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J. Bourdeau, R. Rosenberg, M. Maina, I. Savard

                       LICEF Research Center
                    Tele-University, Montreal
                               June 6th, 2008
1- Qu’est-ce que DBR?
2- Historique
3- Un tour guidé de DBR
4-Trois types, trois projets
Conclusion
Invitation
DBR aims at developing empirically grounded theories
through combined study of both the process of
learning and the means that support that
process. (diSessa, Cobb, 2004).

3 caractéristiques principales:

1) Le but est double: comprendre les phénomènes étudiés, et
   ajuster le design (interventionniste)

2) Le protocole et le design peuvent être modifiés en cours
  d’expérimentation (souple)

3) Un protocole DBR peut réunir des méthodes et techniques
  quantitatives et qualitatives (ouvert)
Conducting research in authentic, natural educational contexts, rather than
   laboratories.
(O’Donnell, 2004, A Commentary on Design Research.” Educational Psychologist, v39 n4 p255-260.)

   The desire for research to have a practical impact, by having clear relevance for the
   improvement of education- (utility).
(Bell, 2004). “On the Theoretical Breadth of Design-Based Research in Education.” Educational Psychologist, v39
    n4 p243-253.

   An insistence on theory-guided educational intervention: ‘interventions embody
   specific theoretical claims about teaching and learning’ (The DBR Collective, 2003).

   A pluralist approach with respect to theories, research designs, methods, and
   procedures - includes mixed methods-hybrid where qualitative and quantitative
   techniques are used in combination (Bell, 2004)

   The use of an iterative design and evaluation cycle: interventions are adjusted as the
   research proceeds ( Dede, 2004. “If Design-Based Research is the Answer, What is the Question? Journal
   of the Learning Sciences, v13 n1 p105-114.

   A focus on how the intervention worked.            (DBR collective, 6)
DBR est une méthodologie systématique et
flexible dans le but d’améliorer la pratique
éducative par des analyses itératives, du
design, du développement et de
l’implantation dans un contexte réel pour
établir des principes et des propositions
théoriques (Wang and Hannafin, 2005,p. 6)
Ann Brown, 1992, Design Experiments

Alan Collins, 1992, A Design Science of Education

AERA 1998, presentation: Using Science and Design Experiments to
Understand Innovative Uses of Technology in Classrooms

DBR Collective, 2001

Educational Researcher Special Issue 2003
◦ DBR Collective’s Manifesto: Design-Based Research: An Emerging Paradigm for
  Educational Inquiry

Collins & al: Design Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

DiSessa’s video presentation at Kal’s VDS on DBR, 2006

Tom Reeves’ Tutorial ED-MEDIA 2007
DBR et le design: Explore, Explain, Design
(Gibbons & Bunderson ) et Designerly ways of
knowing (Cross) Marcelo

DBR et la théorie, Rivki

DBR et les méthod(es)ologies: Jacqueline

DBR: les cycles/étapes, et l’alignement, Isabelle
Gibbons, A. & Bunderson C. (2005). Explore, explain,
design. In K. Kempf-Leonard (Ed.), Encyclopedia of
Social Measurement (927-938). New York: Elsevier

Cross, N.
◦ (2001). Designerly Ways of Knowing: Design Discipline
  versus Design Science, Design Issues 17(3), 49-55
◦ (2006). Designerly ways of knowing. In Designerly
  ways of knowing (pp. 1-13). London: Springer (first
  published in 1982, Design Studies 3(4), 221-227
Gibbons & Bunderson




"Design" is a term that describes intentional
structuring of artifacts and intervention plans to
bring about predictable outcomes.

Design is both
  1) a subject of research and
  2) a method of research and knowledge production.
Gibbons & Bunderson



                                          Knowledge-producing processes

                natural history             science                                              design
                                                                    technology

Type of     natural phenomena are     seek to discover and    seek to learn principles    knowledge
questions     observed, described,          describe           for connecting human       producing
they             measured, and         authoritatively the   intentions with the form     studies and
address       collected to amass a    single best coherent    and function of human       experiments into (1)
               body of facts and       description of the          made artifacts         the act of designing,
             identify patterns and       nature of the          attempts to discover      (2) the design
                     trends               underlying            efficient structuring     processes and
               Questions seek the     operations that lead   principles and processes     generative principles
              growth of collections       to observed            that will produce a      for design, and (3)
             based on the patterns        phenomena           variety of solutions to a   study of the
             and trends in order to                          problem, from which the      structural properties
              support or question                               most suitable may be      of designed things.
                new models and                                selected on the basis of
                   hypotheses                                problem-specific criteria
type of          Exploratory             Explanatory            Normative (MM)             Normative (MM)
knowledge
they
produce
Gibbons & Bunderson




concept designates three synergistically related knowledge-
producing enterprises.

