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MAGNETIC LEVITATION TRAIN
Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award
of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology
(Reg. no. 12208, roll no. 1204220007)
Mr. Kishan Bhushan Sahay
Department of Electrical Engineering
MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
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Department of Electrical Engineering
MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA UNIVERSITY OF
This is to certify that the report work entitled “MAGNETIC LEVITATION TRAIN”
submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in
“ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING”, is a bonafide seminar work carried out by Mr. ANUJ
BANSAL under my supervision and guidance.
Date: _________ Mr. Kishan Bhushan Sahay
Electrical Engineering Department
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List of Figure IV
1. Introduction 1-5
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Technology of Magnetic Levitation 2
1.3 Types of Magnetic Levitation 3-5
1.3.1 Permanent magnet type 3
1.3.2 Electromagnetic type 4
1.3.3 Electrodynamics type 5
2. Working Principle 6-9
2.1 Levitation 6
2.2 Propulsion 7
2.3 Stability 8
2.4 Guidance 9
3. Evacuated Tube and Energy Source 10-11
3.1 Evacuated tube 10
3.2 Energy source 11
4. Comparison with AIRCRAFT AND CONVENTIONAL TRAINS 12-14
5. Economics 15
6. Merits and Demerits 16
7. Existing Maglev System 17-18
Summary and conclusion 19
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Every pseminar big or small is successful largely due to the effort of a number of wonderful
people who have always given their valuable advice or lent a helping hand. I sincerely appreciate
the inspiration; support and guidance of all those people who have been instrumental in making
this project a success.
I wish to express sense of gratitude to my guide to Mr. Kishan Bhushan Sahay, Electrical
Engineering Department. Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur, to give
me guidance at every moment during my entire thesis and giving valuable suggestions. He gives
me unfailing inspiration and whole hearted co-operation in caring out my seminar work. His
continuous encouragement at each of work and effort to push the work through are grateful
I am also very grateful to my classmates, MMMUT, Gorakhpur for their huge co-operation and
valuable suggestion from time to time during my entire seminar work. I also extend my gratitude
to all members of the department without whose support at various stages this report will not be
Last but not the least I wish to thanks my friends of B. Tech. 6th semester and seniors who helped
me directly or indirectly in the successful completion of this work.
Date: ____________ ANUJ BANSAL
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Magnetic Levitation is a technology that has been experimented with intensely over the past
couple decades. It wasn’t until the last ten years when scientists began to develop systems that
would use magnetic levitation as a means of transport. This paper outlines the methods behind
magnetic levitation, as well as the technologies implemented using the levitation. The
implementation of a large-scale transportation system using magnetic levitation has huge social
as well as economical effects. These aspects are looked at in a number of situations to see if the
effort in producing a system using magnets is worth the time and eff.
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-: LIST OF FIGURE:-
1. Permanent magnets
2. Electromagnetic magnets
3. Electrodynamics magnets
4. Levitation process
5. Propulsion process
6. Stability process
7. Guidance process
8. Evacuated Tubes
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CHAPTER 1:- INTRODUCTION
Some forces in this world are almost invisible to the naked eye and most people
throughout the world do not even know they exist. On one side you could say that some
of these forces are abstract feelings inside of a human being that have been given names
from man. These forces could be things like emotion, guilt, and even ecstasy. On the
other side you have solid concrete principles of how the world works. These too have
been given names by man, but these principles are not abstract and have solid ground in
science. These different principles are things like gravity, electricity, and magnetism.
Magnetism has been a part of the earth since the beginning whether people realize it or
not. It is due to the magnetism of the earth that the world spins and thus creates things
like gravity. The magnetism is created by the processes within the core of the earth. The
earth’s iron-ore core has a natural spinning motion to it inside which creates a natural
magnetic force that is held constant over the earth. This creates magnetic forces that turn
the earth into a large bar magnet. The creation of North and South poles on the earth are
due to this field.
