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RM-1 (1).pptx

  1. 1. Raheel Baig Research Methodology Introduction
  2. 2. WHY RESEARCH METHODS? • Teaches you the skills and practices of research • Reading • Experimenting • Analysing • Writing • Presenting • Critical thinking! • Directly relevant to your thesis. • Likely to be relevant to your future activities (research or otherwise).
  3. 3. WHAT IS RESEARCH? • In general: • Some work of scientist in laboratory in the shape of experiments • Term "Research' • Re+ Search whereas Re = Again and Search = to find something • Therefore, • Research is simply the process of findings solutions to a problem after thorough study and analysis of the situational factors. Observations Phenomena Conclusions Data Collection Person
  4. 4. DEFINITIONS OF RESEARCH Research is a systematic and organized process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to answer the research questions or gain knowledge about a particular topic or phenomenon.
  5. 5. • Research can be conducted in a variety of fields, including science, medicine, social science, education, and business. The goal of research is to generate new knowledge, test hypotheses, and make informed decisions. Research can be conducted using various methods, such as experiments, surveys, interviews, and case studies.
  6. 6. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS The following characteristics may be gathered from the definitions of 'Research': • It gathers new knowledge or data from primary or first-hand sources • It places emphasis upon the discovery of general principles • It is an exact systematic and accurate investigation
  7. 7. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS • It uses certain valid data gathering devices • It is logical and objective • The researcher resists the temptation to seek only the data that support his hypotheses • The researcher eliminates personal feelings and preferences • It endeavors to organize data in quantitative terms • Research is patient and unhurried activity
  8. 8. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS • The researcher is willing to follow his procedures to the conclusions that may be unpopular and bring social disapproval • Research is carefully recorded and reported • Conclusions and generalizations are arrived at carefully and cautiously
  10. 10. APPLIED RESEARCH Applied research refers to find particular solution for existing problems. Applied research is used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to: • Improve agricultural crop production • Treat or cure a specific disease • Improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportation
  11. 11. BASIC RESEARCH Basic (aka fundamental or pure ) research is driven by a scientist’s curiosity or interest in a scientific question. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge, not to create or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result from basic research. For example: • How did the universe begin? • What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of? • How do slime molds reproduce? • What is the specific genetic code of the fruit fly?
  12. 12. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Correlational research refers to the systematic investigation or statistical study of relationships among two or more variables, without necessarily determining cause and effect. It Seeks to establish a relation/association/correlation between two or more variables that do not readily lend themselves to experimental manipulationFor example: • Experimental - group samples and make one group listen to music and then compare the bp levels • Survey - ask people how they feel ? How often they listen? And then compare
  13. 13. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Advantages: 1) Can collect much information from many subjects at one time. 2) Can study a wide range of variables and their interrelations. 3) Study variables that are not easily produced in the laboratory Disadvantages: 1) Correlation does not indicate causation( cause and effect). 2) Problems with self-report method
  14. 14. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Descriptive research refers to research that provides an accurate portrayal of characteristics of a particular individual, situation, or group. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research. These studies are a means of discovering new meaning, describing what exists, determining the frequency with which something occurs, and categorizing information. In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied, which has an impact of the lives of the people it deals with. For example: • finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus, more people will live a healthy life.
  15. 15. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Advantages • The people individual studied are unaware so they act naturally or as they usually do in everyday situation; • It is less expensive and time consuming than quantitative experiments; • Collects a large amount of notes for detailed studying; • As it is used to describe and not make any conclusions it is to start the research with it; Disadvantages • Descriptive research requires more skills. • Does not identify cause behind a phenomenon • Response rate is low in this research. • Results of this research can change over the period of time.
  16. 16. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Experimental research is an objective, systematic, controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena and examining probability and causality among selected variables. Advantages • Best establishes cause-and-effect relationships Disadvantages • Artificiality • Feasibility • Unethical
  17. 17. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH Exploratory research is a type of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. • The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation • Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to the population at large • Exploratory research can be quite informal, relying • on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies.Disadvantages
  18. 18. GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH Grounded theory research is a research approach designed to discover what problems exist in a given social environment and how the persons involved handle them; it involves formulation, testing, and reformulation of propositions until a theory is developed. Grounded theory is a research method that operates almost in a reverse fashion from traditional research and at first may appear to be in contradiction to the scientific method. Stages: • Codes-Identifying anchors that allow the key points of the data to be gathered • Concepts-Collections of codes of similar content that allows the data to be grouped • Categories-Broad groups of similar concepts that are used to generate a theory • Theory-A collection of explanations that explain the subject of the research (hypotheses)
  19. 19. HISTORICAL RESEARCH Historical research is research involving analysis of events that occurred in the remote or recent past Application: • Historical research can show patterns that occurred in the past and over time which can help us to see where we came from and what kinds of solutions we have used in the past. • Understanding this can add perspective on how we examine current events and educational practices,
  20. 20. HISTORICAL RESEARCH The steps involved in the conduct of historical research Here are the five steps: 1. Identification of the research topic and formulation of the research problem or question. 2. Data collection or literature review 3. Evaluation of materials 4. Data synthesis 5. Report preparation or preparation of the narrative exposition.