knowledge-producing enterprises are necessary conditions for
each other, each producing results that become mutually and
self-inputting, providing a continuous stream of research
questions in all three areas.

enterprises are discriminated on the basis of the kinds of
questions they address and the types of knowledge they
produce, but not definitively on the research techniques
employed.
Gibbons & Bunderson




Seek two kinds of theoretical knowledge
◦ a descriptive explanation of the processes operative in a domain (e.g.
  in education: descriptive progression of learning or growth) , and
◦ technological or design knowledge about how to create and
  implement the tools-both measurement instruments and the
  treatment control technologies.
Are attempts to discover
◦ new artifact- and intervention-related principles
◦ or to improve the effectiveness of existing artifacts or intervention
  plans.
Take place in live settings, and are iterative, cyclical applications
of a process of principled design, implementation, evaluation,
and redesign.
Often aid in exploring a domain and possible treatments, and
thus may be largely qualitative producing narrative accounts of
intense, iterative, often ideographic observations over each cycle.
Nigel Cross




              phenomenon of study                 appropriate methods                         values


sciences     the natural world                 controlled experiment,             objectivity, rationality,
                                               classification, analysis           neutrality, and a concern
                                                                                  for ‘truth’

humanities   human experience                  analogy, metaphor,                 subjectivity, imagination,
                                               evaluation                         commitment, and a
                                                                                  concern for ‘justice’



design       the artificial world              modeling, pattern-                 practicality, ingenuity,
                                               formation, synthesis               empathy, and a concern
                                                                                  for 'appropriateness'


             Technology involves a synthesis of knowledge and skills from both the sciences and the humanities, in
             the pursuit of practical tasks; it is not simply 'applied science', but 'the application of scientific and other
             organised knowledge to practical tasks ... ' (Cross, et al., 1981).
Nigel Cross




Problem
 Ill-defined, ill-structured, or 'wicked' (Rittel and Webber, 1973).
 Not problems for which all the necessary information is, or ever can
 be, available to the problem-solver.
 Not susceptible to exhaustive analysis, and there can never be a
 guarantee that 'correct' solutions can be found for them.

Solution
 A solution-focused strategy is clearly preferable to a problem-
 focused one: it will always be possible to go on analyzing 'the
 problem', but the designer's task is to produce 'the solution'.
 It is only in terms of a conjectured solution that the problem can be
 contained within manageable bounds (Hillier and Leaman; 1974):
 ◦ What designers tend to do, therefore, is to seek, or impose a 'primary
   generator' (Darke, 1979) which both defines the limits of the problem and
   suggests the nature of its possible solution.
Nigel Cross




The scientific method is a pattern of problem-solving
behaviour employed in finding out the nature of what
exists, whereas the design method is a pattern of behaviour
employed in inventing things of value which do not yet
exist. Science is analytic; design is constructive. (Gregory,
1966)

The natural sciences are concerned with how things are ...
Design, on the other hand, is concerned with how things
ought to be. (Simon, 1969)

To base design theory on inappropriate paradigms of logic
and science is to make a bad mistake. Logic has interests in
abstract forms. Science investigates extant forms. Design
initiates novel forms. (March, 1976)
Nigel Cross




Donald Schön challenged the positivist doctrine underlying
much of the “design science” movement, and offered instead
a constructivist paradigm.
He criticized Simon’s view of a “science of design” for being
based on approaches to solving well-formed problems,
whereas professional practice throughout design and
technology and elsewhere has to face and deal with “messy,
problematic situations.”
Schön proposed, instead, to search for “an epistemology of
practice implicit in the artistic, intuitive processes which some
practitioners do bring to situations of uncertainty, instability,
uniqueness, and value conflict,” and which he characterized
as “reflective practice.”
Nigel Cross




Despite the positivist, technical-rationality basis of The
Sciences of the Artificial, Simon did propose that “the
science of design” could form a fundamental, common
ground of intellectual endeavor and communication across
the arts, sciences, and technology.


Design as a discipline, therefore, can mean design studied
on its own terms, and within its own rigorous culture. It can
mean a science of design based on the reflective practice of
design: design as a discipline, but not design as a science.
This discipline seeks to develop domain-independent
approaches to theory and research in design.
Theory building is a must!                  (diSessa, Cobb, 2004)
◦ We must develop theoretical constructs that empower us to see order, pattern, and regularity
  in the complex settings in which we conduct DE.