From this magnetic field, we see things such as the aurora borealis. This is a small
electromagnetic storm in the atmosphere which creates a display for all to see. Not only
does magnetism provide us with amazing natural displays, but it also provides for us
amazing applications to society. One of these applications is magnetic levitation.
Magnetic levitation uses the concept of a magnets natural repulsion to poles of the same
kind. This repulsion has been harnessed and controlled in an environment to help create
a system of transportation that is both economically sound and faster than most methods
of transportation at this point.
In 1965 the Department of Commerce established the High Speed Ground
Transportation Act. Most early work on developing Maglev technology was developed
during this time. The earliest work was carried out by the Brookhaven National
Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ford, Stanford Research Institute,
Rohr Industries, Boeing Aerospace Co., and the Garrett Corporation. In the United
States, though, the work ended in 1975 with the termination of Federal Funding for high-
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speed ground transportation and research. It was at that time when the Japanese and
German developers continued their research and therefore came out with the first test
In 1990, legislative action directed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to
implement and prepare a plan for a National Maglev program. The Department of
Transportation (DOT), Department of Energy (DOE), and the Army Corp developed
what is known as the National Maglev Initiative which was a two year 25 million dollar
program to assess the engineering, economic, environmental and safety aspects of
1.1:- TECHNOLOGY OF MAGLEV TRAIN
The creation of magnetic forces is the basis of all magnetic levitation. The creation of a
magnetic field can be caused by a number of things. The first thing that it can be caused by is a
permanent magnet. These magnets are a solid material in which there is an induced North and
South Pole. These will be described further a little later. The second way that a magnetic field
can be created is through an electric field changing linearly with time. The third and final way to
create a magnetic field is through the use of direct current.
There are two basic principles in dealing with the concept of magnetic levitation. The first law
that is applied was created by Michael Faraday. This is commonly known as Faraday’s Law.
This will allow the direction of the magnetic field to be predictable and thus a set up can be
created for a specific purpose to maximize the force that is created.
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1.2:-TYPES OF MAGNETIC LEVITATION
The first type of levitation is the implementation through permanent magnets. These
magnets are made of a material that creates a north and a south pole on them.
The formal definition of a permanent magnet is “a material that retains its magnetic
properties after and external magnetic field is removed.”i The whole idea behind
permanent magnets is that like ends will repel and opposite ends will attract. Permanent
magnets require very little if any maintenance. These magnets do not require cryogens or
a large power supply for operation. The magnetic field is measured vertically within the
bore of the magnet. The main disadvantages of a permanent magnet are the cost of the
magnet itself when put into large scale systems. Another disadvantage is the varying
changes in the magnetic field. The ability to control a constant magnetic force from a
permanent magnet is an on-going problem in the application of these types of magnets. .
Different applications that use these types of magnets can be found in a number of
different areas. Examples of these applications are compasses, DC motor drives, clocks,
hearing aids, microphones, speedometers, and many more.
Figure 1:Permanent magnet
1.2.2 Electromagnetic type:-
The basic idea behind an electromagnet is extremely simple. By running electric
current through a wire, you can create a magnetic field. When this wire is coiled around
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a magnetic material (i.e. metal), a current is passed through this wire. In doing this, the
electric current will magnetize the metallic core. By using this simple principle, you can
create all sorts of things including motors, solenoids, heads for hard disks, speakers, and
so on. An electromagnet is one that uses the same type of principles as the permanent
magnet but only on a temporary scale. This means that only when the current is flowing
is there going to be an induced magnet. This type of magnet is an improvement to the
permanent magnet because it allows somebody to select when and for how long the
magnetic field lasts. It also gives a person control over how strong the magnet will be
depending on the amount of current that is passed through the wire.