  21. 21. HISTORICAL RESEARCH Historical research gives a social scientist a better context for making realistic decisions. Strengths: • Provides a comprehensive picture of historical trends • Uses existing information • Provides evidence of ongoing trends and problemsData collection or literature review Limitations • Time-consuming • Resources may be hard to locate • Resources may be conflicting • May not identify cause of a problem • Information may be incomplete, obsolete, inconclusive, or inaccurate • Data restricted to what already exists
  22. 22. PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH Phenomenological research an inductive, descriptive research approach developed from phenomenological philosophy; its aim is to describe an experience as it is actually lived by the person • Phenomenology is concerned with the study of experience from the perspective of the individual, 'bracketing' taken-for- granted assumptions and usual ways of perceiving. • They are based in a paradigm of personal knowledge and subjectivity, and emphasis the importance of personal perspective and interpretation. • As such they are powerful for understanding subjective experience, gaining insights into people's motivations and actions, and cutting through the clutter of taken-for- granted assumptions and conventional wisdom.
  23. 23. Qualitative Research VS Quantitative Research • On a broader perspective, all researches can be classified into two groups:
  24. 24. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Qualitative research is research dealing with phenomena that are difficult or impossible to quantify mathematically, such as beliefs, meanings, attributes, and symbols • Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when.
  25. 25. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative research uses numerical data and statistical analysis to understand trends and relationships. It is a deductive approach to research, which means that researchers begin with a hypothesis and then collect data to test it. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena Quantitative research is generally made using scientific methods, which can include: • The generation of models, theories and hypotheses • The development of instruments and methods for measurement • Experimental control and manipulation of variables • Collection of empirical data • Modelling and analysis of data • Evaluation of results
  26. 26. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Advantages Quantative research generate reproduceable knowledge. • Quantitative research can be used to test hypotheses in experiments because of its ability to measure data using statistics. • Quantitative research use statistical analysis, which can provide a high level of precision and objectivity. • Disadvantages • The main disadvantage of quantitative research is the context of the study or experiment is ignored. • Quantitative research does not study things in a natural setting or discuss the meaning things have for different people. • A large sample of the population must be studied for more accurate results
  27. 27. Research Paper vs Thesis • A thesis or dissertation is a long academic paper that typically serves as the final project for a university degree • A research paper is a type of academic writing that involves research, source evaluation, critical thinking, organization, and composition.
  28. 28. Final Project Expanded essay on research findings Around 20,000 to 80,000 words. Proportional to study The central question that leads to the research. Central argument To obtain a degree or professional qualification or to showcase your knowledge in the concerned field of study. To prove credibility and contribute knowledge in the concerned field. Educational Committees or Professors Scientist or Researcher Written under supervision of the guide Not written under the supervision of the guide. Narrow Broad Not much used. Used for further studies. What is It? Length Contains Objective Audience Guide Description of Subject Matter Usage
  29. 29. Structure of Research Paper Research Paper always starts with the Title page that mentions the author’s name, topic, year published, and all other relevant data. • Abstract: It is the brief of the research paper. • Introduction: in this section, it is defined that what is the topic and why it was selected, its background etc. • Methods: in this section, the author describes the Method which is used in the research paper, either these are qualitative or quantitative. • Results: in this Section author describe the results and findings which are the outcome of the data analysis. • Discussion: after that, the Discussion is done on the basis of findings and results. • Conclusion: after the Discussion Conclusion chapter is added in the research paper • References: in this Chapter, all the resources which are used in the paper are used
  30. 30. Structure of Thesis The thesis starts with the Proposal that is submitted to the Tutor or the thesis instructor on the university. Once the proposal is approved then the below structure is used for the thesis writing. • Title Page: it contains the name of Student who has written that thesis along with the name of the instructor and date and other information related to the subject. • Abstract: It is the one page summary of the entire thesis which highlights the main points of the thesis. • Introduction: In this, the background study is defined and all the related terms are defined in this section • Literature review: In this section writer describes the previous studies which have been done on the similar topic or the similar relevant area. • Methodology: In this Chapter, the writer defines that which methods were used while working on a thesis. It also describes the research design, questionnaire etc.
