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A SEMINAR ON
ELECTRO MAGNETIC LOCOMOTIVES
Indian Institute Of Information Technology
Design & Manufacturing, Kancheepuram.
By
Sikharam Uday Kiran
EDS12M008
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 2
 Introduction
 Line Diagram Of Power Flow
 Conventional Rail Engine
 How Maglev Works
 Power Supply
 Superconductors
 Halbach Array’s
 Application Information
 Maglev Vs. Conventional Train
 Pros & Cons
 Summery
 Reference
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 3
Line diagram of power flow
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 4
Conventional Rail Engine
How MagLev Works
 The electromagnets on the
underside of the train pull it up to
the ferromagnetic stators on the
track and levitate the train.
 The magnets on the side keep
the train from moving from side to
side.
 A computer changes the amount
of current to keep the train 1 cm
from the track.
This means there is no friction between
the train and the track!
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 5
Levitation System’s Power Supply
 Batteries on the train power the system, and therefore it
still functions without propulsion.
 The batteries can levitate the train for 30 minutes without
any additional energy.
 Linear generators in the magnets on board the train use
the motion of the train to recharge the batteries.
 Levitation system uses less power than the trains air
conditioning.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 6
Propulsion System
 The system consists of
aluminum three-phase cable
windings in the stator packs
that are on the guide way.
 When a current is supplied to
the windings, it creates a
traveling alternating current
that propels the train forward
by pushing and pulling.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 7
 When the alternating current is reversed, the train
brakes.
 Different speeds are achieved by varying the intensity of
the current.
 Only the section of track where the train is traveling is
electrified.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 8
Propulsion:
 An alternating current through coils on the guide walls of
the guide way. This creates a magnetic field that attracts
and repels the superconducting magnets on the train and
propels the train forward.
 Braking is done by sending current in the reverse
direction
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 9
Levitation:
 The passing of the superconducting magnets by
levitation coils on the side of the tract induces a current
in the coils and creates a magnetic field.
 This pushes the train upward
 It can levitate 10 cm above the track.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 10
Lateral Guidance:
 This keeps the train in the center.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 11
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 12
Superconductors
It conduct’s electricity without resistance below a certain
temperature i.e., 150K.
In a closed loop, an electrical current will flow continuously.
Made out of aluminum to minimize weight.
4 rows of 8 magnets arranged in a
Halbach Array.
2 rows for levitation.
2 rows for lateral guidance and propulsion.
Train:
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 13
 These are a special arrangement that cancels
the magnetic field above the magnets, but still
allows a field below the magnets.
 The permanent magnets that will be using are
made out of Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB)
Halbach Array’s
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 14
Source :http://www.gaussboys.com/Halbach Array
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 15
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 16
Germanymph279
ChinaMph302
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 17
Sample Output PWM Switching Graphs
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 18
A Sample
Hysteresis
Switching
Techniques
Application Information
Safety
 The trains are virtually impossible to derail because the
train is wrapped around the track.
 Collisions between trains are unlikely because
computers are controlling the trains movements.
Maintenance
 There is very little maintenance because there is no
contact between the parts.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 19
Comfort
 The ride is smooth while not accelerating..
Economic Efficiency
 The initial investment is similar to other high speed rail
roads. (Maglift is $20-$40 million per mile and I-279 in
Pittsburg cost $37 million per mile).
 Operating expenses are half of that of other railroads.
 A train is composed of sections
that each contain 100 seats, and
a train can have between
2 and 10 sections.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 20
 The linear generators produce electricity for the cabin of
the train.
Speed
 The train can travel at about 300 mph. (Acela can only
go 150 mph)
 For trips of distances up to 500 miles its total travel time
is equal to a planes (including check in time and travel to
airport.)
 It can accelerate to 200 mph in 3 miles, so it is ideal for
short jumps. (ICE needs 20 miles to reach 200 mph.)
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 21
Source: www.eurail.com/trains-europe/high-speed-trains/ice
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 22
MagLev vs. Conventional Trains
MagLev Trains Conventional Trains
No Friction = Less
Maintenance
Routine Maintenance
Needed
No Engine = No fuel
required
Engine requires fossil
fuels
Speeds in excess of
300 mph
Speeds up to 110 mph
Advantages:
 It is 250 times safer than conventional railroads.
 700 times safer than automobile travel.
 Speeds up to 500 km/h.
 A accident between two maglev trains is nearly
impossible because the linear induction motors
prevent trains running in opposite directions.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 23
Disadvantages:
 The big problem about this is that the pieces for the
maglev are really expensive
 The procedure to build it up is very expensive as well.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 24
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 25
Other MagLev Applications:
 Military is looking into using MagLev.
 Possible uses could include:
 Aircraft carrier launching pad
 Rocket launching
 Space craft launching
Future scope:
 Under water rails (continental).
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 26
Summary
 Maglev trains use magnets to levitate and propel the
trains forward.
 Since there is no friction these trains can reach high
speeds.
 It is a safe and efficient way to travel.
 Governments have mixed feelings about the technology.
Some countries, like China, have embraced it and others
like Germany have balked at the expense.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 27
References:
 http://www.gaussboys.com/Halbach Array
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_levitation
 http://science.howstuffworks.com/magnet3.htm
 http://www.howstuffworks.com/electromagnet.htm
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 28
Thank you…
By
Sikharam Uday Kiran
EDS12M008
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 29
OPTIMUM MAGNET THICKNESS
=.2*wavelength (lambda)
Optimum wavelength = 4*pi*y1 (m)
y1 = levitation height (lambda)
Br = (Tesla) remanent field of the permanent magnet
1
2
77.
MagofWt.
levWt.
y
Br