Figure 2 Electromagnetic magnets
1.2.3 Electrodynamics type:-
The ideas presented behind superconductive magnets are the same principles that are at
work in an MRI. Superconductive magnets are the most common of all the magnets, and are
sometimes called cry magnets. The idea behind the superconducting magnets is that there is a
material which presents no electrical resistivity to electrical current. Once a current has been fed
into the coils of this material, it will indefinitely flow without requiring the input of any
additional current. The way that a material is able to have such a low resistivity to current is that
it is brought to very low temperatures. The temperatures that are commonly found in
superconducting magnets are around -258oC. This is done by immersing the coils that are
holding the current into liquid Helium; this also helps in maintaining a homogenous magnetic
field over time. The advantage to the superconducting magnet is that they don’t require constant
power from a source to keep up the value of the current in the coils. Although a disadvantage is
that they require an expensive cryogen such as helium to operate correctly. The magnetic field is
in the direction of the long axis of the cylinder or bore of the magnet. Since the resistance in the
coils can cause the current to decay, cryogens reduce the resistance to almost zero, which will
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help maintain a homogenous magnetic field over time.
Figure 3 Electrodynamics magnet
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CHAPTER2:- WORKING PRINCIPLE
Support electromagnets built into the undercarriage and along the entire length of the
train pull it up to the guide way electromagnets, which are called ferromagnetic reaction rails.
The guidance magnets placed on each side of the train keep it centred along the track and guide
the train along. All the electromagnets are controlled electronically in a precise manner. It
ensures the train is always levitated at a distance of 8 to 10 mm from the guide way even when it
isn't moving. This levitation system is powered by on-board batteries, which are charged up by
the linear generator when the train travels. The generator consists of additional cable windings
integrated in the levitation electromagnets. The induced current of the generator during driving
Propulsion magnetic field's harmonic waves, which are due to the side effects of the grooves of
the long stator so the charging up process does not consume the useful propulsion magnetic field.
The train can rely on this battery power for up to one hour without an external power source. The
levitation system is independent from the propulsion system.
Figure 4: Levitation
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The synchronous long stator linear motor of the Maglev system is used both for
propulsion and braking. It is functioning like a rotating electric motor whose stator is cut open
and stretched along under the guide way. Inside the motor windings, alternating current is
generating a magnetic traveling field which moves the vehicle without contact. The support
magnets in the vehicle function as the excitation portion (rotor).
Propulsion system in the guide way is activated only in the section where the vehicle actually
runs. The speed can be continuously regulated by varying the frequency of the alternating
current. If the direction of the traveling field is reversed, the motor becomes a generator which
breaks the vehicle without any contact. The braking energy can be re-used and fed back into the
electrical network. The three-phase winded stator generates an electromagnetic travelling field
and moves the train when it is supplied with an alternating current. The electromagnetic field
from the support electromagnets (rotor) pulls it along. The magnetic field direction and speed of
the stator and the rotor are synchronized. The Maglev's speed can vary from standstill to full
operating speed by simply adjusting the frequency of the alternating current. To bring the train to
a full stop, the direction of the travelling field is reversed. Even during braking, there isn't any
mechanical contact between the stator and the rotor. Instead of consuming energy, the Maglev
system acts as a generator, converting the breaking energy into electricity, which can be used
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For successful levitation and control of all 6 axes (degrees of freedom; 3 translational and 3
rotational) a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnets or diamagnets or superconductors as
well as attractive and repulsive fields can be used. From Earns haw’s theorem at least one stable axis must
be present for the system to levitate successfully, but the other axes can be stabilized using
ferromagnetism. Static stability means that any small displacement away from a stable equilibrium causes
a net force to push it back to the equilibrium point. Earns haw’s theorem proved conclusively that it is not
possible to levitate stably using only static, macroscopic, paramagnetic fields. The forces acting on any
paramagnetic object in any combinations of gravitational, electrostatic, and magneto static fields will
make the object's position, at best, unstable along at least one axis, and it can be unstable equilibrium
along all axes. However, several possibilities exist to make levitation viable, for example, the use of
electronic stabilization or diamagnetic materials (since relative magnetic permeability is less than one); it
can be shown that diamagnetic materials are stable along at least one axis, and can be stable along all
axes. Conductors can have a relative permeability to alternating magnetic fields of below one, so some
configurations using simple AC driven electromagnets are self-stable. Dynamic stability occurs when the
levitation system is able to damp out any vibration-like motion that may occur.
