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Understand Designed Based Research

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A document I made for our PRIN project research team

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Understand Designed Based Research

  1. 1. DESIGN-BASED RESEARCH Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09 Nan Yang nan.yang@unitn.it Doctoral School of Psychological Sciences and Education University of Trento
  2. 2. Outline What is design-based research (DBR)? When do we use DBR How do we use DBR? Why do we use DBR Discussion DBR in PRIN 09 ! ! 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !2
  3. 3. What is DBR Definition DBR is also known as “design experiments” (Brown, 1992), “design research”(Cobb, 2001), “development research”(van den Akker, 1999). It is research on how theory and innovative learning environments converge to support human learning and performance. Elements (Edelson, 2002) Research driven: yield useful results; informed by prior research and guided by research goals Systematic documentation: to support retrospective analysis Formative evaluation: integrated process of design, evaluation and revision Generalization: Expend focus from current design context to others 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !3
  4. 4. What is DBR (cont.) Crosscutting Features (Cobb, etc, 2003) The purpose is to develop a class of theories about both the process of learning and the means that are designed to support that learning Highly interventionist nature of the methodology: to investigate the possibilities for educational improvement by bring about new forms of learning in order to study them Two faces: prospective and reflective. On the prospective side, foster the emergence of other potential pathways for learning and development; on the reflective side, DBR is conjecture-driven tests Iterative design: the result is an iterative design process featuring cycles of invention and revision Pragmatic roots: “the theory must do real work” 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !4
  5. 5. When do we use DBR The need to address theoretical questions about the nature of learning in context The need for approaches to the study of learning phenomena in the real world rather than the laboratory The need to go beyond narrows measures of learning The need to derive research findings from formative evaluation (Collins, etc, 2004) 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !5
  6. 6. How do we use DBR Settings for conducting DBR (Cobb, etc, 2003) One on one(teacher-experimenter and student): conducts a series of teaching session with a small number of students classroom: collaborate with a teacher to assume responsibility for instruction preservice teacher development: help organize and study the education of prospective teachers In-service teacher development: collaborate with teachers to support the development of a professional community school and school district reconstructing: collaborate with teachers, school administrators, and other stakeholders to support organizational change (PRIN 09’s position). 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !6
  7. 7. How do we use DBR(cont.) Multiple ways of analysis (Collins, etc, 2004) Cognitive level: researchers ask learners to expose their thinking Interpersonal level: researchers use ethnographic techniques to observe the interactions between students and teacher or among students Group or class level: address issue of participant structure, group identity and authority relationship Resource level: if resources are easy to understand and use, the access, how they are integrated into the activities Institutional or school level: communications with outside parties and support from the entire institution 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !7
  8. 8. How do we use DBR(cont.) Preparing for DBR (e.g. classroom design experiment) Clarify the theoretical intent of the experiment Specify the significant disciplinary ideas and forms of reasoning that constitute the prospective goals or endpoints for student learning Specify the assumptions about the intellectual and social starting points for the envisioned forms of learning formulate a design that embodies testable conjectures about both significant shifts in student reasoning and the specific means of supporting those shifts Generate multiple forms of data to adequately document the learning ecology (Cobb, etc, 2003) 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !8
  9. 9. How do we use DBR(cont.) Conducting a DBR A clear view of the anticipated learning pathways and the potential means of support must be maintained The extended nature of most DBR calls for the cultivation of ongoing relationships with practitioners To develop a deep understanding of the ecology of learning Regular debriefing sessions are the forum in which past events are interpreted and prospective events are planned for Conduct retrospective analysis is a way to be explicit about the criteria and types of evidence used when making particular types of inferences, so that other researchers can understand, monitor, and critique the analysis (Cobb, etc, 2003) 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !9
  10. 10. Why do we use DBR (Cobb, etc, 2003) It provides a productive perspective for theory development The practical demands of design require that a theory be fully specified The process of design reveals inconsistencies more effectively than analytical processes The goal-directed nature of design provides a natural focus for theory development The usefulness of its results If the ultimate goal of educational research is the improvement of the education system, then results that speak directly to the design of activities, materials and systems will be the most useful results. It directly involves researchers in the improvement of education Researchers has freedom to explore innovative design and create true innovation 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !10
  11. 11. Discussion Compare DBR with empirical research (Edelson, 2002) the objective: DBR is to generate new theories; empirical research is theory-testing tradition their source of strength: explanatory power and their grounding in specific experiences (DBR); statistical sampling (empirical research) My viewpoint on DBR: case study+action research+formative evaluation DBR offers opportunities to learn unique lessons (case study) DBR yields practical lessons that can directly applied (action research) DBR facilitates direct improvement of education (formative evaluation) 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !11
  12. 12. DBR in PRIN 09 PRIN 09 is a national research on innovative evaluation in the educational setting Research Unit at University of Trento is focus on the evaluation on the eLearning quality in the higher education Why we don’t build a new evaluation process instead of redesigning the eLearning course for innovative evaluation? Firstly, the objective of innovative evaluation is to have strong impact on educational practice while course redesign have a direct impact on the practice. Secondly, DBR we adopt in our research is also a formative evaluation. 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !12
  13. 13. Important References Brown, A. L. (1992). Design experiments: Theoretical and methodological challenges in creating complex interventions in classroom settings. The journal of the learning sciences, 2(2), 141-178. Cobb, P., Confrey, J., Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2003). Design experiments in educational research. Educational researcher, 32(1), 9-13. Collins, A., Joseph, D., & Bielaczyc, K. (2004). Design research: Theoretical and methodological issues. The Journal of the learning sciences, 13(1), 15-42. Cobb, P. (2001). Supporting the improvement of learning and teaching in social and institutional context. In Cognition and instruction: Twenty-five years of progress (pp. 455-478). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Edelson, D. C. (2002). "Design research: What we learn when we engage in design." The Journal of the Learning Sciences 11(1): 105-121. Van den Akker, J. (1999). Principles and methods of development research.Design methodology and developmental research in education and training, 1-14. 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !13
  14. 14. Thank you 10/23/13 Research Unit at University of Trento, PRIN 09, Nan Yang !14

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