competency is described as "a cluster of
knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, and attitudes related to
job success and failure " (Byham & Moyer, 2000;
Cooper, 2000; Green, 1999; Lucia & Lepsinger, 1999;
Parry, 1996 ).
This new behavioral approach creates what "good" competencies
might look like. Characteristics of a set of useful competency
1) Exhibiting job-relatedness,
2) Observable and measurable against well-accepted job
standards or criteria,
3) Being improved via training and development, and
4) Providing insights on determining how capable or fitness a
person is to a job and an organization.
Impact Of Three-level Competencies On
structure & culture
STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING COMPETENCY MODELS
In an organization with many different jobs there are two
approaches for building competency models – Universal and
Multiple model approach.
• Universal approach -This is a one size fits all approach. It
involves creating a single model with one set of competencies
applicable to all jobs. These are less related to specific job or
function and more related to values and skills.
• Multiple approach -This method creates multiple models
depending on jobs and levels. This method is used when all the
jobs do not have anything in common.
Recent Trends in Competency Modeling
1.Automation of competency modeling- In an effort to streamline and
make the process of competency modeling /job-analysis more
efficient, Mason and Lin (2008) advocate the use of online data
warehouses of competency models, web-based focus groups, and the
use of online surveys to gather data from subject matter experts
(SMEs) and incumbents.
2.Strategic job analysis - Attempting to identify the relevant
tasks, behaviors, and KSAOs for a job as they are predicted to be in
the future (Schneider & Konz, 1989).
• This approach represents a change from descriptive job analysis
(with a focus on describing the job as it currently exists) to
predictive job analysis (which focuses on how the job is expected to
be in the future).
• The need for strategic job analysis is becoming more apparent
because of the dynamic nature of modern-day organizations.
3.Personality-oriented job analysis- The use of personality
as a predictor in selection is becoming more and more
common in today‘s organizations.
• Countless meta-analyses have demonstrated that a
number of broad personality traits are associated with
high performance on the job.
4.Cognitive task analysis - The identification and analysis of
cognitive processes that underlie task performance, has
been offered as a supplement to traditional task analysis.
• With the advent of the Internet and the great increase in
technology across the workplace, today‘s jobs contain
more cognitive complexity than ever before.
Potential Uses Of The Model
The model can be used for multiple reasons.
1.Competency modeling is an important innovation in that it is a
way to get organizations to pay attention to job-related
information and employee skills in the management of
2.They are often intended to distinguish top performers from
average performers (e.g., Parry, 1996; Olesen, White, &
Lemmer, 2007). They focus less on and may even omit
descriptors of tasks or KSAOs that do not help understand
employee performance (but cf., Lievens, Sanchez, & De Corte,
3.They often include descriptions of how the competencies
change or progress with employee level (e.g., Martone, 2003;
Rodriguez et al.,2002).
4.The KSAOs are usually linked to the business objectives and
strategies (e.g., Green, 1999; Martone, 2003; Rodriguez et
5. They are developed top down rather than bottom up like job
6.Competency models may consider future job requirements
either directly or indirectly (e.g., Parry, 1996; Rodriguez et
al., 2002; Schippmann et al., 2000). They do not document the
status quo but attempt to look into the future.
7.Competency models are usually presented in a manner that
facilitates ease of use. Designing for ease of use often includes
the utilization of organization-specific language.
Building Competency models –Spencer’s classic
competency study design
Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis
Inventory - Close-Ended (MOSAIC)
United States, Office Of Personnel Management ,OPM has been
conducting Government wide occupational studies using its
Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis Inventory Close-Ended (MOSAIC) methodology for more than two
MOSAIC, a multipurpose, survey-based occupational analysis
approach, is used to collect information from incumbents and
supervisors on many occupations for a wide range of human
resource management functions
Identified the 885 competencies employees need to perform
successfully in nearly 200 Federal occupations, as well as for
These competencies provide users with a basis for building
integrated human resource management systems that use a
common set of competencies to structure job
management, training, and career development so that
employees receive a consistent message about the factors on
which they are selected, trained, and evaluated.
Developing Competency Model
Competency modeling is a process of determining what
competencies are necessary for successfully performing a job
or a role.