Equations used:
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 30
LEVITATION FORCES
vkv



2
Excitation Frequency
Peak Strength of
Magnetic Field M
M
eBB kd
ro
/
)/sin(
*]1[



IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 31
)2(
* 1
0
2
max Co ykB
A
F
e 


dL
d
c
y
LL
L
P
w
F
F

 *
max
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 32
L
R
vt *
2


C
C
d
kd
P
L
2
0

turns
P
A
l
R C
*


R
L
tan
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 33
LEVITATION FORCES
Levitation Height = .75 cm
Transition Velocity = 3.9 m/s
Approximately 14,200 m of wire will be needed
for 24 ft of track.
IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 34
Thickness of Wire # of Turns Approx Amps
.0315 in 1 492 mA
.10189 in
10 awg
1 3.8 A
.10189 in
10 awg
5 9.9 A
Coil Estimations:

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Magnetic levitation

  • 1. A SEMINAR ON ELECTRO MAGNETIC LOCOMOTIVES Indian Institute Of Information Technology Design & Manufacturing, Kancheepuram. By Sikharam Uday Kiran EDS12M008
  • 2. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 2  Introduction  Line Diagram Of Power Flow  Conventional Rail Engine  How Maglev Works  Power Supply  Superconductors  Halbach Array’s  Application Information  Maglev Vs. Conventional Train  Pros & Cons  Summery  Reference PRESENTATION OUTLINE
  • 3. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 3 Line diagram of power flow
  • 5. How MagLev Works  The electromagnets on the underside of the train pull it up to the ferromagnetic stators on the track and levitate the train.  The magnets on the side keep the train from moving from side to side.  A computer changes the amount of current to keep the train 1 cm from the track. This means there is no friction between the train and the track! IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 5
  • 6. Levitation System’s Power Supply  Batteries on the train power the system, and therefore it still functions without propulsion.  The batteries can levitate the train for 30 minutes without any additional energy.  Linear generators in the magnets on board the train use the motion of the train to recharge the batteries.  Levitation system uses less power than the trains air conditioning. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 6
  • 7. Propulsion System  The system consists of aluminum three-phase cable windings in the stator packs that are on the guide way.  When a current is supplied to the windings, it creates a traveling alternating current that propels the train forward by pushing and pulling. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 7
  • 8.  When the alternating current is reversed, the train brakes.  Different speeds are achieved by varying the intensity of the current.  Only the section of track where the train is traveling is electrified. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 8
  • 9. Propulsion:  An alternating current through coils on the guide walls of the guide way. This creates a magnetic field that attracts and repels the superconducting magnets on the train and propels the train forward.  Braking is done by sending current in the reverse direction IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 9
  • 10. Levitation:  The passing of the superconducting magnets by levitation coils on the side of the tract induces a current in the coils and creates a magnetic field.  This pushes the train upward  It can levitate 10 cm above the track. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 10 Lateral Guidance:  This keeps the train in the center.
  • 12. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 12 Superconductors It conduct’s electricity without resistance below a certain temperature i.e., 150K. In a closed loop, an electrical current will flow continuously.
  • 13. Made out of aluminum to minimize weight. 4 rows of 8 magnets arranged in a Halbach Array. 2 rows for levitation. 2 rows for lateral guidance and propulsion. Train: IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 13
  • 14.  These are a special arrangement that cancels the magnetic field above the magnets, but still allows a field below the magnets.  The permanent magnets that will be using are made out of Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB) Halbach Array’s IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 14 Source :http://www.gaussboys.com/Halbach Array
  • 17. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 17 Sample Output PWM Switching Graphs
