Architectural Professional Practice - Ethics

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Architectural Professional Practice - Ethics

  1. 1. ETHICS Regulating Professional Practice 1.41 PP.87 - 98
  2. 2. Professional are granted certain rights by society and, in turn, they are obligated to meet accepted standards of professional behavior. ETHICS
  3. 3. <ul><li>Ethics are integral to the practice of architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>The enlightenment philosopher Jean Rousseau talked about the concept of a Social Contract (1762) , by which people of different backgrounds and cultures could enter into an agreement that would limit some of their liberty, but in doing so would help to create a more solid foundation for civilization. </li></ul>ETHICS
  4. 4. Levels of regulating professional practice AT ROOT (as human being) Responsible behavior Personal values and standards AS CITIZENS Civil and criminal laws, regulations, and judicial rulings AS ARCHITECTS Choosing architecture as one's life work Registration laws and regulations FINALLY Code of ethics and professional conduct ETHICS
  5. 5. بعض المؤشرات على أخلاقيات المهنة من التراث الإسلامي <ul><li>أولاً : قوله تعالى في القرآن الكريم : </li></ul><ul><li>” وَيلٌ لِلمُطَفّفِين الذِينَ إِذا اكتَالوُا عَلى النَّاسِ يَستَوفُون وَ إِذَا كَالوهُم أَو وَزَنوُهُم يخُسِرُون ” . المطففين، آية 1. </li></ul><ul><li>” يَا أَيّهَا الذِينَ آمَنوا أَوفُوا بِالعُقُود ” المائدة، 1 . </li></ul><ul><li>ثانياً : قول الرسول  : </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; إن الله يحب إذا عمل أحدكم عملاً أن يتقنه &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; لا يؤمن أحدكم حتى يحب لأخيه ما يحب لنفسه &quot; </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ethics Quotes <ul><li>Albert Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>I consider ethics to be an exclusively human concern without any superhuman authority behind it. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ethics Quotes <ul><li>ARTHUR DOBRIN - A Humanist Code of Ethics: </li></ul><ul><li>Do no harm to the earth, she is your mother. </li></ul><ul><li>Being is more important than having. </li></ul><ul><li>Never promote yourself at another's expense. </li></ul><ul><li>Hold life sacred; treat it with reverence. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow each person the dignity of his or her labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready to receive your deepest dreams. </li></ul><ul><li>Always make restitutions to the ones you have harmed. </li></ul><ul><li>Never think less of yourself than you are. </li></ul><ul><li>Never think that you are more than another. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ethics Quotes <ul><li>&quot;Art, like morality, consists of drawing the line somewhere.&quot; — G.K. Chesterton, English essayist and poet (1874-1936) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;In law a man is guilty when he violates the rights of others. In ethics he is guilty if he only thinks of doing so.&quot; — Immanuel Kant, Prussian geographer and philosopher (1724-1804) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Without civic morality communities perish; without personal morality their survival has no value.” — Bertrand Russell, British mathematician and philosopher (1872-1970) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ethics is a code of values which guide our choices and actions and determine the purpose and course of our lives.”  — Ayn Rand, Russian-American novelist and philosopher (1905-1982) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Joining a professional society means subscribing to that society's ethical standards. PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
