### Magnetic levitation

• 1. A SEMINAR ON ELECTRO MAGNETIC LOCOMOTIVES Indian Institute Of Information Technology Design & Manufacturing, Kancheepuram. By Sikharam Uday Kiran EDS12M008
• 2. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 2  Introduction  Line Diagram Of Power Flow  Conventional Rail Engine  How Maglev Works  Power Supply  Superconductors  Halbach Array’s  Application Information  Maglev Vs. Conventional Train  Pros & Cons  Summery  Reference PRESENTATION OUTLINE
• 3. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 3 Line diagram of power flow
• 5. How MagLev Works  The electromagnets on the underside of the train pull it up to the ferromagnetic stators on the track and levitate the train.  The magnets on the side keep the train from moving from side to side.  A computer changes the amount of current to keep the train 1 cm from the track. This means there is no friction between the train and the track! IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 5
• 6. Levitation System’s Power Supply  Batteries on the train power the system, and therefore it still functions without propulsion.  The batteries can levitate the train for 30 minutes without any additional energy.  Linear generators in the magnets on board the train use the motion of the train to recharge the batteries.  Levitation system uses less power than the trains air conditioning. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 6
• 7. Propulsion System  The system consists of aluminum three-phase cable windings in the stator packs that are on the guide way.  When a current is supplied to the windings, it creates a traveling alternating current that propels the train forward by pushing and pulling. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 7
• 8.  When the alternating current is reversed, the train brakes.  Different speeds are achieved by varying the intensity of the current.  Only the section of track where the train is traveling is electrified. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 8
• 9. Propulsion:  An alternating current through coils on the guide walls of the guide way. This creates a magnetic field that attracts and repels the superconducting magnets on the train and propels the train forward.  Braking is done by sending current in the reverse direction IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 9
• 10. Levitation:  The passing of the superconducting magnets by levitation coils on the side of the tract induces a current in the coils and creates a magnetic field.  This pushes the train upward  It can levitate 10 cm above the track. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 10 Lateral Guidance:  This keeps the train in the center.
• 12. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 12 Superconductors It conduct’s electricity without resistance below a certain temperature i.e., 150K. In a closed loop, an electrical current will flow continuously.
• 13. Made out of aluminum to minimize weight. 4 rows of 8 magnets arranged in a Halbach Array. 2 rows for levitation. 2 rows for lateral guidance and propulsion. Train: IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 13
• 14.  These are a special arrangement that cancels the magnetic field above the magnets, but still allows a field below the magnets.  The permanent magnets that will be using are made out of Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB) Halbach Array’s IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 14 Source :http://www.gaussboys.com/Halbach Array
• 17. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 17 Sample Output PWM Switching Graphs
• 18. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 18 A Sample Hysteresis Switching Techniques
• 19. Application Information Safety  The trains are virtually impossible to derail because the train is wrapped around the track.  Collisions between trains are unlikely because computers are controlling the trains movements. Maintenance  There is very little maintenance because there is no contact between the parts. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 19
• 20. Comfort  The ride is smooth while not accelerating.. Economic Efficiency  The initial investment is similar to other high speed rail roads. (Maglift is \$20-\$40 million per mile and I-279 in Pittsburg cost \$37 million per mile).  Operating expenses are half of that of other railroads.  A train is composed of sections that each contain 100 seats, and a train can have between 2 and 10 sections. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 20
• 21.  The linear generators produce electricity for the cabin of the train. Speed  The train can travel at about 300 mph. (Acela can only go 150 mph)  For trips of distances up to 500 miles its total travel time is equal to a planes (including check in time and travel to airport.)  It can accelerate to 200 mph in 3 miles, so it is ideal for short jumps. (ICE needs 20 miles to reach 200 mph.) IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 21 Source: www.eurail.com/trains-europe/high-speed-trains/ice
• 22. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 22 MagLev vs. Conventional Trains MagLev Trains Conventional Trains No Friction = Less Maintenance Routine Maintenance Needed No Engine = No fuel required Engine requires fossil fuels Speeds in excess of 300 mph Speeds up to 110 mph
• 23. Advantages:  It is 250 times safer than conventional railroads.  700 times safer than automobile travel.  Speeds up to 500 km/h.  A accident between two maglev trains is nearly impossible because the linear induction motors prevent trains running in opposite directions. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 23
• 24. Disadvantages:  The big problem about this is that the pieces for the maglev are really expensive  The procedure to build it up is very expensive as well. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 24
• 25. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 25 Other MagLev Applications:  Military is looking into using MagLev.  Possible uses could include:  Aircraft carrier launching pad  Rocket launching  Space craft launching Future scope:  Under water rails (continental).
• 26. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 26 Summary  Maglev trains use magnets to levitate and propel the trains forward.  Since there is no friction these trains can reach high speeds.  It is a safe and efficient way to travel.  Governments have mixed feelings about the technology. Some countries, like China, have embraced it and others like Germany have balked at the expense.
• 27. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 27 References:  http://www.gaussboys.com/Halbach Array  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_levitation  http://science.howstuffworks.com/magnet3.htm  http://www.howstuffworks.com/electromagnet.htm
• 28. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 28 Thank you… By Sikharam Uday Kiran EDS12M008
• 29. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 29 OPTIMUM MAGNET THICKNESS =.2*wavelength (lambda) Optimum wavelength = 4*pi*y1 (m) y1 = levitation height (lambda) Br = (Tesla) remanent field of the permanent magnet 1 2 77. MagofWt. levWt. y Br  Equations used:
• 30. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 30 LEVITATION FORCES vkv    2 Excitation Frequency Peak Strength of Magnetic Field M M eBB kd ro / )/sin( *]1[   
• 31. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 31 )2( * 1 0 2 max Co ykB A F e    dL d c y LL L P w F F   * max
• 32. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 32 L R vt * 2   C C d kd P L 2 0  turns P A l R C *   R L tan
• 33. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 33 LEVITATION FORCES Levitation Height = .75 cm Transition Velocity = 3.9 m/s Approximately 14,200 m of wire will be needed for 24 ft of track.
• 34. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 34 Thickness of Wire # of Turns Approx Amps .0315 in 1 492 mA .10189 in 10 awg 1 3.8 A .10189 in 10 awg 5 9.9 A Coil Estimations:
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