Theory building is integral to the work of advancing knowledge building within a domain
(Palincsar, 2005)

DBR is an important methodology for understanding how, when, and why educational
innovations work in practice

DBR is a lens or set of analytical techniques that balances the positivist and interpretivist
paradigms and attempts to bridge theory and practice in education

DBR is a blend of empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning
environments

DBR methods aim to uncover the relationships between educational theory, designed artifact,
and practice
                                              (Brown 1992; Collins, 1992; DBR Collective)

 The primary aim of DBR is to develop DOMAIN-SPECIFIC THEORIES in order to understand the
learning process (Mor, 2006)
What is theory?
◦ A set of related propositions that attempts to explain, and
  sometimes predict a set of events (Hoover 1992, p. 66 In Richey, 1997)
◦ Explanations of phenomena or events that help us understand
  and deal with the world      (Seels, 1997)


Role of theory
◦   Providing patterns for the interpretation of data
◦   Linking one study with another
◦   Supplying frameworks
◦   Allowing us to interpret the larger meaning of findings     (Hoover 1992 In
    Seels 1997)


Criteria          (Richey, 1997)
- accuracy
- validity
- utility
Theories have always displayed a principal part of the power and
elegance of science.

They embody generalization, bringing order to a vast array of
seemingly disparate phenomena that come to be seen as special
cases of some theory.

They enable us to discriminate between relations that are
necessary and those that are contingent.

They delineate classes of phenomena that are worthy of inquiry
and specify how to look and what to see in order to understand
them.

“Teaching us how to see”—is particularly evident in the type of
theory in DBR
Formal systems of laws and propositions (built
around suggested relationships among variables)
Narrative explanations and predictions
Models (verbal, visual or mathematical)
Set of laws
Form of an organization and summary of existing
knowledge
Form of hypothesis
Describe and often predict events
Domain theories- describe learning situations involving
students, teachers, learning environments and their
interactions.

Design framework- is a “design solution” that provides a set
of “design guidelines for a particular class of design
challenge”

Design methodologies- are prescriptive in nature, serving as
guidelines for how to implement a set of designs, what kind
of expertise is required and who should provide the
expertise. As a result of the iterative design process,
researchers also continuously refine design interventions to
make them more applicable to practice
Domain theories             Design framework              Design methodologies
   (RR, 2008 ? )                (IS, 2008 ? )                         (MM, 2008 ? )
Generalization of some      Generalized design            General design procedure.
portion of a problem        solution. Describe the        Provides guidelines for the process rather than
analysis. This theory       characteristics that a        the product. Describes:
might be about learners     design artifact must have     a. A process for achieving a class of designs
and how they learn,         to achieve a particular set
teachers how they teach,    of goals in a context         b. Forms of expertise requires
learning environ. and how                                 c. Roles to be played by the individuals
they influence teaching                                   representing those forms of expertise
and learning




Descriptive
                            Prescriptive
                                                          Prescriptive
DBR: Méthodologie?
◦ Design-based research (DBR) is a research paradigm that
  intertwines research with practice and fits well with the
  purposes of education (Bell, 2004)

DBR et autres méthodologies
◦   Development Research
◦   Design Experiment
◦   Design Research
◦   Formative Research

Cycles et étapes
DBR is:
◦ an emerging method (Kelly, 2004)

◦ a methodology (Wang, Hannafin, 2005)

◦ a framework (diSessa, 2007)

Method- is a procedure, a process, a set of steps to follow. A way of doing
something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical
arrangement (usually in steps)

Methodology- what, who,when a given activity should be preformed? It is a
structure geared toward a goal. The way in which information is found or
something is done. The methodology includes the methods, procedures,
and techniques used to collect and analyze.

Framework- model: a hypothetical description of a complex entity or
process; "the computer program was based on a model of the circulatory
and respiratory ... the underlying structure; "restoring the framework of the
bombed building"; "it is part of the fabric of society" . A structure
supporting or containing something
1                         2                           3                              4

                           Développer des                                          Réfléchir à la
                                                        Effectuer des
                       théories, des solutions                                production de théories,
   Analyser des                                        cycles itératifs
                           sur la base des                                        de principes de
problèmes pratiques                                     de tests et de
                       principes de conception                                      conception
  en collaboration                                       raffinement
                               existants                                       et mettre en évidence
  entre praticiens                                      des théories,
                                   et                                              des solutions
   et chercheurs                                       des solutions
                           des innovations                                       d’implémentation
                                                         en pratique
                            technologiques




         Raffinement de théories, de problèmes, de solutions et de principes de conception

                                                 5

                                                                            (Adaptée de Reeves, 2006)
Corroboration (Popper)
Une proposition sfx = réfutable,
            n’est pas vérifiable par l’expérience,
            on ne peut pas affirmer qu’elle ne sera jamais réfutée…
            C’est vrai jusqu’à preuve du contraire!

La théorie (étape 2 DBR) précède l’observation (étape 3 et 4 DBR).

