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Descriptive research


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Descriptive research

  2. 2. <ul><li>Descriptive Research - Definition - Nature - Aim - Design - Kinds - Ethics - Importance - Advantages - Disadvantages - Samples</li></ul>Road Map of Discussion<br />
  3. 3. What is descriptive research?<br />is the most widely-used research design as indicated by the theses, dissertations and research reports of institutions. Its common means of obtaining information include the use of the questionnaire, personal interviews with the aid of study guide or interview schedule, and observation, either participatory or not.<br />
  4. 4. What is descriptive research?<br />includes studies that purport to present facts concerning the nature and status of anything. This means that descriptive research gives meaning to the quality and standing of facts that are going on. For instance, the information about a group of person, a number of objects, a set of conditions, a class of events, a system of thoughts or any other kind of phenomenon or experience which one may wish to study. <br />
  5. 5. What is descriptive research?<br />fact-finding with adequate interpretation. The descriptive method is something more and beyond just data-gathering; latter is not reflective thinking nor research. The true meaning of data collected should be reported from the point of view of the objectives and the basic assumption of the project under way. Facts obtained may be accurate expressions of central tendency, or deviation, or correlation; but the report is not research unless discussion of those data is not carried up to the level of adequate interpretation. Data must be subjected to the thinking process in terms of ordered reasoning.<br />
  6. 6. Nature of Descriptive Research<br />Descriptive research is designed for the investigator to gather information about present existing conditions. <br />Descriptive research involves collection of data in order to test the hypothesis or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study.<br />Descriptive study determines and reports the way things are. It has no control over what is, and it can only measure what already exist.<br />Descriptive research has been criticized for its inability to control variables, for being a post-hoc study and for more frequently yielding only descriptive rather than predictive, findings.<br />
  7. 7. Aim of Descriptive Research<br />The principal aims in employing descriptive research are to describe the nature of a situation as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the causes of particular phenomena. (Travers, 1978)<br />Descriptive Research seeks to tell “what exists” or “what is” about a certain educational phenomenon. Accurate observations and assessments arise from data that ascertain the nature and incidence of prevailing conditions, practices or description of object, process, and person who are all objects of the study. <br />
  8. 8. Aim of Descriptive Research<br />contribute in the formation of principles and generalization in behavioural sciences<br />contribute in the establishment of standard norms of conduct, behaviour, or performance.<br />reveal problems or abnormal conditions ;<br />make possible prediction of future on the basis of findings on prevailing conditions, corrections, and on the basis of reactions of people toward certain issues;<br />give better and deeper understanding of phenomenon on the basis of an in-depth study of the phenomenon. <br />provide basis for decision-making.<br />
  9. 9. Design of Descriptive Research<br />Descriptive research makes some type of comparison contrasts and correlation and sometimes, in carefully planned and orchestrated descriptive researches, cause-effect relationships may be established to some extent.<br />
  10. 10. Method<br />Six steps in conducting descriptive research<br />Identify problem<br />Review literature<br />Select participants and instruments<br />Collect valid and reliable data<br />Analyze data<br />Report conclusions<br />
  11. 11. Common Errors<br />Lack of participant response<br />Low response rates are common<br />Difficulties interpreting the findings without the data representing non-respondents’ views<br />Unclear/ambiguous items<br />Researcher needs to develop recording forms that collect the data objectively and reliably<br />Obj. 2.2 & 2.3<br />
  12. 12. Classifications of Descriptive Research<br /><ul><li>Classified by how data are collected
  13. 13. Self-report
  14. 14. Individuals respond to statements or questions about themselves
  15. 15. Observation
  16. 16. Data is collected by the researcher watching participants</li></ul>Obj. 3.1 & 3.2<br />
  17. 17. Types and Actual Studiesof Descriptive Research<br /><ul><li>Descriptive- Normative Survey- The term normative is sometimes used because surveys are frequently made to ascertain the normal or typical condition, or practice, or to compare local test result with a state or national norm.</li></li></ul><li>NORMATIVE SURVEY<br />Estrada, Felix and Cancio, Rosalina<br />“Standard Measurement of Filipino Infants During the First Year”, A Compilation (Summary and Review) of Studies on Normal Growth and Development of Filipino Children by Roberta N. Venades-Hernandez, M.D., M.P.H., Class 1960, Institute of Hygiene, University of the Philippines.<br />Purpose: <br /> To determine the average weight and length of infants at birth and each month thereafter up to one year.<br />Procedure:<br /> 4,482 apparently normal Filipino infants born in the free clinic of the University of Santo Tomas and enrolled in the Well Baby Clinic of the Department of Paediatrics, UST, were the subjects of this study.<br /> Most families included in the study were of the low income level. The babies were breast-fed, on self-demand schedule with intervals of three hours or shorter. They did not show any sign of over-feeding. Only height and weight measurements were obtained.<br />Findings:<br />The average measurements of the newborn were 6.4 lbs. and 19.13 inches.<br />Birth weight was approximately doubled between the third and fourth months of life, called the “stocking up process”.<br />It was shown that the initial growth spurt in the early months slowed down later to give an average weight of 19.8 lbs., which was slightly more than triple birth weight.<br />The length measurements were found to be comparable to the figures using the 10th or 25th percentile of the tables of the Harvard School of Public Health.<br />
