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TEN PRINCIPLES WE
CAN LEARN FROM GAME
DESIGNERS
JULIE DIRKSEN
USABLE LEARNING
© Usable Learning 2013
BUT FIRST, MEET ALLISON
Allison is a brand
new instructional
designer, who just
got hired for her first
job.
I’m really excited – I studied game-
based learning in school, and my new
boss is really enthusiastic about the
idea!
© Usable Learning 2013
Donald, Allison’s
new boss is pretty
enthusiastic.
HER BOSS IS ON BOARD…
We hired Allison partly because she
can bring a fresh new perspective.
I’ll need to coach her on the
business end, but she’s got some
great ideas.
We are going to find a learning
game project for her right away.
© Usable Learning 2013
…there’s a new development…
BUT THEN….
Hey, Allison, I have
some great news!
I just got the offer to head
up all of South American
training!
It’ll be a chance to perfect
my salsa moves.
And oh yeah – you’re
getting a new boss.
© Usable Learning 2013
Lena is not a “game-y”
person.
THE NEW BOSS
I’m not sure I see the business
value of games for learning.
Allison is going to have be pretty
convincing, and make the case for
this project.
© Usable Learning 2013
Green Work Practices Software Training
Safety Compliance
ALLISON’S DILEMMA
© Usable Learning 2013
MAKING THE CASE
Video
Game
Stare
© Usable Learning 2013
 Making the business case
MAKING THE CASE FOR GAMES
Lena needs more than
“engagement” to
convince her.
Secret:
It’s not really about engagement.
© Usable Learning 2013
THE BOSS PRIZE OF E-LEARNING
Familiarization
Comprehension
Conscious Effort
Conscious Action
Proficiency
Unconscious Competence
- From Electronic Performance Support Systems by Gloria Gery
Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice
Tip #1DESIGN FOR FEEDBACK
© Usable Learning 2013
 What does the
feedback loop look
like?
FEEDBACK
© Usable Learning 2013
CYCLES OF EXPERTISE
Principle: Expertise is formed in any area by
repeated cycles of learners practicing skills
until they are nearly automatic, then having
those skills fail in ways that cause the
learners to have to think again and learn
anew...
Games: Good games create and support the
cycle of expertise...This is, in fact, part of
what constitutes good pacing in a game.
- James Paul Gee
© Usable Learning 2013
ANYBODY EVERY PLAYED DINER DASH?
© Usable Learning 2013
How often do users get feedback in e-Learning?
FEEDBACK FREQUENCY
© Usable Learning 2013
Positive Feedback
Negative Feedback
Reward
Punishment
BETTER THAN A SKINNER BOX
Tip #2TALK TO THE ELEPHANT
© Usable Learning 2013
 How long is your attention span?
FIRST, LET’S START WITH ATTENTION
© Usable Learning 2013
 Let’s talk about attention…
LET’S START WITH THE ELEPHANT
Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis
© Usable Learning 2013
THE RIDER
© Usable Learning 2013
THE ELEPHANT
© Usable Learning 2013
SO, WHEN THERE’S A CONFLICT…
Who do you think wins?
Tip #3URGENCY MATTERS
© Usable Learning 2013
URGENCY MATTERS
We are creatures of urgency:
Maybe I should
consider
retirement
planning…Basically, the elephant is
bad at waiting for stuff.
© Usable Learning 2013
WE HAVE TROUBLE WITH THIS…
We are also loss averse…
© Usable Learning 2013
WHICH DO YOU THINK WORKS BETTER:
I guess I’ll
be glad I
know this
someday…
I’m really
glad I know
this now…
© Usable Learning 2013
AND THE FUTURE IS SOOOOO FAR AWAY…
© Usable Learning 2013
WE MAKE DECISIONS DIFFERENTLY FOR OUR
FUTURE SELVES
Current self
Future self
Pronin et al 2008
© Usable Learning 2013
IT’S ABOUT CAKE VS FRUIT SALAD
Shiv and Fedorikhin 1999
Heart and Mind in Conflict: The Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Consumer Decision Making
Tip #4ACCOMPLISHMENTS
© Usable Learning 2013
 Instead of WIIFM, How about
WCIDWT?
PURPOSE
© Usable Learning 2013
WCIDWT?
© Usable Learning 2013
 A goal needs to be an accomplishment
GOALS = ACCOMPLISHMENTS
You completed Module 4!
I crushed the quarterly
sales goal!