Une théorie (ou proposition théorique) est scientifique si elle
se divise en deux sous-classes d'énoncés de base :
    1) la classe des énoncés qui la contredisent, appelés falsifieurs
    potentiels (si ces énoncés sont vrais la théorie est fausse);
    2) la classe des énoncés avec lesquels elle s'accorde (si ces
    énoncés sont vrais, ils la corroborent).
« Methodological alignment » = s’assurer que les méthodes de recherche que
nous utilisons testent bien ce que nous pensons qu’elles testent.
La notion d’alignement est essentielle à notre compréhension de la validité de la
recherche.
La validité d’une recherche = notre interprétation des résultats corrobore la
théorie et les hypothèses examinées:
◦ “2 autres types de validité en recherche dont nous devons nous soucier”:
  1) La validité de traitement – les traitements que nous créons sont bien
     alignés avec les théories qu’ils représentent.
  2) La validité systémique— l’ensemble de la recherche doit créer 1) un test
     juste pour les théories mais aussi 2) une façon de communiquer ces
     théories qui respecte les inférences utilisées pour les prouver.
Pour atteindre une vraie validité systémique
◦ Nos recherches doivent informer nos théories,
  - Qui doivent informer la pratique
La conception des
                                                théories, des
                                                solutions

Dans le DBR, l’implication des mêmes acteurs dans:
  1) la formulation de la théorie,

  2) l’implémentation des interventions, et
  3) la “mesure” des produits
favorise un meilleur alignment méthodologique.

DBR est, en fait, une tentative de combinaison
du design intentionnel des       l’exploration empirique de notre
environnements d’apprentissage   compréhension de ces environnements
avec                             et de leur façon d’interagir avec les
                                 individus.
DBR se base sur l’idée que l’universalité est rare
dans les phénomènes étudiés en éducation.

Et parce que la méthode entame les étapes
expérimentales en examinant des contextes
individuels,

les chercheurs DB généralisent leurs constatations
seulement provisoirement

en en faisant une science locale
Les chercheurs en DBR doivent documenter:

◦    leur perspective ou point de départ MAIS AUSSI
◦    toutes stratégies d’intervention pertinentes utilisées
       par les participants observés
       ET par le chercheur lui-même


    En documentant les pratiques de planification de
    l’apprentissage du point de vue de ceux qui ont pour
    but de favoriser l’apprentissage, nous allons peut-
    être établir le cadre d’une forme de recherche
                            plus utilisable
                            et plus valide
“When one foregoes experimental controls, how can one
generalize to other settings regardless of how rich are
the local descriptions?” (Kelly, 2004, p.120).
DBR’s goal is to design something that not only
develops theory, but also is valuable to others. This
criterion not only requires the deep understanding of
one particular context, but DBR must also show
relevance to other contexts. This type of generalization
has been referred to as a petite generalization (Stake,
1995)
A Humble Theory rather than Grand Theories grain size,
different scales (diSessa):
DBR:
◦ trying to understand the world by trying to change it
◦ creating and testing theories in complex situations
◦ building theoretical empirical propositions about
  learning with technology
Une innovation? Prendre Design Science comme
source d’inspiration au lieu de la sociologie ou
la psychologie
Reconnaissance :
◦ AERA, JLS (NSF?)
◦ ICLS2008? ….que dit le conférencier d’ouverture?
From Design Experiments to Formative
Interventions
Human learning takes place in increasingly complex,
continuously changing activity settings which makes
traditional well controlled experiments difficult and render
their ecological validity questionable. On the other hand,
various modes of action research typically lack in
methodological and theoretical rigor. Design experiments are
an increasingly popular attempt to resolve this dilemma.
However, I will show that the notion of design experiments
reproduces crucial limitations of traditional research design
and fails to address the foundational issue of agency of the
research subjects
Bibliographie
◦ Brown, A. , Design Experiments, Journal of the Learning Sciences(2), 141-178, 1992
◦ Collins, A. (1992). Toward a Design Science of Education. In E. Scanlon and T. O'Shea.
  New Directions in Educational Technology
◦ DBR Collective, Educational Researcher, 2003
◦ A.Collins; D.Joseph & K. Bielaczyc, Design Research: Theoretical and Methodological
  Issues Journal of the Learning Sciences (13, 1) 15-42, 2004
◦ Gibbons
◦ Ross, S. et al, Research Designs, in Handbook of Research on Educational
    Communications and Technology
◦ Van den Akker, J., Gravemeijer,K., McKenney, S. & Nieveen, N., Educational Design
  Research.
    http://www.lrc.ctu.edu.vn/VietnamCourse/VietnamCourse/EducationalDesignResearch.pdf
◦   Anthony Cocciolo’s Lit. Review: http://anthony.thinkingprojects.org/wp-content/dbr.doc
◦   Terry Anderson’s biblio: http://cider.athabascau.ca/CIDERSIGs/DesignBasedSIG/dbrreferences
◦   Simon, H. The science of the artificial, (1969), MIT Press (Design Science)

Webographie
◦ The DBR Collective, http://www.designbasedresearch.org/
◦ A PEER Tutorial on DBR, Georgia U. PhD students:
    http://projects.coe.uga.edu/dbr/index.htm
◦ http://www.lkl.ac.uk/projects/designresearch/
Séminaire le 18 juin



  Y. Mor,
-Institute of Education, U. of London
-Chercheur à London Knowledge Lab

 Article: Design Approaches in Technology-
 Enhanced Learning (TEL)
•   Exhibit all aspects of a design study, except that, in
    seeking explanatory and design theories, reliance
    on narrative methods is supplemented with
    invariant measurement of the growth or change
    constructs spanning the domain.
•   The measurement instruments evolve over the
    cycles of design; they implement, evaluate,
    redesign, and come to embody an increasingly
    adequate descriptive theory of the processes
    operative in the domain.
•   In addition, the technological devices designed to
    introduce and control the treatment effects are
    forthrightly described using the emerging layers
    and languages of technology in that domain.