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Magnetic fields are conservative forces and therefore in principle have no built-in damping, and in
practice many of the levitation schemes are under-damped and in some cases negatively damped.
can permit vibration modes to exist that can cause the item to leave the stable region.
Figure 6 :Stability
Electronically controlled support magnets located on both sides along the entire length of
the vehicle pull the vehicle up to the ferromagnetic stator packs mounted to the underside of the
guide way. Guidance magnets located on both sides along the entire length of the vehicle keep
the vehicle laterally on the track. Electronic systems guarantee that the clearance remains
constant (nominally 10 mm). To hover, the Maglev requires less power than its air conditioning
equipment. The levitation system is supplied from on-board batteries and thus independent of the
propulsion system. The vehicle is capable of hovering up to one hour without external energy.
While travelling, the on-board batteries are recharged by linear generators integrated into the
The Maglev hovers over a double track guide way. It can be mounted either at grade or elevated
on slim columns and consists of individual steel or concrete beams up to 62 m in length.
Guidance or steering refers to the sideward forces that are required to make the vehicle follow
the guide way. The necessary forces are supplied in an exactly analogous fashion to the
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suspension forces, either attractive or repulsive. The same magnets on board the vehicle, which
supply lift, can be used concurrently for guidance or separate guidance magnets can be used.
They use Null Flux systems, also known as Null Current systems, this use a coil which is wound
so that it enters two opposing, alternating fields. When the vehicle is in the straight ahead
position, no current flows, but if it moves off-line this creates a changing flux that generates a
field that pushes it back into line.
Figure 7: Guidance
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CHAPTER3:-EVACUATED TUBE AND ENERGY SOURCE
3.1 Evacuated Tube
Some systems (notably the Swiss metro system) propose the use of Victorians—maglev
train technology used in evacuated (airless) tubes, which removes air drag. This has the potential
to increase speed and efficiency greatly, as most of the energy for conventional maglev trains is
lost to aerodynamic drag.
One potential risk for passengers of trains operating in evacuated tubes is that they could
be exposed to the risk of cabin depressurization unless tunnel safety monitoring systems can
depressurize the tube in the event of a train malfunction or accident though since trains are likely
to operate at or near the Earth's surface, emergency restoration of ambient pressure should be
straightforward. The RAND Corporation has depicted a vacuum tube train that could, in theory,
cross the Atlantic or the USA in ~21 minutes
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Figure 8 Evacuated tube
3.2 Energy Source:-
Energy for maglev trains is used to accelerate the train. Energy may be regained when the
train slows down via regenerative braking". It also levitates and stabilizes the train's movement.
Most of the energy is needed to overcome "air drag". Some energy is used for air conditioning,
heating, lighting and other miscellany.
At low speeds the percentage of power (energy per time) used for levitation can be
significant consuming up to 15% more power than a subway or light rail service. For short
distances the energy used for acceleration might be considerable.
The power used to overcome air drag increases with the cube of the velocity and hence
dominates at high speed. The energy needed per mile increases by the square of the velocity and
the time decreases linearly.) For example, two and half times as much power is needed to travel
at 400 km/h than 300 km/h.
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CHAPTER 4:-COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONALTRAIN AND
Maglev transport is non-contact and electric powered. It relies less or not at all on the
wheels, bearings and axles common to wheeled rail systems.
Speed: - Maglev allows higher top speeds than conventional rail, but experimental
wheel-based high-speed trains have demonstrated similar speeds.
Maintenance: - Maglev trains currently in operation have demonstrated the need for
minimal guide way maintenance. Vehicle maintenance is also minimal (based on hours of
operation, rather than on speed or distance traveled). Traditional rail is subject to mechanical
wear and tear that increases exponentially with speed, also increasing maintenance.