  31. 31. Structure of Thesis • Results: Which data the writer collects in this section that data is analyzed and results are described, this section is the important part of the thesis. • Discussion: after the results, the discussion chapter is added this discusses all the terms, data analysis, its interpretation etc. • Conclusion: after completing all the above parts author concludes the results and this is the end of all chapters. • Recommendation: In this the Gaps and future suggestions are made. • References: References section contains the names of authors and article which were used while writing the thesis. • Bibliography: This section contains the links which may be used for the data collection, or also the research questionnaire form is attached in this section.
  32. 32. Review Paper • The main objective of writing a review paper is to evaluate the existing data or results, which can be done through analysis, modeling, classification, comparison, and summary. • Review papers can help to identify the research gaps, to explore potential areas in a particular field. • It helps to come out with new conclusions from already published works.
  33. 33. Systematic Procedure to Write a Review Paper The systematic procedural steps to write the best review paper as follows: 1. Topic selection Select a suitable area in your research field and formulate clear objectives Prepare the specific research hypotheses that are to be explored. 2. Research design Based on the objectives, develop a clear methodology to review a review paper 3. Data collection Thorough analysis and understanding of different published works help the author to identify suitable and relevant data/results which will be used to write the paper.
  34. 34. 4. Data Analysis Evaluate the collected data. The examination of treads, patterns, ideas, comparisons, and relationships among the study provides deeper knowledge on that area of research. 5. Report Interpretation of results is very important for a good review paper. The results can be presented in descriptive form, tables, and figures.Finally, the author is expected to present the limitations of the existing study with future perspectives.
  35. 35. Mendeley Mendeley is a reference manager and academic social network that can help you organize your research, collaborate with others online, and discover the latest research. Use Mendeley to: • Automatically generate bibliographies • Collaborate easily with other researchers online • Easily import papers from other research software • Find relevant papers based on what you’re reading • Access your papers from anywhere online
  36. 36. LaTeX • LaTeX is a document preparation system for high-quality typesetting. It is most often used for medium-to-large technical or scientific documents but it can be used for almost any form of publishing. • LaTeX is not a word processor! Instead, LaTeX encourages authors not to worry too much about the appearance of their documents but to concentrate on getting the right content
  37. 37. Uses/Features of LaTeX • Typesetting journal articles, technical reports, books, and slide presentations. • Control over large documents containing sectioning, cross-references, tables and figures. • Typesetting of complex mathematical formulas. • Advanced typesetting of mathematics with AMS-LaTeX. • Automatic generation of bibliographies and indexes. • Multi-lingual typesetting. • Inclusion of artwork, and process or spot colour. • Using PostScript or Metafont fonts.
  38. 38. Overleaf • Overleaf is a collaborative cloud-based LaTeX editor used for writing, editing and publishing scientific documents. • It partners with a wide range of scientific publishers to provide official journal LaTeX templates, and direct submission links. • It is created with the goal of making science and research faster, more open and accessible. • Overleaf brings the whole scientific documentation process into one place, from idea to writing to review to publication.
  39. 39. How to write a summary? • Summarizing, or writing a summary, means giving a concise overview of a text’s main points in your own words. A summary is always much shorter than the original text. • There are five key steps that can help you to write a summary: • Step 1: Read the text • Step 2: Break the text down into sections • Step 3: Identify the key points in each section • Step 4: Write the summary • Step 5: Check the summary against the article
  40. 40. Step 1: Read the text • You should read the article more than once to make sure you’ve thoroughly understood it. It’s often effective to read in three stages: • Scan the article quickly to get a sense of its topic and overall shape. • Read the article carefully, highlighting important points and taking notes as you read. • Skim the article again to confirm you’ve understood the key points
  41. 41. Step 2: Break the text down into sections For better understanding break it into smaller sections usually including an introduction, methods, results, and discussion. : Identify the key points in each section • In a scientific article, there are some easy questions you can ask to identify the key points in each part such as • What is the problem statement? • What research methods are used? • What are the findings?
  42. 42. Step 4 : Write the summary • Now that you know the key points that the article aims to communicate, you need to and write out your own understanding of the author’s key points. • To avoid plagiarism Do not copy and paste parts of the article, not even just a sentence or two. Step 5 : Check the summary against the article • Finally, read through the article once more to ensure that: • You’ve accurately represented the author’s work • You haven’t missed any essential information • The phrasing is not too similar to any sentences in the original.