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Design based research

  • 1. J. Bourdeau, R. Rosenberg, M. Maina, I. Savard LICEF Research Center Tele-University, Montreal June 6th, 2008
  • 2. 1- Qu’est-ce que DBR? 2- Historique 3- Un tour guidé de DBR 4-Trois types, trois projets Conclusion Invitation
  • 3. DBR aims at developing empirically grounded theories through combined study of both the process of learning and the means that support that process. (diSessa, Cobb, 2004). 3 caractéristiques principales: 1) Le but est double: comprendre les phénomènes étudiés, et ajuster le design (interventionniste) 2) Le protocole et le design peuvent être modifiés en cours d’expérimentation (souple) 3) Un protocole DBR peut réunir des méthodes et techniques quantitatives et qualitatives (ouvert)
  • 4. Conducting research in authentic, natural educational contexts, rather than laboratories. (O’Donnell, 2004, A Commentary on Design Research.” Educational Psychologist, v39 n4 p255-260.) The desire for research to have a practical impact, by having clear relevance for the improvement of education- (utility). (Bell, 2004). “On the Theoretical Breadth of Design-Based Research in Education.” Educational Psychologist, v39 n4 p243-253. An insistence on theory-guided educational intervention: ‘interventions embody specific theoretical claims about teaching and learning’ (The DBR Collective, 2003). A pluralist approach with respect to theories, research designs, methods, and procedures - includes mixed methods-hybrid where qualitative and quantitative techniques are used in combination (Bell, 2004) The use of an iterative design and evaluation cycle: interventions are adjusted as the research proceeds ( Dede, 2004. “If Design-Based Research is the Answer, What is the Question? Journal of the Learning Sciences, v13 n1 p105-114. A focus on how the intervention worked. (DBR collective, 6)
  • 5. DBR est une méthodologie systématique et flexible dans le but d’améliorer la pratique éducative par des analyses itératives, du design, du développement et de l’implantation dans un contexte réel pour établir des principes et des propositions théoriques (Wang and Hannafin, 2005,p. 6)
  • 6. Ann Brown, 1992, Design Experiments Alan Collins, 1992, A Design Science of Education AERA 1998, presentation: Using Science and Design Experiments to Understand Innovative Uses of Technology in Classrooms DBR Collective, 2001 Educational Researcher Special Issue 2003 ◦ DBR Collective’s Manifesto: Design-Based Research: An Emerging Paradigm for Educational Inquiry Collins & al: Design Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues DiSessa’s video presentation at Kal’s VDS on DBR, 2006 Tom Reeves’ Tutorial ED-MEDIA 2007
  • 7. DBR et le design: Explore, Explain, Design (Gibbons & Bunderson ) et Designerly ways of knowing (Cross) Marcelo DBR et la théorie, Rivki DBR et les méthod(es)ologies: Jacqueline DBR: les cycles/étapes, et l’alignement, Isabelle
  • 8. Gibbons, A. & Bunderson C. (2005). Explore, explain, design. In K. Kempf-Leonard (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Social Measurement (927-938). New York: Elsevier Cross, N. ◦ (2001). Designerly Ways of Knowing: Design Discipline versus Design Science, Design Issues 17(3), 49-55 ◦ (2006). Designerly ways of knowing. In Designerly ways of knowing (pp. 1-13). London: Springer (first published in 1982, Design Studies 3(4), 221-227
  • 9. Gibbons & Bunderson "Design" is a term that describes intentional structuring of artifacts and intervention plans to bring about predictable outcomes. Design is both 1) a subject of research and 2) a method of research and knowledge production.
  • 10. Gibbons & Bunderson Knowledge-producing processes natural history science design technology Type of natural phenomena are seek to discover and seek to learn principles knowledge questions observed, described, describe for connecting human producing they measured, and authoritatively the intentions with the form studies and address collected to amass a single best coherent and function of human experiments into (1) body of facts and description of the made artifacts the act of designing, identify patterns and nature of the attempts to discover (2) the design trends underlying efficient structuring processes and Questions seek the operations that lead principles and processes generative principles growth of collections to observed that will produce a for design, and (3) based on the patterns phenomena variety of solutions to a study of the and trends in order to problem, from which the structural properties support or question most suitable may be of designed things. new models and selected on the basis of hypotheses problem-specific criteria type of Exploratory Explanatory Normative (MM) Normative (MM) knowledge they produce
  • 11. Gibbons & Bunderson concept designates three synergistically related knowledge- producing enterprises. knowledge-producing enterprises are necessary conditions for each other, each producing results that become mutually and self-inputting, providing a continuous stream of research questions in all three areas. enterprises are discriminated on the basis of the kinds of questions they address and the types of knowledge they produce, but not definitively on the research techniques employed.