Weather: - Maglev trains are little affected by snow, ice, severe cold, and rain or high
winds. However, they have not operated in the wide range of conditions that traditional friction-
based rail systems have operated. Maglev vehicles accelerate and decelerate faster than
mechanical systems regardless of the slickness of the guide way or the slope of the grade because
they are non-contact systems.
Track: - Maglev trains are not compatible with conventional track, and therefore require
custom infrastructure for their entire route. By contrast conventional high-speed trains such as
the TGV are able to run, albeit at reduced speeds, on existing rail infrastructure, thus reducing
expenditure where new infrastructure would be particularly expensive (such as the final
approaches to city terminals), or on extensions where traffic does not justify new infrastructure.
John Harding, former chief maglev scientist at the Federal Railroad Administration claimed that
separate maglev infrastructure more than pays for itself with higher levels of all-weather
operational availability and nominal maintenance costs. These claims have yet to be proven in an
intense operational setting and do not consider the increased maglev construction costs.
Efficiency: - Conventional rail is probably more efficient at lower speeds. But due to the
lack of physical contact between the track and the vehicle, maglev trains experience no rolling
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resistance, leaving only air resistance and electromagnetic drag, potentially improving power
efficiency. Some systems however such as the Central Japan Railway Company SC Maglev use
rubber tires at low speeds, reducing efficiency gains.
Weight: - The electromagnets in many EMS and EDS designs require between 1 and 2
kilowatts per ton. The use of superconductor magnets can reduce the electromagnets' energy
consumption. A 50-ton Tran’s rapid maglev vehicle can lift an additional 20 tons, for a total of
70 tons, which consumes 70-140 kW. Most energy use for the TRI is for propulsion and
overcoming air resistance at speeds over 100 mph.
Weight loading: - High speed rail requires more support and construction for its
concentrated wheel loading. Maglev cars are lighter and distribute weight more evenly.
Noise: - Because the major source of noise of a maglev train comes from displaced air
rather than from wheels touching rails, maglev trains produce less noise than a conventional train
at equivalent speeds. However, the psychoacoustic profile of the maglev may reduce this benefit:
a study concluded that maglev noise should be rated like road traffic, while conventional trains
experience a 5–10 dB "bonus", as they are found less annoying at the same loudness level.
Braking: - Braking and overhead wire wear have caused problems for the Fastest 360 rail
Shinkansen. Maglev would eliminate these issues.
Magnet reliability: -At higher temperatures magnets may fail. New alloys and
manufacturing techniques have addressed this issue.
Control systems: - No signaling systems are needed for high-speed rail, because such
systems are computer controlled. Human operators cannot react fast enough to manage high-
speed trains. High speed systems require dedicated rights of way and are usually elevated. Two
maglev system microwave towers are in constant contact with trains. There is no need for train
whistles or horns, either.
Terrain: -Maglevs are able to ascend higher grades, offering more routing flexibility and
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4.2:-Comparison with aircraft
Differences between airplane and maglev travel:
Efficiency: - For maglev systems the lift-to-drag ratio can exceed that of aircraft (for
example Induct rack can approach 200:1 at high speed, far higher than any aircraft). This can
make maglev more efficient per kilometer. However, at high cruising speeds, aerodynamic drag
is much larger than lift-induced drag. Jets take advantage of low air density at high altitudes to
significantly reduce air drag. Hence despite their lift-to-drag ratio disadvantage, they can travel
more efficiently at high speeds than maglev trains that operate at sea level.
Routing: - While aircraft can theoretically take any route between points, commercial air
routes are rigidly defined. Maglevs offer competitive journey times over distances of 800
kilometers (500 miles) or less. Additionally, maglevs can easily serve intermediate destinations.
Availability: - Maglevs are little affected by weather.
Safety: - Maglevs offer a significant safety margin since maglevs do not crash into other
maglevs or leave their guide ways. Combustible aircraft fuel is a significant danger during
takeoff and landing.
Travel time: - Maglevs do not face the extended security protocols faced by air travelers nor
are time consumed for taxiing, or for queuing for take-off and landing.
