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Job analysis with competencies


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Competence, like truth, beauty, and contact lenses, is in the eye of the beholder.

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Job analysis with competencies

  1. 1. Job Analysis & Competency Modeling
  2. 2. Job Analysis • Why analyze jobs? • What is a job? • Job analysis • The end result: the job description Page 2
  3. 3. Why Analyze Jobs? Page 3 EEO Pay Performance Management Staffing Training PlanningJob Analysis
  4. 4. What is Job Analysis? • “The systematic process of collecting relevant, work-related information related to the nature of a specific job” • Job analysis includes information about: – Tasks – Job skills or KSAOs – Physical setting and job demands – Performance behaviors Page 4
  5. 5. Job Analysis: Purpose • Describe the job as it is – Focus on “standard” or “adequate” level of job performance • Designed to support HR functions • Level of analysis – Focus is on describing each job, one by one – Some aggregation to job families, but not necessary • Type of information gathered – Can range from very general to very specific – Normally quite specific Page 5
  6. 6. Job Analysis: Procedures • Information gathered – Job tasks – Job skills (KSAO’s) – Performance behaviors (possibly) • How gathered (by HR staff or operating managers) – Observation – Interview – Questionnaire – Other documentation (industry materials, procedure manuals, etc.) – O*Net Page 6
  7. 7. Sample Job Tasks • Provides information to patient or patient family members regarding diagnostic or care procedures or surgery. • Maintains and repairs warehouse equipment, such as forklifts and pallet jacks. • Determines caller needs and refers call to the appropriate department. • Makes work assignments to employees and follows up to ensure work is completed on a timely basis. Page 7
  8. 8. KSAOs Knowledge: “An organized body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature, which, if applied, makes job performance possible.” Knowledge of rules of spelling, grammar and punctuation as might be acquired through graduation from high school. Skills: “The proficient manual, verbal, or mental manipulation of people, ideas, or things” Skill in operating computer peripherals such as printers. Abilities: “The present power to perform a job function, to carry through with the activity while applying or using the associated knowledge” Ability to lift and move patients up to 250 pounds. Other: Physical abilities, traits, miscellaneous requirements. Color vision; possession of a valid driver’s license Page 8
  9. 9. What is a Job? • Position – The collection of duties and responsibilities held by a single incumbent • Job – A group of positions with generally similar duties and responsibilities • Job families – Aggregations or groups of similar jobs or occupations Page 9
  10. 10. Job Families: Example Secretarial and Reception Teller Susan Smith Purchasing Determine total amount of monthly insurance premiums Verify and pay invoices from temporary agencies Calculate employee wages from timecards Ann Green Human Resources Ed Jones Maintenance Bookkeeper Budget Clerk Accounting and Bookkeeping Shipping and Warehouse Clerical Jobs Page 10
  11. 11. Job Analysis: End Results • Narrative job descriptions – Typically filed away and referred to only as needed – Rarely updated or revised • Statistical display (less frequently) Page 11
  12. 12. Writing Job Descriptions • Organizational information • Job summary • Job tasks • Required KSAOs or minimum qualifications Page 12
  13. 13. Organizational Information • Identifying information useful for the organization: – Position and / or job title – Job family – Job code, salary grade – Supervisor’s title – Unit, department, location – Date of description, approval • Other information for HR purposes: – Interpersonal demands – Supervision given /received – Scope of responsibilities – Physical demands Page 13
  14. 14. Job Summary • A brief statement giving the purpose of the job and its major responsibilities. It should be, at most, one to two sentences long, but should include enough information to distinguish this job from other jobs. The job summary should tell the reader the job's purpose; that is, why the job exists. Page 14 The RN is responsible for providing nursing care to patients admitted to the unit, utilizing the nursing processes of assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation, in accordance with professional standards and hospital standards of patient care.
  15. 15. Job Tasks • A terse, direct style, using the present tense, should be used. • The statement should start with an action verb which describes an action required of the individual. • Task statements normally should not include multiple action verbs unless the several actions are invariably performed together. • Each item should refer to a "whole" task which "makes sense.” • Statement terminology and vocabulary should be at the level of the intended users. Page 15
  16. 16. Looking at Task Statements • To clarify and evaluate task statements you should ask: – Who is doing this action? – What is the action? – Who or what is the object of the action? – Why is it being done? – How is the action done? Page 16 What is the action? What is the object? Why is it being done? How is the action done? Sorts correspondence, forms, and reports to facilitate filing them alphabetically.
  17. 17. Moving From Tasks to Job Skills • What is the difference between a good and a poor employee? • Why can some employees perform the task better than others? • Think of examples of good and poor performance; what made the difference? • What does a person need to know to perform the task? • If you were to hire an employee to perform the task, what would you look for? Page 17
  18. 18. Fall 2008 Management 412 | Job Analysis Page 18