  • 12. Gibbons & Bunderson Seek two kinds of theoretical knowledge ◦ a descriptive explanation of the processes operative in a domain (e.g. in education: descriptive progression of learning or growth) , and ◦ technological or design knowledge about how to create and implement the tools-both measurement instruments and the treatment control technologies. Are attempts to discover ◦ new artifact- and intervention-related principles ◦ or to improve the effectiveness of existing artifacts or intervention plans. Take place in live settings, and are iterative, cyclical applications of a process of principled design, implementation, evaluation, and redesign. Often aid in exploring a domain and possible treatments, and thus may be largely qualitative producing narrative accounts of intense, iterative, often ideographic observations over each cycle.
  • 13. Nigel Cross phenomenon of study appropriate methods values sciences the natural world controlled experiment, objectivity, rationality, classification, analysis neutrality, and a concern for ‘truth’ humanities human experience analogy, metaphor, subjectivity, imagination, evaluation commitment, and a concern for ‘justice’ design the artificial world modeling, pattern- practicality, ingenuity, formation, synthesis empathy, and a concern for 'appropriateness' Technology involves a synthesis of knowledge and skills from both the sciences and the humanities, in the pursuit of practical tasks; it is not simply 'applied science', but 'the application of scientific and other organised knowledge to practical tasks ... ' (Cross, et al., 1981).
  • 14. Nigel Cross Problem Ill-defined, ill-structured, or 'wicked' (Rittel and Webber, 1973). Not problems for which all the necessary information is, or ever can be, available to the problem-solver. Not susceptible to exhaustive analysis, and there can never be a guarantee that 'correct' solutions can be found for them. Solution A solution-focused strategy is clearly preferable to a problem- focused one: it will always be possible to go on analyzing 'the problem', but the designer's task is to produce 'the solution'. It is only in terms of a conjectured solution that the problem can be contained within manageable bounds (Hillier and Leaman; 1974): ◦ What designers tend to do, therefore, is to seek, or impose a 'primary generator' (Darke, 1979) which both defines the limits of the problem and suggests the nature of its possible solution.
  • 15. Nigel Cross The scientific method is a pattern of problem-solving behaviour employed in finding out the nature of what exists, whereas the design method is a pattern of behaviour employed in inventing things of value which do not yet exist. Science is analytic; design is constructive. (Gregory, 1966) The natural sciences are concerned with how things are ... Design, on the other hand, is concerned with how things ought to be. (Simon, 1969) To base design theory on inappropriate paradigms of logic and science is to make a bad mistake. Logic has interests in abstract forms. Science investigates extant forms. Design initiates novel forms. (March, 1976)
  • 16. Nigel Cross Donald Schön challenged the positivist doctrine underlying much of the “design science” movement, and offered instead a constructivist paradigm. He criticized Simon’s view of a “science of design” for being based on approaches to solving well-formed problems, whereas professional practice throughout design and technology and elsewhere has to face and deal with “messy, problematic situations.” Schön proposed, instead, to search for “an epistemology of practice implicit in the artistic, intuitive processes which some practitioners do bring to situations of uncertainty, instability, uniqueness, and value conflict,” and which he characterized as “reflective practice.”
  • 17. Nigel Cross Despite the positivist, technical-rationality basis of The Sciences of the Artificial, Simon did propose that “the science of design” could form a fundamental, common ground of intellectual endeavor and communication across the arts, sciences, and technology. Design as a discipline, therefore, can mean design studied on its own terms, and within its own rigorous culture. It can mean a science of design based on the reflective practice of design: design as a discipline, but not design as a science. This discipline seeks to develop domain-independent approaches to theory and research in design.
  • 18. Theory building is a must! (diSessa, Cobb, 2004) ◦ We must develop theoretical constructs that empower us to see order, pattern, and regularity in the complex settings in which we conduct DE. Theory building is integral to the work of advancing knowledge building within a domain (Palincsar, 2005) DBR is an important methodology for understanding how, when, and why educational innovations work in practice DBR is a lens or set of analytical techniques that balances the positivist and interpretivist paradigms and attempts to bridge theory and practice in education DBR is a blend of empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments DBR methods aim to uncover the relationships between educational theory, designed artifact, and practice (Brown 1992; Collins, 1992; DBR Collective) The primary aim of DBR is to develop DOMAIN-SPECIFIC THEORIES in order to understand the learning process (Mor, 2006)