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The Shanghai maglev demonstration line cost US$1.2 billion to build. This total includes capital
costs such as right-of-way clearing, extensive pile driving, on-site guide way manufacturing, in-
situ pier construction at 25 metre intervals, a maintenance facility and vehicle yard, several
switches, two stations, operations and control systems, power feed system, cables and inverters,
and operational training. Ridership is not a primary focus of this demonstration line, since the
Long yang Road station is on the eastern outskirts of Shanghai. Once the line is extended to
South Shanghai Train station and Hongqiao Airport station, ridership was expected to cover
operation and maintenance costs and generate significant net revenue.
The South Shanghai extension was expected to cost approximately US$18 million per kilometre.
In 2006 the German government invested $125 million in guide way cost reduction development
that produced an all-concrete modular design that is faster to build and is 30% less costly. Other
new construction techniques were also developed that put maglev at or below price parity with
new high-speed rail construction.
The United States Federal Railroad Administration, in a 2005 report to Congress, estimated cost
per mile of between $50m and $100m
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CHAPTER6:- MERITS AND DEMERITS
With that we come to the core issue, the pros and cons of the Maglev Train System that
need to be taken into consideration in order to determine whether it is really feasible when it
comes to the United States. Basically, the practice tracks are already in place in different parts of
the world; the US in no exception. More importantly, the Maglev Train System has already
tasted success in various countries, including Japan and China. On the basis of the performance
of existing maglevs, which include the ones that are in service as well as the ones which are
being tested, we were able to come up with the following advantages and disadvantages of the
The foremost advantage of maglev trains is the fact that it doesn't have moving parts as
conventional trains do, and therefore, the wear and tear of parts is minimal, and that reduces the
maintenance cost by a significant extent. More importantly, there is no physical contact between
the train and track, so there is no rolling resistance. While electromagnetic drag and air friction
do exist, that doesn't hinder their ability to clock a speed in excess of 200 mph.
Absence of wheels also comes as a boon, as you don't have to deal with deafening noise that is
likely to come with them Maglevs also boast of being environment friendly, as they don't resort
to internal combustion engines. These trains are weather proof, which means rain, snow, or
severe cold don't really hamper their performance. Experts are of the opinion that these trains are
a lot safe than their conventional counterparts as they are equipped with state-of-the-art safety
systems, which can keep things in control even when the train is cruising at a high speed.
while the advantages of Maglev Train System may seem quite promising in themselves,
they are not enough to overshadow the biggest problem with the maglev trains: the high cost
incurred on the initial setup. While the fast conventional trains that have been introduced of late,
work fine on tracks which were meant for slow trains, maglev trains require an all new set up
right from the scratch. As the present railway infrastructure is of no use for maglevs, it will either
have to be replaced with the Maglev System or an entirely new set up will have to be
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created―both of which will cost a decent amount in terms of initial investment. Even though
inexpensive as compared to EDS, it is still expensive compared to other modes.
If the advantages and disadvantages of these trains are pitted against each other, it can be
a bit difficult to come to a concrete conclusion. While the high cost of initial set up is something
that a developed nation like the United States won't have to worry about, the fact that the entire
infrastructure has to be replaced with a new one will be something that will have the experts in a
catch-22 situation. But obviously, we will have to do away with their disadvantages if we are to
invest in maglev trains. If the commercial success of the Shanghai maglev train is to be taken
into consideration, these trains can be surely considered the transport system of the future.
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CHAPTER7:- EXISTING MAGLEV SYSTEM
A)-Japan has a demonstration line in Yamanashi prefecture where test train SC Maglev MLX01
reached 581 km/h (361 mph), slightly faster than any wheeled trains. These trains use
superconducting magnets which allow for a larger gap, and repulsive/attractive-type electrodynamics
suspension (EDS). In comparison Tran’s rapid uses conventional electromagnets and attractive-
type electromagnetic suspension (EMS).