  18. 18. Types and Actual Studiesof Descriptive Research<br /><ul><li>Descriptive- Educational-Survey Research Studies- this type of study looks into the teaching-learning process, the child-teacher, the learner and the environment, the attitudes, habits and other characteristics of the learner, the techniques and the methods, the building equipment and materials used. etc which all pertain to education. The goal is of this study is to have a total improvement of the educational system for the maximum development of the individual learner.</li></li></ul><li>EDUCATIONAL-SURVEY RESEARCH STUDIES<br />Solis, Miguela M.<br />“A Study of the Development of Art Expression of Young Children by Their Drawings,” Our Filipino, National Media Production Center, Manila.<br />Purpose: <br />To determine the major classifications of drawings made by children from one to eight years old; to determine the development of the art expressions of these children.<br />Procedure:<br /> The subjects of this study were 75 children from one to eight years old. Of these subjects, the one- and two-year-olds were not given any instructions.<br />The subjects were given two pieces of paper, one in the morning and other in the evening, on which to draw freely. The one- and two-year-old children were not given any instructions at all. The 150 drawings were classified and the logical development of the art expression from one age to another was determined.<br />Findings:<br />The drawings were classified into the ff categories: (a) scribbling, (b) scribbling mixed with recognizable forms, (c) unrelated Figures, (d) mixture of related and unrelated figures on the same sheet, € figures related into a logically organized whole, and isolated figures.<br />Scribbling was found to be most common among the drawings of the one-and two-year-old children.<br />While scribbling was dominant in the children’s drawings during the first years, it decreased rapidly after the fourth year and, as a rule, disappeared entirely, in the drawings of the children of school age.<br />From the age of five, the children gradually substituted unrelated the age I their drawings with scenes in which all elements formed a logical whole.<br /> <br />
  19. 19. Types and Actual Studiesof Descriptive Research<br /><ul><li>Descriptive- Psychological Research Studies- This study pertains to the behaviour of individuals in different situations. </li></li></ul><li>PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH STUDIES<br />Indelberg, Rachel M.<br />“The causation and manifestations of emotional behaviour in Filipino children,” Our Filipino Children, National Media Production Center, Manila.<br />Purpose:<br /> To compare two age groups of Filipino children with respect to:<br />Situations causing emotional episode;<br />Manifestations of emotional behaviour; and<br />Reactions of adults to these episodes.<br />Procedure:<br /> Thirty-one children from two to four years old and 31 others from five to seven years old were involved in the study.<br /> The subjects were observed at their homes by teachers attending summer school for a period of six weeks. Majority of these children belonged to families of the observers. Emotional episodes recorded were classified according to age groups. Of the 755 reported, 398 were in two-to-four-year group and 365 were in the five-to-seven-year group.<br />Findings:<br />Established home and health routines gave rise to a significantly large frequency of emotional episodes in the five-to-seven group.<br />Play activities resulted in significantly larger frequency of emotional episodes in the two-to-four-year group.<br />The emotional behaviour manifested vocally, while in the five-to-seven-year group emotional behaviour was characterized by withdrawal and over physical aggression against others.<br />Adults were significantly more indulgent toward the younger group.<br /> <br />
  20. 20. Types and Actual Studiesof Descriptive Research<br /><ul><li>Descriptive- Social Survey- The purpose of this study is to change for the better existing practices of groups living a community. It is concerned with the formulation of constructive programs of social reform and amelioration. A current social problem is existing in a particular place, and the aim is to diagnose the “root causes” of the ills, utilizing the research approach. </li></li></ul><li>SOCIAL SURVEY<br />Faushel, David<br />”Specializations within the foster parent role: a research project report,” Child Development Abstract and Bibliography, February-April, 1963, Vol. 37, Nos. 1& 2, Child Welfare, 196, 40 (3) 17-21. Child Development Publications, Society for Research in Child Development, Inc., Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana.<br />Purpose:<br /> To compare foster parents of infants with those of older children.<br />Procedure:<br />The subjects of the study were foster parents of infants and of older children. The methods used were:<br />Interview data from both mothers and fathers;<br />PARI score; and<br />Case workers ratings on Foster Parent Appraisal Form.<br />Findings:<br />It was found out that those caring for infants were more oriented on private gratification.<br />Foster parents of infants were more oriented on private gratification as opposed to the more social gratification of foster parents of older children.<br /> <br />
  21. 21. Ethics of Descriptive Research<br />Be sure when you describe any particular group of individuals in your population, you should include not only the characteristics which are common to the group but also their unique as well. Failure to include the unique characteristics of the participant may make the result inconsistent and unreliable. <br />Bear in mind that seldom in the descriptive method per se used as end in itself. It means that the primary objective of descriptive methods is to make use of the results to facilitate predictions or control of some behaviours. As a researcher is for you to plan how your findings can be used as means to further some ends.<br />Use statistical procedures to assure you of a level of confidence that your results are trustworthy. <br />Data should not be manipulated.<br />Instrument use should be free from cultural bias. <br />
  22. 22. Importanceof Descriptive Research<br />For scientific basis of judgement. This means that descriptive research provides information which could be used as basis for important decisions that are to be made.<br />For a closer look into happenings, behaviour, practice, methods and procedures. Descriptive researchprovides essential facts and understanding about the nature of anything. <br />For the formation of construction of test analysis of these standardization of tools instruments used in research.<br />
  23. 23. Make us work………<br />Exercises: Descriptive Research<br />
  24. 24. Guide Questions in Understanding Descriptive Research:<br />What general field or area is being explored?<br />What is the general purpose of the study?<br />What are the specific objectives of the study?<br />What places are involved in the study?<br />How did the researchers get their subjects?<br />Who are the subjects?<br />What are the characteristics of the subjects?<br />What are the process used in gathering data?<br />How is the measurement or evaluation done?<br />How are the data analyzed?<br />How can one apply the research results?<br />
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