Design-based Research


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  • Design-based Research

    1. 2. Put on Your Thinking Hat 12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    2. 3. Designer 12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    3. 4. Researcher 12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    4. 5. Project Manager 12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    5. 6. 12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    6. 7. Definition <ul><li>A systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation, based on collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings, and leading to contextually-sensitive design principles and theories .(Wang and Hannafin, 2005) </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    7. 8. Characteristics 12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    8. 9. Pragmatic <ul><li>Design-based research refines both theory and practice . </li></ul><ul><li>The value of theory is appraised by the extent to which principles inform and improve practice . </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    9. 10. Grounded <ul><li>Design is theory-driven and grounded in relevant research, theory and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Design is conducted in real-world settings and the design process is embedded in , and studied through , design-based research. </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    10. 11. Interactive | Iterative | Flexible <ul><li>Designers are involved in the design processes and work together with and flexible participants . </li></ul><ul><li>Processes are iterative cycle of analysis, design, implementation, and redesign. </li></ul><ul><li>Initial plan is usually insufficiently detailed so that designers can make deliberate changes when necessary. </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    11. 12. Integrative <ul><li>Mixed research methods are used to maximize the credibility of ongoing research. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods vary during different phases as new needs and issues emerge and the focus of the research evolves . </li></ul><ul><li>Rigor is purposefully maintained and discipline applied appropriate to the development phase. </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    12. 13. Contextual <ul><li>The research process, research findings, and changes from the initial plan are documented . </li></ul><ul><li>Research results are connected with the design process and the setting. </li></ul><ul><li>The content and depth of generated design principles varies . </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance for applying generated principles is needed. </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    13. 14. DBR Phases Reeves, 2006 12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    14. 15. Principles 12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    15. 16. Principle One <ul><li>Support Design with Research </li></ul><ul><li>from the Outset </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    16. 17. Principle Two <ul><li>Set Practical Goals for Theory Development </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an Initial Plan </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    17. 18. Principle Three <ul><li>Conduct Research in </li></ul><ul><li>Representative Real-World Settings </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    18. 19. Principle Four <ul><li>Collaborate Closely with Participants </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    19. 20. Principle Five <ul><li>Implement Research Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically and Purposefully </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    20. 21. Principle Six <ul><li>Analyze Data </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate ly, Continuous ly, and Retrospective ly </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    21. 22. Principle Seven <ul><li>Refine Designs Continually </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    22. 23. Principle Eight <ul><li>Document Contextual Influences with </li></ul><ul><li>Design Principles </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    23. 24. Principle Nine <ul><li>Validate the Generalizability of the Design </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    24. 25. Challenges <ul><li>Emerging methodology : Rigor concern and frameworks congruency. </li></ul><ul><li>Applicability and feasibility in current education system: Funding and classroom context. </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm shift : Undocumented designer influence on participants (Possible Hawthorne Effect). </li></ul><ul><li>Data utilization : Extensive and comprehensive data get discarded. </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    25. 26. Guest Speaker 12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    26. 27. <ul><li>First, the central goals of designing learning environments and </li></ul><ul><li>developing theories or &quot;prototheories&quot; of learning are intertwined. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, development and research take place through continuous cycles of design, enactment, analysis, and redesign (Cobb, 2001; Collins, 1992). </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    27. 28. <ul><li>Third, research on designs must lead to sharable theories that help communicate relevant implications to practitioners and other educational designers (cf. Brophy, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth, research must account for how designs function in authentic settings. It must not only document success or failure but also focus on interactions that refine our understanding of the learning issues involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth, the development of such accounts relies on methods that can document and connect processes of enactment to outcomes of interest. </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    28. 29. Final Thoughts and Questions <ul><li>Any One? </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    29. 30. The Spirit of DBR <ul><li>In a sense, </li></ul><ul><li>all findings in educational research </li></ul><ul><li>are just a working hypothesis . </li></ul><ul><li>Lee Cronbach, as recalled by Thomas Reeves </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu
    30. 31. References <ul><li>Bannan-Ritland, B. (2003). The role of design in research: The integrative learning design framework. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 21-24. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, A. (1992). Design experiments: Theoretical and methodological challenges in creating complex interventions in classroom settings. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2(2), 141-178. </li></ul><ul><li>Cobb, P., Confrey, J., deSessa, A., Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2003). Design experiments in educational research. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 9-13. </li></ul><ul><li>Collins, A. (1992). Toward a design science of education. In E. Scanlon & T. O’Shea (Eds.), New directions in educational technology (pp. 15-22). Berlin: Springer Verlag. </li></ul><ul><li>Collins, A., Joseph, D., & Bielaczyc, K. (2004). Design research: Theoretical and methodological issues. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 15-42. </li></ul><ul><li>Design-Based Research Collective. (2003). Design-based research: An emerging paradigm for educational inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 5-8. </li></ul><ul><li>Edelson, D. C. (2002). Design Research: What we learn when we engage in design. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 11(1), 105-121. </li></ul><ul><li>Reeves, T. C., Herrington, J., & Oliver, R. (2005). Design research: A socially responsible approach to instructional technology research in higher education. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 16(2), 97-116. </li></ul><ul><li>Reigeluth, C. M., & Frick, F. W. (1999). Formative research: A methodology for creating and improving design theories. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models (Vol. II, pp. 633-651). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. </li></ul><ul><li>Van den Akker, J. (1999). Principles and methods of development research. In J. van den Akker, N. Nieveen, R. M. Branch, K. L. Gustafson & T. Plomp (Eds.), Design methodology and developmental research in education and training (pp. 1-14). The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Van den Akker, J., Gravemeiger, K., McKenney, S. & Nieveen, N. (in press). Introducing Educational Design Research. In Van den Akker, J., Gravemeiger, K., McKenney, S. & Nieveen, N. (in press) (Eds.), Educational design research. (pp. 1-8). London:Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 5-23. </li></ul>12/7/08 Yu-Chang Hsu