© Usable Learning 2013
 Would you rather:
THEY NEED TO BE INTERESTING CHOICES
Go
faster
Be
safer
Tip #5
STRUCTURED FLOW OF
GOALS
© Usable Learning 2013
NEXT, LET’S TALK ABOUT GOALS
Image Credit – Sebastian Deterding
http://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-design
© Usable Learning 2013
EVER BEEN ROCK CLIMBING?
© Usable Learning 2013
Image Credit – Sebastian Deterding
http://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-design
MICRO-LEVEL GOALS
© Usable Learning 2013
MEDIUM GOALS
Image Credit – Sebastian Deterding
http://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-design
© Usable Learning 2013
Image Credit – Sebastian Deterding
http://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-design
END GOAL!
© Usable Learning 2013
BUT WAIT…
5.0 to 5.4 There are two hand- and two footholds for every move; the
holds become progressively smaller as the number increases.
5.5 to 5.6 The two hand- and two footholds are there, obvious to the
experienced, but not necessarily so to the beginner.
5.7 The move is missing one hand- or foothold.
5.8 The move is missing two holds of the four, or missing only one but
is very strenuous.
5.9 The move has only one reasonable hold which may be for either a
foot or a hand.
5.10 No hand- or footholds. The choices are to pretend a hold is there,
pray a lot, or go home.
5.11 After thorough inspection you conclude this move is obviously
impossible; however, occasionally someone actually accomplishes it.
Since there is nothing for a handhold, grab it with both hands.
5.12 The surface is as smooth as glass and vertical. No one has really
ever made this move, although a few claim they have.
5.13 This is identical to 5.12 except it is located under overhanging
rock."
© Usable Learning 2013
THERE’S MORE…
5.0 to 5.4 There are two hand- and two footholds for every move; the
holds become progressively smaller as the number increases.
5.5 to 5.6 The two hand- and two footholds are there, obvious to the
experienced, but not necessarily so to the beginner.
5.7 The move is missing one hand- or foothold.
5.8 The move is missing two holds of the four, or missing only one but is
very strenuous.
5.9 The move has only one reasonable hold which may be for either a foot
or a hand.
5.10 No hand- or footholds. The choices are to pretend a hold is there,
pray a lot, or go home.
5.11 After thorough inspection you conclude this move is obviously
impossible; however, occasionally someone actually accomplishes it.
Since there is nothing for a handhold, grab it with both hands.
5.12 The surface is as smooth as glass and vertical. No one has really
ever made this move, although a few claim they have.
5.13 This is identical to 5.12 except it is located under overhanging rock."
Demo: Allen
Interactions
Demo: Allen
Interactions
Demo: Allen
Interactions
Tip #6INCREASING DIFFICULTY
© Usable Learning 2013
EVEN IF YOU DON’T NOTICE IT…
© Usable Learning 2013
EVEN IF YOU DON’T NOTICE IT…
The Art of
Game Design
By
Jesse Schell
© Usable Learning 2013
HOW ABOUT MONOPOLY?
© Usable Learning 2013
POP QUIZ
How you do you say:
“Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi”
cheat code
© Usable Learning 2013
WHAT’S FLOW?
Flow: The Psychology of
Optimal Experience
By
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
ArousalAnxiety
Worry Control
RelaxationApathy Boredom
Flow
Low Skill Level High
ChallengeLevel
High
Low
© Usable Learning 2013
THE FLOW CHANNEL
Challenge
Ability
- Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
Tip #7
DESIGN FOR
AUTOMATICITY
© Usable Learning 2013
WHAT’S HAPPENING IN THE BRAIN?
© Usable Learning 2013
WHAT IS GOING ON WHEN YOU ARE
LEARNING SOMETHING NEW?
Well, areas like
your frontal cortex
gets busy. It starts
burning a lot of
fuel, and hits its
limits pretty quickly.
© Usable Learning 2013
WHAT IS GOING ON WHEN YOU USING A
REGULAR PATTERN YOU ALREADY KNOW?
That leverages
parts of the
brain/brain
functions that can
run without a lot of
conscious attention.
© Usable Learning 2013
MOST CLASSES ARE BIKING
STRAIGHT UPHILL
New New New New New New
Whew!
© Usable Learning 2013
GAMES, ON THE OTHER HAND…
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6
Some new
stuff, pretty
easy
though
Stuff you
know plus
a bit more
Stuff you
know,
maybe a
little
faster
Stuff you
know plus
a bit
more
Stuff you
know,
kicked up
a notch
Boss Fight
Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice
© Usable Learning 2013
IT ALSO ALLOWS YOU TO PAY
ATTENTION TO WHAT’S DIFFERENT.
