Learning theories 1


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Behavioral Dentistry
Second Year

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Learning theories 1

  1. 1. Learning Theories and their Clinical Applications-1 Prepared by: Dr.Maan A.Bari Qasem Saleh Associate Prof. Depart. Of Psychiatry Course of Behavioral Sciences Faculty of Medicine University of Dammam 2012-2013
  2. 2. Outlines 1- Classical Learning (Pavlov &Watson) 2- Operant Learning ( Skinner & Thorndike) 3-Social learning (Bandura theory ) 4-Insight Learning (Field theory of Kurt Lewin )
  3. 3. Pavlov Theory (Classical Conditioning Theory) • Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) (Russian physiologist ) • The first who gained Noble prize in1904 for his discovery in digestive system • Classically conditioned dogs using the salivary reflex .
  4. 4. Classical conditioning • Dogs normally respond to food by salivating . • They do not have to be conditioned to salivate to food. • Dogs do not , however , automatically salivate to the sound of a bell ringing . • This is what Pavlov condition them to do. • He re-ring the bell , present the food ,and the dogs would salivate . • He repeated this procedure until the bell alone would cause the dogs to salivate . • They had learned to associate the sound of the bell with the presentation food
  5. 5. 1- Classical Learning • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) the stimulus that automatically produce a reflex. (in Pavlov's study this was the food). • Unconditioned Response (UCR) an automatic response to the UCS a natural response that does not require conditioning for it to occur (in Pavlov's study this was salivation to the food). • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) a neutral stimulus that does not normally elicit an automatic response ; only after pairing it repeatedly with the UCS , does the CS come to elicit a conditioned response . (in Pavlov's study this was the bell). • Conditioned Response (CR) the learned response that occurs when the CS is presented alone , without the UCS . (in Pavlov's study , the CR was salivation that occurred to the bell alone ; no food was present).
  6. 6. Standard classical conditioning paradigm UCS UCR (food) (salivation) Cs + UCS UCR (bell) (food) (salivation ) CS alone CR (bell alone) (salivation)
  7. 7. HIGHER Order Conditioning – Occur when a new neutral stimulus is associated with a conditioned stimulus (CS) and eventually comes to produce the conditioned response (CR). – Albert was classically conditioned , a dog was always paired with the rat, eventually Albert would display the fear response to the dog . A diagram of this higher order conditioning example would be : Rat alone fear (CS) (CR) Dog + rat alone fear (new stimulus) ( CS) (CR) Eventually , Dog alone fear (CS) (CR)
  8. 8. Extinction • The process of eliminating the conditioned response (CR) by no longer pairing the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) with the conditioned stimulus (CS) is called extinction . • Extinction will take place , therefore , if the conditioned stimulus (CS) is present repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) . • Extinction is a method that is used intentionally to eliminate conditioned response (CR).
  9. 9. Clinical Applications • Development of fears and anxiety that might occurs when visiting a dentist. • Another example is what is called “Anticipatory Nausea” in chemotherapy
  10. 10. 2- Operant and instrumental Learning • In operant or instrumental conditioning , response are learned because of their consequences . • Unlike classical conditioning , the responses learned in operant/instrumental conditioning are voluntary. • There are subtle measurement differences between operant and instrumental conditioning. • Because both of these are similar in most respect , however , the term operant conditioning will be used to refer to both .
  11. 11. Skinner’s Box • American behaviorist B.F.Skinner (1904-1990) devised a chamber , known as skinner box , to study: • The effects of various schedules of reinforcement on the behavior of small animals such as rats and pigeons . The teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction
  12. 12. law of effect • American psychologist Edward L.Thorndike`s (1874- 1949): • law of effect states that a behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated ,while behavior that is not rewarded takes place only at random . • What is learned during operant or instrumental conditioning is that certain response are instrumental in producing desired effects in the environment . Simplified graph of the result of the puzzle box experiment.
