the parents and guardians; the teachers and mentors, etc.to the parents and guardians; the teachers and mentors, etc. involved with the Madrasah.involved with the Madrasah. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  99. 99. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  100. 100. This advice is for those who are in the conventional schoolingThis advice is for those who are in the conventional schooling system.system. The irony that the “The irony that the “University”University” from the word (from the word (kulliyatkulliyat –– ‘universal’) actually was inspired or copied from the “‘universal’) actually was inspired or copied from the “Jami’ahJami’ah”” the centre where early Muslims learnt many sciences; is actuallythe centre where early Muslims learnt many sciences; is actually now producing specialists and should rather be callednow producing specialists and should rather be called ““Specialise-tySpecialise-ty” : because it is producing scholars with “” : because it is producing scholars with “Juz-’iyJuz-’iy”” (particular)(particular) rather than “rather than “kulliykulliy”” (universal)(universal) knowledge.knowledge. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  101. 101. Although Muslim students and graduates from conventionalAlthough Muslim students and graduates from conventional educational system, can be said to possess knowledge; or theyeducational system, can be said to possess knowledge; or they may even be regarded as experts in their academic field, yet tomay even be regarded as experts in their academic field, yet to confer the epithet “Islamic scholars – (confer the epithet “Islamic scholars – (‘ulama‘ulama)” is very much)” is very much dependent upon whether, Islamic criteria e.g. Its creed,dependent upon whether, Islamic criteria e.g. Its creed, practices, worldview, philosophy, approaches etc. has shaped hispractices, worldview, philosophy, approaches etc. has shaped his scholarship or not.scholarship or not. Unfortunately, many may have discarded the Islamic norms (orUnfortunately, many may have discarded the Islamic norms (or hold it abeyance), to embrace a secular philosophy andhold it abeyance), to embrace a secular philosophy and approach, purporting themselves to being neutral from anyapproach, purporting themselves to being neutral from any religion, when undergoing conventional education.religion, when undergoing conventional education. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  102. 102. To be regarded as Islamic scholars, even when specializing in ‘so-To be regarded as Islamic scholars, even when specializing in ‘so- called’ non-religious sciences (called’ non-religious sciences (DunyawiDunyawi), his grasp of the general), his grasp of the general Fardhu ‘ainFardhu ‘ain knowledge as Muslims, must already be of such highknowledge as Muslims, must already be of such high standard – to commensurate or be at par, with his intellectual /standard – to commensurate or be at par, with his intellectual / academic achievement and status.academic achievement and status. Only when, in their field of scholarship it is fully dominated orOnly when, in their field of scholarship it is fully dominated or driven by the Islamic ethos, worldview and motivation etc. – i.e.driven by the Islamic ethos, worldview and motivation etc. – i.e. Islam colouring their knowledge and the particular scientific fieldIslam colouring their knowledge and the particular scientific field – can they qualify to carry the epithet Islamic Scholar (– can they qualify to carry the epithet Islamic Scholar (’ulama’ulama).). This was how our early scholars had qualified themselves.This was how our early scholars had qualified themselves. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  103. 103. The termThe term ‘‘ULAMAULAMA (plural) from(plural) from ‘ALEEM “‘ALEEM “ ““ – although– although today is used to refer exclusively to the Islamic scholars of thetoday is used to refer exclusively to the Islamic scholars of the DeenDeen (those specializing in religious sciences), but actually the term(those specializing in religious sciences), but actually the term generally refers to “generally refers to “the learned or those endowed with knowledgethe learned or those endowed with knowledge”” – from the root word “ “.– from the root word “ “. Allah SWT even uses this term generally to believers who areAllah SWT even uses this term generally to believers who are endowed with knowledge and science of the universe itself. Thusendowed with knowledge and science of the universe itself. Thus the Arabic word for “the Arabic word for “universeuniverse” and the “” and the “learnedlearned” can be similarly” can be similarly spelt as “ “ - but pronounced differently, either “spelt as “ “ - but pronounced differently, either “AALAALAAMM ”” or “or “AALAALIIMM” respectively.” respectively. AN IMPORTANT NOTE:AN IMPORTANT NOTE: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  104. 