In this model, everything is new and
everything is important (so nothing is).
Whew
!
© Usable Learning 2013
IT ALSO ALLOWS YOU TO PAY
ATTENTION TO WHAT’S DIFFERENT.
In this model, the new material is
mixed in with existing stuff, so the
new material stands out.
Whew
!
© Usable Learning 2013
KEEP IT BALANCED
Challenge
Ability
Tip #8MAKE THINGS VISCERAL
© Usable Learning 2013
LET’S TALK ABOUT VISCERAL FEEDBACK
http://vhil.stanford.edu/pubs/2011/VHIL-technical-report.pdf
© Usable Learning 2013
CONSEQUENCE-BASED FEEDBACK
 “Incorrect, a better
choice would be to
establish a perimeter
before proceeding
into the secure
area.”
 BLAM!
“You just triggered a
secondary device,
killing yourself and
several bystanders…”
This is opinion... …while this is data.
Tip #9MAKE IT FUN
© Usable Learning 2013
TYPES OF FUN
Fiero or Hard Fun
Overcoming Challenges,
Solving Puzzles
Easy Fun
Curiosity, Exploration,
Discovery and Surprise
People Fun Socializing,
Collaboration
Serious Fun Excitement,
Relaxation
Nicole Lazzaro: The 4 Fun Keys
© Usable Learning 2013
TAXONOMY OF GAME PLEASURES
Leblanc's Taxonomy of
Game Pleasures
 1. Sensation
 2. Fantasy
 3. Narrative
 4. Challenge
 5. Fellowship
 6. Discovery
 7. Expression
 8. Submission
Additional (Schell)
 Anticipation
 Delight in another's
misfortune
 Gift giving
 Humor
 Possibility
 Pride in an accomplishment
 Purification (and Set
Completion)
 Surprise
 Thrill
 Triumph over adversity
 Wonder
© Usable Learning 2013
 There’s no such thing as mandatory
fun.
GAME EXPERIENCE - FUN
Hmm…I realize that
gaming experiences
are fundamentally
subjective, but
objectively speaking,
this game is just not
fun.
© Usable Learning 2013
 Is five dollars a good reward?
BE CAREFUL ABOUT REWARDS
© Usable Learning 2013
GOOD SURPRISES ARE GOOD
 Pleasant surprises cause a dopamine spike
“PAY ATTENTION!
If this is good, then you want more.
© Usable Learning 2013
EVEN BAD SURPRISES ARE GOOD
 Unpleasant surprises cause a dopamine drop.
“PAY ATTENTION!
This is bad. Avoid in future.”
© Usable Learning 2013
NO SURPRISES ARE BAD
Hmm. I wonder
what I should
have for dinner...
© Usable Learning 2013
GAMES DO THIS WELL
Gold
Coin
Gold
Coin
Gold
Coin
Gold
Coin
Super Platinum Hammer of Death™ that
lets you SQUASH evildoers!!!
Tip #10
DON’T MAKE CRAPPY
GAMES
© Usable Learning 2013
MATCH GAMEPLAY TO THE REAL TASK
 Games are good at teaching you how to play games (not
necessarily how to actually do things)
© Usable Learning 2013
 Is this a good game?
MATCH GAMEPLAY TO CONTENT
logo
logo
logo
logo
© Usable Learning 2013
PLAYTEST LIKE CRAZY
You HAVE to test games
out.
© Usable Learning 2013
PLANTS VS ZOMBIES LEVEL DIFFICULTY
© Usable Learning 2013
Green Work Practices Software Training
Safety Compliance
ALLISON’S DILEMMA
I need to
decide.
© Usable Learning 2013
Green Work Practices
Software Training
Safety Compliance
ALLISON’S DILEMMA
10 Tips:
1. Design for feedback
2. Talk to the Elephant
3. Urgency Matters
4. Design for accomplishments
5. Create a structured flow of goals
6. Increase difficulty
7. Design for Automaticity
8. Make it visceral
9. Make it fun (use surprise and unexpectedness)
10.Don’t make crappy games (Match gameplay to real task)
© Usable Learning 2013
 Thanks!
 Julie Dirksen
 Usable Learning
 julie@usablelearning.com
 Twitter: usablelearning
 Linkedin: Julie Dirksen
 References here:
http://bit.ly/TKgame
QUESTION? COMMENTS? VIOLENT
DISAGREEMENT?