On 15th November 2014, The Central Japan Railway Company ran eight days of testing for the
experimental maglev Shinkansen train on its test track in Yamanashi Prefecture. One hundred
passengers covered a 42.8 km (27-mile) route between the cities of Uenohara and Fuefuki,
reaching speeds of up to 500 km/h (311 mph)
B) - San Diego, USA
General Atomics has a 120-metre test facility in San Diego that is used to test Union Pacific's 8 km
(5.0 mi) freight shuttle in Los Angeles. The technology is "passive" (or "permanent"), using permanent
magnets in a halfback array for lift and requiring no electromagnets for either levitation or propulsion.
General Atomics received US$90 million in research funding from the federal government. They are also
considering their technology for high-speed passenger services.
C) - Southwest Jiao tong University, China
On 31 December 2000, the first crewed high-temperature superconducting maglev was tested
successfully at Southwest Jiao tong University, Chengdu, China. This system is based on the
principle that bulk high-temperature superconductors can be levitated stably above or below a
permanent magnet. The load was over 530 kg (1,170 lb.) and the levitation gap over 20 mm
(0.79 in). The system uses liquid nitrogen to cool the superconductor.
A maglev route was proposed between Sydney and Wollongong. The proposal came to
prominence in the mid-1990s. The Sydney–Wollongong commuter corridor is the largest in
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Australia, with upwards of 20,000 people commuting each day. Current trains use the Illawarra
line, between the cliff face of the Illawarra escarpment and the Pacific Ocean, with travel times
about two hours. The proposal would cut travel times to 20 minutes.
In late 2008, a proposal was put forward to the Government of Victoria to build a privately
funded and operated maglev line to service the Greater Melbourne metropolitan area in response
to the Erdington Transport Report that did not investigate above-ground transport options. The
maglev would service a population of over 4 million and the proposal was coasted at
an$8 billion. However despite road congestion and Australia's highest road space per capita, the
government dismissed the proposal in favor of road expansion including an A$8.5 billion road
tunnel, $6 billion extension of the East link to the Western Ring Road and a $700 million
A first proposal was formalized on April 2008, in Brescia, by journalist Andrew Spandau’s who
recommended a high speed connection between Malpensa airport to the cities of Milan, Bergamo
and Brescia. On March 2011 Nicola Oliva proposed a maglev connection between Pisa airport
and the cities of Prato and Florence (Santa Maria Novella train station and Florence Airport).
The travelling time would be reduced from the typical hour and a quarter to around twenty
minutes. The second part of the line would be a connection to Livorno, to integrate maritime,
aerial and terrestrial transport systems.
4) United Kingdom-
London – Glasgow: A line was proposed in the United Kingdom from London to Glasgow with
several route options through the Midlands, Northwest and Northeast of England. It was reported
to be under favorable consideration by the government. The approach was rejected in the
Government White Paper Delivering a Sustainable Railway published on 24 July 2007Another
high-speed link was planned between Glasgow and Edinburgh but the technology remained
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-: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION:-
• Maglev Transport Offers Many Major Benefits, Including – Very High Energy Efficiency, Low
Cost Transport – Does Not Use Oil, Helps Curb Global Warming – New U.S. Industry with
Many Thousands of Jobs & Billions of Dollars in Exports
• 1st Generation Passenger Only German and Japanese Maglev Systems Too Expensive -- Steel
Wheeled HSR Systems Too Limited
• 2nd Generation U.S. Maglev-2000 System Much Lower in Cost and Much More Capable Than
1st Generation Systems. – Can Carry High Revenue Highway Trucks, Freight Containers, &
Personal Autos – Levitated Travel on Existing RR Tracks in Urban and Suburban Areas –
Payback Time <5 years
• 25,000 Mile National Maglev Network and Electric Cars Will Eliminate Oil Imports By 2030
• U.S. Can Be World Leader in Maglev, But Must Act Now.
They consume less energy.
Require no engine.
Move faster than normal trains because they are not affected by ground friction; their
rights-of-way, meanwhile, cost about the same to build.
Incompatible with existing rail lines, unlike traditional high-speed rail.
Initial cost is very high.
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