104. AN IMPORTANT NOTE:AN IMPORTANT NOTE: ““Of all His servantsOf all His servants, only such as are endowed with, only such as are endowed with (innate) knowledge ((innate) knowledge (AL-’ULAMAAL-’ULAMA) stand (truly) in awe of) stand (truly) in awe of Allah: (for they alone comprehend that) verily, Allah isAllah: (for they alone comprehend that) verily, Allah is Almighty, Much Forgiving.”Almighty, Much Forgiving.” ((Qur’an: Fatir 35 : 40Qur’an: Fatir 35 : 40))All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  105. 105. From this therefore, Muslim cohorts from conventional schooling orFrom this therefore, Muslim cohorts from conventional schooling or university,university, onlyonly has the right to be regarded also as amongst thehas the right to be regarded also as amongst the ‘ULAMA‘ULAMA – although specializing in knowledge and science other– although specializing in knowledge and science other than pertaining to the religion (than pertaining to the religion (DeenDeen) -) - when their knowledge,when their knowledge, belief and practice of Islam have been adequately developed, to anbelief and practice of Islam have been adequately developed, to an extent that it permeates his very being and identity as Muslimextent that it permeates his very being and identity as Muslim scholar or scientist.scholar or scientist. To fill this ‘gap’ in their educational development is required, whichTo fill this ‘gap’ in their educational development is required, which thus requires a specialthus requires a special Fardhu ’AinFardhu ’Ain curriculum to be progressivelycurriculum to be progressively inculcated, at every stage in their life development.inculcated, at every stage in their life development. AN IMPORTANT NOTE:AN IMPORTANT NOTE: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  106. 106. “People are like minerals, the best of them in Jahiliyah will still be the best amongst them in Islam, so long as they have proper (profound) understanding (of the DEEN).” (Hadith reported by Bukhary, Muslim, Darimi and Ahmad) All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  107. 107. Unfortunately today, many of our Muslim scientists and intellectualsUnfortunately today, many of our Muslim scientists and intellectuals do not reflect anything ‘do not reflect anything ‘IslamicIslamic’ in their works, nor do they claim to be’ in their works, nor do they claim to be so. Rather they would admit to have been secularly trained and thus,so. Rather they would admit to have been secularly trained and thus, they are just like other secular scientists and academicians. Only inthey are just like other secular scientists and academicians. Only in religious affiliation do they regard themselves to be Muslims.religious affiliation do they regard themselves to be Muslims. Unlike the Muslim intellectuals and scientists which the IslamicUnlike the Muslim intellectuals and scientists which the Islamic civilization had once produced, who although having learnt fromcivilization had once produced, who although having learnt from other cultures and past civilizations, yet they were able to somehowother cultures and past civilizations, yet they were able to somehow ““IslamizeIslamize” these knowledge and sciences - to then shared them which” these knowledge and sciences - to then shared them which benefitted the world. How was it done? Can we recover the methods?benefitted the world. How was it done? Can we recover the methods? AN IMPORTANT NOTE:AN IMPORTANT NOTE: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  108. 108. AN IMPORTANT NOTE:AN IMPORTANT NOTE: All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016)) ““And those who (And those who (JAAHADUJAAHADU) strive in Our (cause),- We) strive in Our (cause),- We will certainly guide them to our Paths (will certainly guide them to our Paths (SUBUULANASUBUULANA) :) : For verily Allah is with those who do right.For verily Allah is with those who do right.”” ((Qur’an: Ahnkabut: 29: 69Qur’an: Ahnkabut: 29: 69))
  109. 109. IMPORTANT DU’AIMPORTANT DU’A ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –NAA - BAH ““O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be trueO Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us ability to follow it.and grant us ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false andAnd make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.”grant us the ability to reject it.” All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  110. 110. AS THIS IS JUST A PRELIMINARY REFLECTION, AND DUE TO TIME CONSTRAIN – I HAVE TO END HERE, FOR THE MOMENT. INSHA-ALLAH! MAY WE HAVE OTHER OPPORTUNITY TOREFLECT FURTHER. All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))
  111. 111. http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/  http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/           All welcome to visit my web-blog:All welcome to visit my web-blog: 111All Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2016))

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