  10. 10. The code of ethics provides members with guidelines and rules for fulfilling their obligations to the public , clients and users of architecture, the profession , their professional colleagues , the building industry , and the base knowledge on which the practice of architecture rests. PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
  11. 11. The code is arranged in three tiers: 1. CANONS: Broad principles of conduct to the discipline, the public, the client, the profession, and professional colleagues. 2. ETHICAL STANDARDS: More specific goals toward which members should aspire in professional practice and conduct. 3. RULES OF CONDUCT: Implement the canons and the ethical standards. The canons and ethical standards are stated in aspirational terms; the rules are mandatory and describe the &quot;floor&quot; below which a member's actions may not fall. PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
  12. 13. Architect Obligations General Public Client Profession Colleagues
  13. 21. جمعية المهندسين الكويتية <ul><li>تمهيد </li></ul><ul><li>للمهنة الهندسية مكانة مرموقة في بناء المجتمع لذا فعلى المهندسين أعضاء المهنة مسئولية كبيرة في الحفاظ على كرامة مهنتهم بأدائهم أعمالهم بأمانة و شرف و على أعلى مستوى من الدقة و الحرفية . </li></ul><ul><li>إن عمل المهندس يمس حياة أفراد المجتمع في جوانب عديدة، لذلك يجب أن يكون أداء المهندس متوافقًا مع هذه المسئولية ومع ما يحفظ مصالح المجتمع وحماية أرواح الناس وصحتهم والحفاظ على البيئة ورفاهية المجتمع . </li></ul><ul><li>و هذا كله يستدعى وضع أخلاقيات يلتزم بها المهندس عند مزاولة المهنة و يسترشد بها عندما تجابهه قرارات صعبة ذات جوانب متعددة تتعارض فيها الآراء و قد تتعارض فيها المصالح و لذلك فإن جمعية المهندسين الكويتية تضع هذه القواعد لتكون أداة يقاس بها السلوك المهني للأعضاء و تكون مرجعًا في التحكيم المهنة . </li></ul>
  14. 22. مبادئ أساسية <ul><li>على المهندس أن يراقب الله و يراعي دائمًا مصلحة المجتمع في الحفاظ على السلامة العامة و صحة و رفاهية المواطنين ، و تقديم ذلك على أية مصلحة شخصية أو فئوية، و أن لا يكتم عن مرؤوسيه أو المجتمع أي معلومات تؤدي إلى الإضرار بالمصلحة العامة . </li></ul><ul><li>على المهندس أن يؤدي عمله في مجال تخصصه و خبرته وأن يقوم بذلك بدقة وأمانة . </li></ul><ul><li>على المهندس أن يتحرى الصدق و الأمانة المهنية المستندة على الأدلة العلمية في ما يقدمه من مشورة أو يطرحه من آراء سواءً على مستوى زملاء المهنة أو مستوى الشعب . </li></ul><ul><li>يجب على المهندس أن يتحرى مصلحة الجهة التي يعمل لصالحها أو الجهة المؤتمن على خدمتها ما لم يتعارض ذلك مع المصلحة العامة و أن يتجنب المواقف التي قد تؤدي إلى تعارض في المصالح بينه و بين الجهة التي يعمل لصالحها و بينه و بين متلقّي الخدمة، و في هذه الحالة يجب عليه الإفصاح عن طبيعة هذه المصالح المتعارضة . </li></ul>
  15. 23. مبادئ أساسية <ul><li>على المهندس أن يبني سجله المهني على ما قام به من مهام و ليس على أساس المنافسة غير الشريفة ، و أن يعامل زملاءه معاملةً مبنيةً على الاحترام و الثقة المتبادلين و أن يمتنع عن انتقاص جهود الآخرين أو الحط من شأنهم . </li></ul><ul><li>يجب على المهندس أن يسعى إلى تطوير معلوماته و مهاراته الهندسية و أن يتيح الفرصة للمهندسين الذين تحت إشرافه للتطوير المهني كذلك . </li></ul><ul><li>يجب على المهندس أن يلتزم بالأخلاقيات التي تشرف المهنة ، و أن يمتنع عن أي تصرف يسئ إليها كالادعاءات الكاذبة بكل صورها و قبول الرشوة بجميع أشكالها . </li></ul><ul><li>على المهندس تطبيق مبدأ المساواة في تعامله مع أفراد المجتمع و بدون تمييز . </li></ul>
  16. 24. ARCHITECT Honesty and Integrity provide a shield of protection to the public welfare and safety.