  • 19. What is theory? ◦ A set of related propositions that attempts to explain, and sometimes predict a set of events (Hoover 1992, p. 66 In Richey, 1997) ◦ Explanations of phenomena or events that help us understand and deal with the world (Seels, 1997) Role of theory ◦ Providing patterns for the interpretation of data ◦ Linking one study with another ◦ Supplying frameworks ◦ Allowing us to interpret the larger meaning of findings (Hoover 1992 In Seels 1997) Criteria (Richey, 1997) - accuracy - validity - utility
  • 20. Theories have always displayed a principal part of the power and elegance of science. They embody generalization, bringing order to a vast array of seemingly disparate phenomena that come to be seen as special cases of some theory. They enable us to discriminate between relations that are necessary and those that are contingent. They delineate classes of phenomena that are worthy of inquiry and specify how to look and what to see in order to understand them. “Teaching us how to see”—is particularly evident in the type of theory in DBR
  • 21. Formal systems of laws and propositions (built around suggested relationships among variables) Narrative explanations and predictions Models (verbal, visual or mathematical) Set of laws Form of an organization and summary of existing knowledge Form of hypothesis Describe and often predict events
  • 22. Domain theories- describe learning situations involving students, teachers, learning environments and their interactions. Design framework- is a “design solution” that provides a set of “design guidelines for a particular class of design challenge” Design methodologies- are prescriptive in nature, serving as guidelines for how to implement a set of designs, what kind of expertise is required and who should provide the expertise. As a result of the iterative design process, researchers also continuously refine design interventions to make them more applicable to practice
  • 23. Domain theories Design framework Design methodologies (RR, 2008 ? ) (IS, 2008 ? ) (MM, 2008 ? ) Generalization of some Generalized design General design procedure. portion of a problem solution. Describe the Provides guidelines for the process rather than analysis. This theory characteristics that a the product. Describes: might be about learners design artifact must have a. A process for achieving a class of designs and how they learn, to achieve a particular set teachers how they teach, of goals in a context b. Forms of expertise requires learning environ. and how c. Roles to be played by the individuals they influence teaching representing those forms of expertise and learning Descriptive Prescriptive Prescriptive
  • 24. DBR: Méthodologie? ◦ Design-based research (DBR) is a research paradigm that intertwines research with practice and fits well with the purposes of education (Bell, 2004) DBR et autres méthodologies ◦ Development Research ◦ Design Experiment ◦ Design Research ◦ Formative Research Cycles et étapes
  • 25. DBR is: ◦ an emerging method (Kelly, 2004) ◦ a methodology (Wang, Hannafin, 2005) ◦ a framework (diSessa, 2007) Method- is a procedure, a process, a set of steps to follow. A way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps) Methodology- what, who,when a given activity should be preformed? It is a structure geared toward a goal. The way in which information is found or something is done. The methodology includes the methods, procedures, and techniques used to collect and analyze. Framework- model: a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process; "the computer program was based on a model of the circulatory and respiratory ... the underlying structure; "restoring the framework of the bombed building"; "it is part of the fabric of society" . A structure supporting or containing something
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. 1 2 3 4 Développer des Réfléchir à la Effectuer des théories, des solutions production de théories, Analyser des cycles itératifs sur la base des de principes de problèmes pratiques de tests et de principes de conception conception en collaboration raffinement existants et mettre en évidence entre praticiens des théories, et des solutions et chercheurs des solutions des innovations d’implémentation en pratique technologiques Raffinement de théories, de problèmes, de solutions et de principes de conception 5 (Adaptée de Reeves, 2006)
  • 29. Corroboration (Popper) Une proposition sfx = réfutable, n’est pas vérifiable par l’expérience, on ne peut pas affirmer qu’elle ne sera jamais réfutée… C’est vrai jusqu’à preuve du contraire! La théorie (étape 2 DBR) précède l’observation (étape 3 et 4 DBR). Une théorie (ou proposition théorique) est scientifique si elle se divise en deux sous-classes d'énoncés de base : 1) la classe des énoncés qui la contredisent, appelés falsifieurs potentiels (si ces énoncés sont vrais la théorie est fausse); 2) la classe des énoncés avec lesquels elle s'accorde (si ces énoncés sont vrais, ils la corroborent).