  13. 13. Clinical Applications-1 Autonomic conditioning • Autonomic conditioning refers to the operant conditioning of autonomic responses such as heart rate and intestinal contraction . • Discovering New Drugs after several experimental research on animals, and then humankind is an example of Trial and error Learning .
  14. 14. Clinical Applications-2 Token economy • In behavior therapy, a program sometimes conducted in an institutional setting (e.g, a hospital or classroom) in which desired behavior is reinforced by offering tokens that can be exchanged for special foods, television time ,passes, or other rewards.
  15. 15. Distinctions Between Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning classical conditioning 1- Behavior affected is usually experienced as voluntary-for example, actions (bar press) , thoughts (plans for action . 1)Behavior affected is usually experienced as involuntary-for example, reflexes (knee jerk , salivation, eye blink) , feelings (fear , anxiety) 2-Key event (reinforcement and punishment) are produced by the organism's behavior . 2)Key events (unconditioned and conditioned stimuli) are presented to the organism. 3-Those events control the behavior; that is, they determine how often the organism emits it 3) Those events elicit the behavior ; that is, they directly evoke it. 4-In the absence of specific stimuli , the behavior does occur ; the effect of discriminative stimuli is to alter its frequency . 4)In the absence of key stimuli , the behavior does not occur .
  16. 16. 3-Social learning (Observation-Modeling) • Observational learning occur when we learn new behaviors by watching others . • This is sometimes called social learning , vicarious conditioning , or modeling .
  17. 17. 3-1-Learning and Performance • Edward Tolman (1886-1959) differentiated between learning and performance . • Latent learning is learning that is not demonstrated at the time that it occur. • We may learn a behavior when we observe it , but never display the behavior • We may learn behavior but never perform it . • Behavior may not be demonstrated until it is motivating to do so.
  18. 18. 3-2-Cultural-historical Approach • Cultural mediation and internalization • The relation between learning and human development • Language and thought development • Play as a psychological phenomenon • The study of learning disabilities • Abnormal human development • Zone of proximal development Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934
  19. 19. "Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) • Vygotsky’s term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children. • The lower limit of ZPD is the level of skill reached by the child working independently. • The upper limit is the level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor.
  20. 20. 3-3-Bandura Theory • Bandura (1969) devised a theory stating that behavior is controlled by one of three systems, behavior is controlled by 1)external stimuli , by their 2)consequences or by 3) internal (symbolic) processes . Albert Bandura
  21. 21. Processes of Observational learning 1- Attention : attention must be paid to the salient features of another's actions. Prestige or status of a model can influence whether another's actions are noticed . 2-Retention : observed behaviors must be remembered in order to be carried out . 3- Reproduction of action: we must be able to carry out the behavior that we observed. 4- Motivation : there must be some reason for carrying out the behavior . • Observing someone being rewarded for behavior increases the likelihood that the behavior will be performed .
  22. 22. 4-1-Insightful learning (Intellectual Learning) • A cognitive form of learning involving the mental rearrangement or restructuring of the elements in a problem to achieve an understanding of the problem and arrive a solution .(Problem Solving) • Insightful learning was described by Wolfgang Kohler in 1920s,based on retrieve food and was offered as an alternative to learning based on conditioning. 1887-1967
  23. 23. 4-2-Field theory • The field theory of behavior was first developed by Kurt Lewin named by analogy to a theory of electricity and magnetism . • It emphasizes that behavior does not depend on the organism alone or the environment alone , but on what goes on between the two . • (The interaction between the :Genetical & Environmental Factors) 1890-1947
  24. 24. Types of Insight • Robert Sternberg & Jant Davidson(1990s) 1-Selective encoding insights To distinguish relevant from irrelevant information . (Clinical Application: diagnostic examination ) 2-Selective comparison insights To distinguish the stored information which is relevant for one’s purposes. (Clinical Application: differential diagnosis) 3-Selective combination insights (Gathered the information available to formulate a solution . (Clinical Application: Final diagnosis Treatment)
  25. 25. Reference- 201 1
  26. 26. Thank You for Listening