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Ten principles of game design for learning

  • 1. TEN PRINCIPLES WE CAN LEARN FROM GAME DESIGNERS JULIE DIRKSEN USABLE LEARNING
  • 2. © Usable Learning 2013 BUT FIRST, MEET ALLISON Allison is a brand new instructional designer, who just got hired for her first job. I’m really excited – I studied game- based learning in school, and my new boss is really enthusiastic about the idea!
  • 3. © Usable Learning 2013 Donald, Allison’s new boss is pretty enthusiastic. HER BOSS IS ON BOARD… We hired Allison partly because she can bring a fresh new perspective. I’ll need to coach her on the business end, but she’s got some great ideas. We are going to find a learning game project for her right away.
  • 4. © Usable Learning 2013 …there’s a new development… BUT THEN…. Hey, Allison, I have some great news! I just got the offer to head up all of South American training! It’ll be a chance to perfect my salsa moves. And oh yeah – you’re getting a new boss.
  • 5. © Usable Learning 2013 Lena is not a “game-y” person. THE NEW BOSS I’m not sure I see the business value of games for learning. Allison is going to have be pretty convincing, and make the case for this project.
  • 6. © Usable Learning 2013 Green Work Practices Software Training Safety Compliance ALLISON’S DILEMMA
  • 7. © Usable Learning 2013 MAKING THE CASE Video Game Stare
  • 8. © Usable Learning 2013  Making the business case MAKING THE CASE FOR GAMES Lena needs more than “engagement” to convince her. Secret: It’s not really about engagement.
  • 9. © Usable Learning 2013 THE BOSS PRIZE OF E-LEARNING Familiarization Comprehension Conscious Effort Conscious Action Proficiency Unconscious Competence - From Electronic Performance Support Systems by Gloria Gery
  • 10. Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice
  • 11. Tip #1DESIGN FOR FEEDBACK
  • 12. © Usable Learning 2013  What does the feedback loop look like? FEEDBACK
  • 13. © Usable Learning 2013 CYCLES OF EXPERTISE Principle: Expertise is formed in any area by repeated cycles of learners practicing skills until they are nearly automatic, then having those skills fail in ways that cause the learners to have to think again and learn anew... Games: Good games create and support the cycle of expertise...This is, in fact, part of what constitutes good pacing in a game. - James Paul Gee
  • 14. © Usable Learning 2013 ANYBODY EVERY PLAYED DINER DASH?
  • 15. © Usable Learning 2013 How often do users get feedback in e-Learning? FEEDBACK FREQUENCY
  • 16. © Usable Learning 2013 Positive Feedback Negative Feedback Reward Punishment BETTER THAN A SKINNER BOX
  • 17. Tip #2TALK TO THE ELEPHANT
  • 18. © Usable Learning 2013  How long is your attention span? FIRST, LET’S START WITH ATTENTION
  • 19. © Usable Learning 2013  Let’s talk about attention… LET’S START WITH THE ELEPHANT Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis
  • 20. © Usable Learning 2013 THE RIDER
  • 21. © Usable Learning 2013 THE ELEPHANT
  • 22. © Usable Learning 2013 SO, WHEN THERE’S A CONFLICT… Who do you think wins?
  • 24. © Usable Learning 2013 URGENCY MATTERS We are creatures of urgency: Maybe I should consider retirement planning…Basically, the elephant is bad at waiting for stuff.
  • 25. © Usable Learning 2013 WE HAVE TROUBLE WITH THIS… We are also loss averse…
  • 26. © Usable Learning 2013 WHICH DO YOU THINK WORKS BETTER: I guess I’ll be glad I know this someday… I’m really glad I know this now…
  • 27. © Usable Learning 2013 AND THE FUTURE IS SOOOOO FAR AWAY…
  • 28. © Usable Learning 2013 WE MAKE DECISIONS DIFFERENTLY FOR OUR FUTURE SELVES Current self Future self Pronin et al 2008
  • 29. © Usable Learning 2013 IT’S ABOUT CAKE VS FRUIT SALAD Shiv and Fedorikhin 1999 Heart and Mind in Conflict: The Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Consumer Decision Making
  • 31. © Usable Learning 2013  Instead of WIIFM, How about WCIDWT? PURPOSE
  • 32. © Usable Learning 2013 WCIDWT?
  • 33. © Usable Learning 2013  A goal needs to be an accomplishment GOALS = ACCOMPLISHMENTS You completed Module 4! I crushed the quarterly sales goal!