  19. 19. Writing Job Skill Statements • Avoid simply restating the task statement • Each statement must describe a separate skill • When describing the degree of possession needed, be specific • Avoid trait references • Skills must be measurable • Balance specificity and generality • Avoid trivial skills • Include the source of the skill when possible Page 19
  20. 20. Job Skills vs. Minimum Qualifications • Job skills – All KSAOs needed to perform job – Some knowledge or skill may be acquired after incumbent begins job • Minimum qualifications (MQs) – Only those KSAOs necessary to begin the job – Typically part of selection specifications Page 20
  21. 21. Competency Modeling • What is “competency modeling”? • Why does it matter? • Competency modeling vs. traditional job analysis • Examples Page 21
  22. 22. Competency Modeling • Development of sets or groups of competencies • Applied to all HRM activities • In order to increase organizational effectiveness Page 22
  23. 23. Competencies Resourcing  Recruitment Through Competency based Interviewing  Internal Transfers based on competency assessment Career Management Managerial /Technical Ladder Horizontal Movements to manage career aspirations Performance Management System  Role/Band based Technical & Behavioral Competency  Assessment/Development Centre People Movement  Promotions and transitions Across Band & Grade  Onsite-Offshore Rotation Learning & Development Competency based training Business aligned leadership development Compensation and Benefits  Competency based pay Reward for cross skilling/enhancement Competency Based Management System
  24. 24. Roots and Origins • Traditional job analysis – Viewed by most as an unwanted stepchild – Typically “owned” by HR – Necessary for HR activities, but no linkage to overall organizational effectiveness • Competency modeling – Idea of “core competencies” – More pressure on organizations to develop HR tools to increase effectiveness – Linkage between people and performance Page 24
  25. 25. Competency Models: Purpose • Collect information on knowledge, skills, and personal characteristics associated with high levels of performance • Use information to support management of people (not just traditional HR functions) Page 25
  26. 26. Defining Competencies • “A knowledge, skill, ability, or characteristic associated with high performance on a job” (Mirabile, 1997) • “A cluster of related knowledge, attitudes and skills that affect a major part of one’s job” (Parry, 1998) • “A description of measurable work habits and personal skills used to achieve a work objective” (Green, 1999) • “Measurable, occupationally relevant, and behaviorally based characteristics or capabilities of people” (Schippmann, 1999) Page 26
  27. 27. Ice-berg Model
  28. 28. Behaviors: 3M Example Competency: Global Perspective. • Respects, values, and leverages other customs, cultures and values. Uses a global management team to better understand and grow the total business; bale to leverage the benefits from working in multicultural environments. • Optimizes and integrates resources on a global basis, including manufacturing, research, and business across countries, and functions to increase 3M’s growth and profitability. • Satisfies global customers and markets from anywhere in the world. • Actively stays current on world economies, trade issues, international market trends and opportunities. Page 28
  29. 29. Competency Models: General Approach • Research based – Based on what is actually done now – Closest to traditional job analysis • Strategy based – Where are we going and how do we get there? – Linked to business strategy • Values based – Based on intangibles – Danger of falling into vague traits and styles Page 29
  30. 30. Competency Models: Procedures • Often begin with a pre-packaged or off-the- shelf package • In some cases, it stops there…… • Better to begin with existing knowledge, then involve broad range of organization members in tailoring to the organization Page 30
  31. 31. Competency Models: End Results • Types of competencies – “Can-do” (time management) – “Will-do” (learning to say “No”) • Information for: – Selection – Employee development (individual and bench- strength) – Performance management Page 31
  32. 32. Page 32
  33. 33. Good Competency Models…. • Are used • Rooted in company mission and values (but are still measurable) • Linked to core competencies • Use language and terms understood throughout the organization • Generalizable across occupational groups, yet specific enough to satisfy legal requirements Page 33
  34. 34. Examples Page 34 3M Inspiring Others Positively affects the behavior of others, motivating them to achieve personal satisfaction and high performance through a sense of purpose and spirit of cooperation. Leads by example AT & T Adaptability Keeps current in areas important to the business; is open to and invites ideas, new information, and diverse perspectives FedEx Interaction Able to communicate with customers in a timely and helpful manner; give priority to the customers needs over all other aspects of work; thanks customer for the opportunity to serve
  35. 35. Dave Ulrich Based on 10,000 individuals in 91 firms- HR Specific- used by GE Examples • Knowledge of Business • Delivery of HR Practices • Management of Change • Management of Culture • Personal Credibility
  36. 36. Linkage to Organization Strategy and Core Competencies Page 36 Competencies (Required) Work Activities Work Context Organizational Vision Competitive Strategy (Core Competencies) Strategic Business Initiatives Source: Schippmann, 1999
  37. 37. The Future…. • Metacompetencies (Briscoe & Hall, 1999) – The competencies that allow a person to learn and acquire more competencies – “Adaptability,“ or the ability to learn and change – “Self-Awareness”, or willingness to internalize and use learning • Increased methodological rigor and detail – For example, competencies by business unit • Expert systems • Nowhere…. Page 37
  38. 38. Learning and sharing for Better Indonesia ! Page 38