  • 30. « Methodological alignment » = s’assurer que les méthodes de recherche que nous utilisons testent bien ce que nous pensons qu’elles testent. La notion d’alignement est essentielle à notre compréhension de la validité de la recherche. La validité d’une recherche = notre interprétation des résultats corrobore la théorie et les hypothèses examinées: ◦ “2 autres types de validité en recherche dont nous devons nous soucier”: 1) La validité de traitement – les traitements que nous créons sont bien alignés avec les théories qu’ils représentent. 2) La validité systémique— l’ensemble de la recherche doit créer 1) un test juste pour les théories mais aussi 2) une façon de communiquer ces théories qui respecte les inférences utilisées pour les prouver. Pour atteindre une vraie validité systémique ◦ Nos recherches doivent informer nos théories, - Qui doivent informer la pratique
  • 31. La conception des théories, des solutions Dans le DBR, l’implication des mêmes acteurs dans: 1) la formulation de la théorie, 2) l’implémentation des interventions, et 3) la “mesure” des produits favorise un meilleur alignment méthodologique. DBR est, en fait, une tentative de combinaison du design intentionnel des l’exploration empirique de notre environnements d’apprentissage compréhension de ces environnements avec et de leur façon d’interagir avec les individus.
  • 32. DBR se base sur l’idée que l’universalité est rare dans les phénomènes étudiés en éducation. Et parce que la méthode entame les étapes expérimentales en examinant des contextes individuels, les chercheurs DB généralisent leurs constatations seulement provisoirement en en faisant une science locale
  • 33. Les chercheurs en DBR doivent documenter: ◦ leur perspective ou point de départ MAIS AUSSI ◦ toutes stratégies d’intervention pertinentes utilisées par les participants observés ET par le chercheur lui-même En documentant les pratiques de planification de l’apprentissage du point de vue de ceux qui ont pour but de favoriser l’apprentissage, nous allons peut- être établir le cadre d’une forme de recherche plus utilisable et plus valide
  • 34. “When one foregoes experimental controls, how can one generalize to other settings regardless of how rich are the local descriptions?” (Kelly, 2004, p.120). DBR’s goal is to design something that not only develops theory, but also is valuable to others. This criterion not only requires the deep understanding of one particular context, but DBR must also show relevance to other contexts. This type of generalization has been referred to as a petite generalization (Stake, 1995) A Humble Theory rather than Grand Theories grain size, different scales (diSessa):
  • 35. DBR: ◦ trying to understand the world by trying to change it ◦ creating and testing theories in complex situations ◦ building theoretical empirical propositions about learning with technology Une innovation? Prendre Design Science comme source d’inspiration au lieu de la sociologie ou la psychologie Reconnaissance : ◦ AERA, JLS (NSF?) ◦ ICLS2008? ….que dit le conférencier d’ouverture?
  • 36. From Design Experiments to Formative Interventions Human learning takes place in increasingly complex, continuously changing activity settings which makes traditional well controlled experiments difficult and render their ecological validity questionable. On the other hand, various modes of action research typically lack in methodological and theoretical rigor. Design experiments are an increasingly popular attempt to resolve this dilemma. However, I will show that the notion of design experiments reproduces crucial limitations of traditional research design and fails to address the foundational issue of agency of the research subjects
  • 37. Bibliographie ◦ Brown, A. , Design Experiments, Journal of the Learning Sciences(2), 141-178, 1992 ◦ Collins, A. (1992). Toward a Design Science of Education. In E. Scanlon and T. O'Shea. New Directions in Educational Technology ◦ DBR Collective, Educational Researcher, 2003 ◦ A.Collins; D.Joseph & K. Bielaczyc, Design Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues Journal of the Learning Sciences (13, 1) 15-42, 2004 ◦ Gibbons ◦ Ross, S. et al, Research Designs, in Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology ◦ Van den Akker, J., Gravemeijer,K., McKenney, S. & Nieveen, N., Educational Design Research. http://www.lrc.ctu.edu.vn/VietnamCourse/VietnamCourse/EducationalDesignResearch.pdf ◦ Anthony Cocciolo’s Lit. Review: http://anthony.thinkingprojects.org/wp-content/dbr.doc ◦ Terry Anderson’s biblio: http://cider.athabascau.ca/CIDERSIGs/DesignBasedSIG/dbrreferences ◦ Simon, H. The science of the artificial, (1969), MIT Press (Design Science) Webographie ◦ The DBR Collective, http://www.designbasedresearch.org/ ◦ A PEER Tutorial on DBR, Georgia U. PhD students: http://projects.coe.uga.edu/dbr/index.htm ◦ http://www.lkl.ac.uk/projects/designresearch/
  • 38. Séminaire le 18 juin Y. Mor, -Institute of Education, U. of London -Chercheur à London Knowledge Lab Article: Design Approaches in Technology- Enhanced Learning (TEL)
  • 39. Exhibit all aspects of a design study, except that, in seeking explanatory and design theories, reliance on narrative methods is supplemented with invariant measurement of the growth or change constructs spanning the domain. • The measurement instruments evolve over the cycles of design; they implement, evaluate, redesign, and come to embody an increasingly adequate descriptive theory of the processes operative in the domain. • In addition, the technological devices designed to introduce and control the treatment effects are forthrightly described using the emerging layers and languages of technology in that domain.