  • 34. © Usable Learning 2013  Would you rather: THEY NEED TO BE INTERESTING CHOICES Go faster Be safer
  • 35.
  • 37. © Usable Learning 2013 NEXT, LET’S TALK ABOUT GOALS Image Credit – Sebastian Deterding http://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-design
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40. © Usable Learning 2013 EVER BEEN ROCK CLIMBING?
  • 41. © Usable Learning 2013 Image Credit – Sebastian Deterding http://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-design MICRO-LEVEL GOALS
  • 42. © Usable Learning 2013 MEDIUM GOALS Image Credit – Sebastian Deterding http://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-design
  • 43. © Usable Learning 2013 Image Credit – Sebastian Deterding http://www.slideshare.net/dings/dont-play-games-with-me-promises-and-pitfalls-of-gameful-design END GOAL!
  • 44. © Usable Learning 2013 BUT WAIT… 5.0 to 5.4 There are two hand- and two footholds for every move; the holds become progressively smaller as the number increases. 5.5 to 5.6 The two hand- and two footholds are there, obvious to the experienced, but not necessarily so to the beginner. 5.7 The move is missing one hand- or foothold. 5.8 The move is missing two holds of the four, or missing only one but is very strenuous. 5.9 The move has only one reasonable hold which may be for either a foot or a hand. 5.10 No hand- or footholds. The choices are to pretend a hold is there, pray a lot, or go home. 5.11 After thorough inspection you conclude this move is obviously impossible; however, occasionally someone actually accomplishes it. Since there is nothing for a handhold, grab it with both hands. 5.12 The surface is as smooth as glass and vertical. No one has really ever made this move, although a few claim they have. 5.13 This is identical to 5.12 except it is located under overhanging rock."
  • 45. © Usable Learning 2013 THERE’S MORE… 5.0 to 5.4 There are two hand- and two footholds for every move; the holds become progressively smaller as the number increases. 5.5 to 5.6 The two hand- and two footholds are there, obvious to the experienced, but not necessarily so to the beginner. 5.7 The move is missing one hand- or foothold. 5.8 The move is missing two holds of the four, or missing only one but is very strenuous. 5.9 The move has only one reasonable hold which may be for either a foot or a hand. 5.10 No hand- or footholds. The choices are to pretend a hold is there, pray a lot, or go home. 5.11 After thorough inspection you conclude this move is obviously impossible; however, occasionally someone actually accomplishes it. Since there is nothing for a handhold, grab it with both hands. 5.12 The surface is as smooth as glass and vertical. No one has really ever made this move, although a few claim they have. 5.13 This is identical to 5.12 except it is located under overhanging rock."
  • 50. © Usable Learning 2013 EVEN IF YOU DON’T NOTICE IT…
  • 51. © Usable Learning 2013 EVEN IF YOU DON’T NOTICE IT… The Art of Game Design By Jesse Schell
  • 52. © Usable Learning 2013 HOW ABOUT MONOPOLY?
  • 53. © Usable Learning 2013 POP QUIZ How you do you say: “Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi” cheat code
  • 54. © Usable Learning 2013 WHAT’S FLOW? Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience By Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  • 55. ArousalAnxiety Worry Control RelaxationApathy Boredom Flow Low Skill Level High ChallengeLevel High Low
  • 56. © Usable Learning 2013 THE FLOW CHANNEL Challenge Ability - Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  • 58. © Usable Learning 2013 WHAT’S HAPPENING IN THE BRAIN?
  • 59. © Usable Learning 2013 WHAT IS GOING ON WHEN YOU ARE LEARNING SOMETHING NEW? Well, areas like your frontal cortex gets busy. It starts burning a lot of fuel, and hits its limits pretty quickly.
  • 60. © Usable Learning 2013 WHAT IS GOING ON WHEN YOU USING A REGULAR PATTERN YOU ALREADY KNOW? That leverages parts of the brain/brain functions that can run without a lot of conscious attention.
  • 61. © Usable Learning 2013 MOST CLASSES ARE BIKING STRAIGHT UPHILL New New New New New New Whew!
  • 62. © Usable Learning 2013 GAMES, ON THE OTHER HAND… Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Some new stuff, pretty easy though Stuff you know plus a bit more Stuff you know, maybe a little faster Stuff you know plus a bit more Stuff you know, kicked up a notch Boss Fight
  • 63. Glucose Metabolic Rate after several weeks of Tetris Practice
  • 64. © Usable Learning 2013 IT ALSO ALLOWS YOU TO PAY ATTENTION TO WHAT’S DIFFERENT. In this model, everything is new and everything is important (so nothing is). Whew !