  17. 25. ETHICS Problems
  18. 26. ETHICS Problems
  19. 27. Problem: A Project Manager, is supervising construction of a medium-sized part assembly workshop. He submits a report to his boss indicating the cost breakdown of the foundation and framing work based on the soil analysis and loading specifications for the building. The total came to $25,000. His boss then told him to do whatever it takes to get that figure down to $20,000. ETHICS Examples (1)
  20. 28. He should: a. Adjust the analysis and specifications figures somewhat in order to cut costs. b. Redo the soil tests to try to get better figures. c. Notify the inspection authorities that his boss was trying to get him to behave dishonestly. d. Try to revise the framing design to minimize material costs while meeting the design specifications. e. Both (b) and (d) are appropriate. ETHICS Examples (1)
  21. 29. Solution: The correct answer is: e. Both (b) and (d) are appropriate. Answer (a) is obviously dishonest. Answer (c) would be correct if he was sure his boss intended that he behave dishonestly; this, however, is jumping to conclusions. Answer (b) is a good solution since soil testing is not an exact science and better results could be obtained. Answer (d) is also quite acceptable. Remember that you can rarely cut costs by looking at only one alternative; it often takes a combination of different revisions. So (e) is correct. ETHICS Examples (1)
  22. 30. By applying the codes of ethics, an architect earns the trust and respect of his clients and employer. ARCHITECT
  23. 31. ETHICS Problems
  24. 32. ETHICS Problems
  25. 33. Problem: A Project Manager, has a dilemma. His boss has insisted that the entire project be signed, sealed, and in his office by the end of the day. The final portion of the project has just been submitted by one of the engineers working on the project. He has not yet had time to review this part, but the engineer who did the work says there should be no problem with it. ETHICS Examples (3)
  26. 34. He should: a. Insist on reviewing it before submitting the project. b. Take his word on it and seal the whole project. c. Seal the project but later review the final part. d. Not sign the entire project, but allow someone else to do it for him so he can avoid responsibility for portions of the project he didn't review. ETHICS Examples (3)
  27. 35. Solution: The correct answer is: a. Insist on reviewing it before submitting the project. Answer (b) would be officially approving something the quality of which he was unsure. Answer (c) would be equally wrong despite good intentions. Answer (d) is simply forgery. (A) is correct. ETHICS Examples (3)
  28. 36. Honesty and good will among engineers provide the foundation for maintaining the reputation of their profession.
  29. 37. ETHICS Problems architect
  30. 38. Problem: A Bid Manager, is in charge of a closed bid in which several firms are involved. The last day of the bidding period arrives, and one firm has not yet submitted an entry. He calls the firm and asks if they are going to submit a bid, and they say they have been too busy to write a proposal but might be able to get one worked out by the next day. ETHICS Examples (2)
  31. 39. He should: a. Open the bids and reveal the lowest bid to encourage the firm to enter. b. Open the bids and quote a false low bid so they will enter, but he will not be giving away the contract. c. Tell them he can't do anything for them. d. Allow the firm to enter a late bid. ETHICS Examples (2)
  32. 40. Solution: The correct answer is: c. Tell them he can't do anything for them. Answer (a) would violate the ethical purpose of the closed bid. Answer (b) would be equally wrong. Answer (d) is unfair to the other firms who entered on time. (C) is correct. ETHICS Examples (2)
  33. 41. Problem: A owns an engineering firm. One of his competitors has released public statements criticizing the firm's work. The most ethical option for him is to: a. Criticize the competition to even the playing field. b. Publicize whatever he knows of their own professional deficiencies. c. Make a monetary offer for retraction of the statement. d. Release a statement offering factual rebuttal of the claims and denouncing the competitor's tactics. ETHICS Examples (4)
  34. 42. Solution: The correct answer is: d. Release a statement offering factual rebuttal of the claims and denouncing the competitor's tactics. Answer (a) would be just as bad as what was done to Jim. Answer (b) would be equally wrong. Answer (c) constitutes bribery, and should be unnecessary if his firm is made up of competent engineers who do honest work. Answer (d) is correct. ETHICS Examples (4)
  35. 43. Problem: B is offered some additional gifts and services in exchange for using superior materials on a remodeling project. This was not detailed in the contract. She should: a. Take the offer and use the special materials. b. Reject the offer. c. Ask her boss which of the gifts to accept. d. Accept the gifts but use the materials specified in the contract in order to retain neutrality. ETHICS Examples (5)
  36. 44. Solution: The correct answer is: b. Reject the offer. Answer (a) would be cheating her firm and involves a conflict of interest. Answers (c) and (d) are equally unethical. She should stick to the contract. Answer (b) is correct. ETHICS Examples (5)
  37. 45. <ul><li>END </li></ul>

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