The competency models are normally linked to organization‘s
strategic purposes for achieving results. Valid competency
models help to strengthen HR systems, improve overall
performance, and increase business impacts over time (Cook
& Bemthal, 1996; Parry, 1996, 1998)
A variety of a profile and its applications varies according to a
diversity of business results, target groups, job/ roles, and
A Conceptual Cascade For Developing Competency
Comparing Approaches to Developing Competency Models
Categories of Competency
Core Competency Model
Advantages & Disadvantages
-closely aligned to vision, values, and
-applies to all levels/ jobs
-provides broad, quick, and
-helps to catalyze changes
-can be used with many groups
-modest cost but long last impacts
-not specific to particular job
-more difficult to implement
-best for homogeneous work
-built around key business areas
-applies to all employees in target
-applies to specific roles in
- identifies both core and specific
-provides a common set of generic
- can be used with several jobs for a
- applied to a wide range of
-focused and specific efforts
-considers on technical aspects
-often used for a single job or
-unifying, useful in a team-based
-narrow if applied to a single job
less cost effective if outdated
- time consuming
-getting popular but most difficult
to implement and explain
-needs close management supports
and HR champions
-a quick, low-cost approach
-customized for individual jobs
HR Professional Framework
The HR Professional Framework will help to identify the
person in relation to the roles.
The purpose of the framework is to help think about the
direction you would like to take as you pursue a career within
the HR profession.
It can be a useful reference in building the Individual
Development Plan (IDP) with the manager, coach or mentor.
The HRM Competency Model features 24 general
competencies, categorized into three HR Professional Roles,
plus the Leader Role.
I-Core Competency Model:
PLANNING & USE OF RESOURCES
& MANAGING CHANGE
• SELF MANAGEMENT
• TEAM AND PARTNERSHIP WORKING
II-Functional Competency Model
Roles of the HR
1. Technical Specialist
3. Strategic Partner
The seven critical general competencies in the ADVISOR
• Creative Thinking
• Client Engagement / Change Management
• Decision Making
• Project Management
III-Job/Role Competency Model
SPECIFIC ROLES OF ADVISOR:
• Advisor Apprentice
• Advisor Practitioner
• Advisor Expert
• Has a moderate level of strategic ability and only a limited
familiarity with technical HR operations.
• Is likely in the beginning stages of a career as an HR leader.
• The Advisor Apprentice's skills would be enhanced through
partnering with and learning from experts in both technical and
strategic HR operations.
• Has a moderate level of both strategic and technical HR
• The Advisor Practitioner would serve as an effective
advisor for experienced HR leaders.
• Has a high level of technical ability and a moderate
familiarity with strategic HR operations.
• Serves as an excellent advisor to experienced and
novice HR leaders.
• With a little more strategic training, the Advisory
Expert can likely be an effective HR leader.
Methodologies used to design the models involve
1) Analyzing target job or position under changing business
2) Identifying effective and ineffective behaviors from
below, average, and "star" performers,
3) Collecting data by using balanced approaches,
4) Analyzing the data and formulating an interim competency
5) Validating the appropriateness of the model.
Validating the Competency Models
Organizations should validate the models to avoid risks of
having irrelevant and outdated profile which may lead to legal
implications. The Validation is a long-term process to realize
the actual effectiveness.
Statistical -systematically examine content representativeness
of the interim model.
Criterion validation- focuses on correlation indices between a
given competency and measures of individual performance.
In addition, output benefits such as profits, productivity, and
client satisfaction are tracked.
In fact, using balanced validation approaches enhance the
credibility and the validity of the models in practice.
Benefits of Valid competency models
They provide directional guidance in behavioral terms what
people at every level need to do in delivering results.
When properly defined, their measurability helps to differentiate
effective performance from those average and substandard. The
assessment information can also be used to benchmark
management effectiveness between organizations.
Competencies regarded as critical to business survival and
success can be learned and improved.
Good competency models provide comprehensive integration into
many human resource practices.
Competency-based Management (CBM)
CBM can be regarded as an approach to managing employee
performance based on both the "what" is achieved and the
"how" results are derived.
The presence of organizational culture that fosters change,
excellence innovation, participative decision-making, and
continuous learning will greatly enable the application of
CBM to success.
Role of Competency Modeling
Job analysis &
Serve as requirements and justifications to appointments
Be a tool for assessment with indicators and proficiency level.
Address rising marketable skills in demands or in shortage.
10. Career, Succession,
Shift the unit of analysis from a job and associated tasks to a person
and what he/she is capable of.
Serve as a means to determine appropriate assessment tools after
identifying that competencies are job-related.
Used as qualifications to determine order/reasons to be laid off.
Used to identify training needs, self-development, evaluating.
Establish 360-degree feedback system & performance standard.
Least often used, reward performance/skill-based pay for team.
Support for career mobility and individual development plan.
Byham &Moyer, 2000; Dubois,1998; Lucia & Lepsinger,l999; Zwell, 2000
It is realized that there is no right answer to competency
issues. What is important for organizations is adopting
definitions, models, and approaches that make sense, meet
their needs, and used them consistently.