  • 65. © Usable Learning 2013 IT ALSO ALLOWS YOU TO PAY ATTENTION TO WHAT’S DIFFERENT. In this model, the new material is mixed in with existing stuff, so the new material stands out. Whew !
  • 66. © Usable Learning 2013 KEEP IT BALANCED Challenge Ability
  • 67. Tip #8MAKE THINGS VISCERAL
  • 68. © Usable Learning 2013 LET’S TALK ABOUT VISCERAL FEEDBACK http://vhil.stanford.edu/pubs/2011/VHIL-technical-report.pdf
  • 69. © Usable Learning 2013 CONSEQUENCE-BASED FEEDBACK  “Incorrect, a better choice would be to establish a perimeter before proceeding into the secure area.”  BLAM! “You just triggered a secondary device, killing yourself and several bystanders…” This is opinion... …while this is data.
  • 71. © Usable Learning 2013 TYPES OF FUN Fiero or Hard Fun Overcoming Challenges, Solving Puzzles Easy Fun Curiosity, Exploration, Discovery and Surprise People Fun Socializing, Collaboration Serious Fun Excitement, Relaxation Nicole Lazzaro: The 4 Fun Keys
  • 72. © Usable Learning 2013 TAXONOMY OF GAME PLEASURES Leblanc's Taxonomy of Game Pleasures  1. Sensation  2. Fantasy  3. Narrative  4. Challenge  5. Fellowship  6. Discovery  7. Expression  8. Submission Additional (Schell)  Anticipation  Delight in another's misfortune  Gift giving  Humor  Possibility  Pride in an accomplishment  Purification (and Set Completion)  Surprise  Thrill  Triumph over adversity  Wonder
  • 73. © Usable Learning 2013  There’s no such thing as mandatory fun. GAME EXPERIENCE - FUN Hmm…I realize that gaming experiences are fundamentally subjective, but objectively speaking, this game is just not fun.
  • 74. © Usable Learning 2013  Is five dollars a good reward? BE CAREFUL ABOUT REWARDS
  • 75. © Usable Learning 2013 GOOD SURPRISES ARE GOOD  Pleasant surprises cause a dopamine spike “PAY ATTENTION! If this is good, then you want more.
  • 76. © Usable Learning 2013 EVEN BAD SURPRISES ARE GOOD  Unpleasant surprises cause a dopamine drop. “PAY ATTENTION! This is bad. Avoid in future.”
  • 77. © Usable Learning 2013 NO SURPRISES ARE BAD Hmm. I wonder what I should have for dinner...
  • 78. © Usable Learning 2013 GAMES DO THIS WELL Gold Coin Gold Coin Gold Coin Gold Coin Super Platinum Hammer of Death™ that lets you SQUASH evildoers!!!
  • 79. Tip #10 DON’T MAKE CRAPPY GAMES
  • 80. © Usable Learning 2013 MATCH GAMEPLAY TO THE REAL TASK  Games are good at teaching you how to play games (not necessarily how to actually do things)
  • 81. © Usable Learning 2013  Is this a good game? MATCH GAMEPLAY TO CONTENT logo logo logo logo
  • 82. © Usable Learning 2013 PLAYTEST LIKE CRAZY You HAVE to test games out.
  • 83. © Usable Learning 2013 PLANTS VS ZOMBIES LEVEL DIFFICULTY
  • 84. © Usable Learning 2013 Green Work Practices Software Training Safety Compliance ALLISON’S DILEMMA I need to decide.
  • 85. © Usable Learning 2013 Green Work Practices Software Training Safety Compliance ALLISON’S DILEMMA 10 Tips: 1. Design for feedback 2. Talk to the Elephant 3. Urgency Matters 4. Design for accomplishments 5. Create a structured flow of goals 6. Increase difficulty 7. Design for Automaticity 8. Make it visceral 9. Make it fun (use surprise and unexpectedness) 10.Don’t make crappy games (Match gameplay to real task)
  • 86. © Usable Learning 2013  Thanks!  Julie Dirksen  Usable Learning  julie@usablelearning.com  Twitter: usablelearning  Linkedin: Julie Dirksen  References here: http://bit.ly/TKgame QUESTION? COMMENTS? VIOLENT DISAGREEMENT?