  • 18. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 18 A Sample Hysteresis Switching Techniques
  • 19. Application Information Safety  The trains are virtually impossible to derail because the train is wrapped around the track.  Collisions between trains are unlikely because computers are controlling the trains movements. Maintenance  There is very little maintenance because there is no contact between the parts. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 19
  • 20. Comfort  The ride is smooth while not accelerating.. Economic Efficiency  The initial investment is similar to other high speed rail roads. (Maglift is $20-$40 million per mile and I-279 in Pittsburg cost $37 million per mile).  Operating expenses are half of that of other railroads.  A train is composed of sections that each contain 100 seats, and a train can have between 2 and 10 sections. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 20
  • 21.  The linear generators produce electricity for the cabin of the train. Speed  The train can travel at about 300 mph. (Acela can only go 150 mph)  For trips of distances up to 500 miles its total travel time is equal to a planes (including check in time and travel to airport.)  It can accelerate to 200 mph in 3 miles, so it is ideal for short jumps. (ICE needs 20 miles to reach 200 mph.) IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 21 Source: www.eurail.com/trains-europe/high-speed-trains/ice
  • 22. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 22 MagLev vs. Conventional Trains MagLev Trains Conventional Trains No Friction = Less Maintenance Routine Maintenance Needed No Engine = No fuel required Engine requires fossil fuels Speeds in excess of 300 mph Speeds up to 110 mph
  • 23. Advantages:  It is 250 times safer than conventional railroads.  700 times safer than automobile travel.  Speeds up to 500 km/h.  A accident between two maglev trains is nearly impossible because the linear induction motors prevent trains running in opposite directions. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 23
  • 24. Disadvantages:  The big problem about this is that the pieces for the maglev are really expensive  The procedure to build it up is very expensive as well. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 24
  • 25. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 25 Other MagLev Applications:  Military is looking into using MagLev.  Possible uses could include:  Aircraft carrier launching pad  Rocket launching  Space craft launching Future scope:  Under water rails (continental).
  • 26. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 26 Summary  Maglev trains use magnets to levitate and propel the trains forward.  Since there is no friction these trains can reach high speeds.  It is a safe and efficient way to travel.  Governments have mixed feelings about the technology. Some countries, like China, have embraced it and others like Germany have balked at the expense.
  • 27. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 27 References:  http://www.gaussboys.com/Halbach Array  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_levitation  http://science.howstuffworks.com/magnet3.htm  http://www.howstuffworks.com/electromagnet.htm
  • 28. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 28 Thank you… By Sikharam Uday Kiran EDS12M008
  • 29. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 29 OPTIMUM MAGNET THICKNESS =.2*wavelength (lambda) Optimum wavelength = 4*pi*y1 (m) y1 = levitation height (lambda) Br = (Tesla) remanent field of the permanent magnet 1 2 77. MagofWt. levWt. y Br  Equations used:
  • 30. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 30 LEVITATION FORCES vkv    2 Excitation Frequency Peak Strength of Magnetic Field M M eBB kd ro / )/sin( *]1[   
  • 31. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 31 )2( * 1 0 2 max Co ykB A F e    dL d c y LL L P w F F   * max
  • 32. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 32 L R vt * 2   C C d kd P L 2 0  turns P A l R C *   R L tan
  • 33. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 33 LEVITATION FORCES Levitation Height = .75 cm Transition Velocity = 3.9 m/s Approximately 14,200 m of wire will be needed for 24 ft of track.
  • 34. IIITDM KANCHEEPURAM 34 Thickness of Wire # of Turns Approx Amps .0315 in 1 492 mA .10189 in 10 awg 1 3.8 A .10189 in 10 awg 5 9.9 A Coil Estimations: