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A seminar report on maglev train

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A seminar report on maglev train

  1. 1. P a g e | 1 MAGNETIC LEVITATION TRAIN A Seminar Report Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology In “ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING” By Anuj bansal (Reg. no. 12208, roll no. 1204220007) Supervisor Mr. Kishan Bhushan Sahay Submitted in Department of Electrical Engineering MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY GORAKHPUR-273010
  2. 2. P a g e | 2 Department of Electrical Engineering MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, Gorakhpur-273010 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the report work entitled “MAGNETIC LEVITATION TRAIN” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in “ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING”, is a bonafide seminar work carried out by Mr. ANUJ BANSAL under my supervision and guidance. Date: _________ Mr. Kishan Bhushan Sahay Electrical Engineering Department M.M.M.U.T, Gorakhpur
  3. 3. P a g e | 3 CONTENT Certificate i Acknowledgement ii Abstract iii List of Figure IV 1. Introduction 1-5 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Technology of Magnetic Levitation 2 1.3 Types of Magnetic Levitation 3-5 1.3.1 Permanent magnet type 3 1.3.2 Electromagnetic type 4 1.3.3 Electrodynamics type 5 2. Working Principle 6-9 2.1 Levitation 6 2.2 Propulsion 7 2.3 Stability 8 2.4 Guidance 9 3. Evacuated Tube and Energy Source 10-11 3.1 Evacuated tube 10 3.2 Energy source 11 4. Comparison with AIRCRAFT AND CONVENTIONAL TRAINS 12-14 5. Economics 15 6. Merits and Demerits 16 7. Existing Maglev System 17-18 Summary and conclusion 19 References 20
  4. 4. P a g e | 4 Acknowledgement Every pseminar big or small is successful largely due to the effort of a number of wonderful people who have always given their valuable advice or lent a helping hand. I sincerely appreciate the inspiration; support and guidance of all those people who have been instrumental in making this project a success. I wish to express sense of gratitude to my guide to Mr. Kishan Bhushan Sahay, Electrical Engineering Department. Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur, to give me guidance at every moment during my entire thesis and giving valuable suggestions. He gives me unfailing inspiration and whole hearted co-operation in caring out my seminar work. His continuous encouragement at each of work and effort to push the work through are grateful acknowledged. I am also very grateful to my classmates, MMMUT, Gorakhpur for their huge co-operation and valuable suggestion from time to time during my entire seminar work. I also extend my gratitude to all members of the department without whose support at various stages this report will not be materialized. Last but not the least I wish to thanks my friends of B. Tech. 6th semester and seniors who helped me directly or indirectly in the successful completion of this work. Date: ____________ ANUJ BANSAL Place: ____________
  5. 5. P a g e | 5 ABSTRACT Magnetic Levitation is a technology that has been experimented with intensely over the past couple decades. It wasn’t until the last ten years when scientists began to develop systems that would use magnetic levitation as a means of transport. This paper outlines the methods behind magnetic levitation, as well as the technologies implemented using the levitation. The implementation of a large-scale transportation system using magnetic levitation has huge social as well as economical effects. These aspects are looked at in a number of situations to see if the effort in producing a system using magnets is worth the time and eff.
  6. 6. P a g e | 6 -: LIST OF FIGURE:- Figure No.- 1. Permanent magnets 2. Electromagnetic magnets 3. Electrodynamics magnets 4. Levitation process 5. Propulsion process 6. Stability process 7. Guidance process 8. Evacuated Tubes
  7. 7. P a g e | 7 CHAPTER 1:- INTRODUCTION Some forces in this world are almost invisible to the naked eye and most people throughout the world do not even know they exist. On one side you could say that some of these forces are abstract feelings inside of a human being that have been given names from man. These forces could be things like emotion, guilt, and even ecstasy. On the other side you have solid concrete principles of how the world works. These too have been given names by man, but these principles are not abstract and have solid ground in science. These different principles are things like gravity, electricity, and magnetism. Magnetism has been a part of the earth since the beginning whether people realize it or not. It is due to the magnetism of the earth that the world spins and thus creates things like gravity. The magnetism is created by the processes within the core of the earth. The earth’s iron-ore core has a natural spinning motion to it inside which creates a natural magnetic force that is held constant over the earth. This creates magnetic forces that turn the earth into a large bar magnet. The creation of North and South poles on the earth are due to this field. From this magnetic field, we see things such as the aurora borealis. This is a small electromagnetic storm in the atmosphere which creates a display for all to see. Not only does magnetism provide us with amazing natural displays, but it also provides for us amazing applications to society. One of these applications is magnetic levitation. Magnetic levitation uses the concept of a magnets natural repulsion to poles of the same kind. This repulsion has been harnessed and controlled in an environment to help create a system of transportation that is both economically sound and faster than most methods of transportation at this point. In 1965 the Department of Commerce established the High Speed Ground Transportation Act. Most early work on developing Maglev technology was developed during this time. The earliest work was carried out by the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ford, Stanford Research Institute, Rohr Industries, Boeing Aerospace Co., and the Garrett Corporation. In the United States, though, the work ended in 1975 with the termination of Federal Funding for high-
  8. 8. P a g e | 8 speed ground transportation and research. It was at that time when the Japanese and German developers continued their research and therefore came out with the first test tracks. In 1990, legislative action directed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to implement and prepare a plan for a National Maglev program. The Department of Transportation (DOT), Department of Energy (DOE), and the Army Corp developed what is known as the National Maglev Initiative which was a two year 25 million dollar program to assess the engineering, economic, environmental and safety aspects of Maglev. 1.1:- TECHNOLOGY OF MAGLEV TRAIN The creation of magnetic forces is the basis of all magnetic levitation. The creation of a magnetic field can be caused by a number of things. The first thing that it can be caused by is a permanent magnet. These magnets are a solid material in which there is an induced North and South Pole. These will be described further a little later. The second way that a magnetic field can be created is through an electric field changing linearly with time. The third and final way to create a magnetic field is through the use of direct current. There are two basic principles in dealing with the concept of magnetic levitation. The first law that is applied was created by Michael Faraday. This is commonly known as Faraday’s Law. This will allow the direction of the magnetic field to be predictable and thus a set up can be created for a specific purpose to maximize the force that is created.
  9. 9. P a g e | 9 1.2:-TYPES OF MAGNETIC LEVITATION 1.2.1)PermanentMagnets:- The first type of levitation is the implementation through permanent magnets. These magnets are made of a material that creates a north and a south pole on them. The formal definition of a permanent magnet is “a material that retains its magnetic properties after and external magnetic field is removed.”i The whole idea behind permanent magnets is that like ends will repel and opposite ends will attract. Permanent magnets require very little if any maintenance. These magnets do not require cryogens or a large power supply for operation. The magnetic field is measured vertically within the bore of the magnet. The main disadvantages of a permanent magnet are the cost of the magnet itself when put into large scale systems. Another disadvantage is the varying changes in the magnetic field. The ability to control a constant magnetic force from a permanent magnet is an on-going problem in the application of these types of magnets. . Different applications that use these types of magnets can be found in a number of different areas. Examples of these applications are compasses, DC motor drives, clocks, hearing aids, microphones, speedometers, and many more. Figure 1:Permanent magnet 1.2.2 Electromagnetic type:- The basic idea behind an electromagnet is extremely simple. By running electric current through a wire, you can create a magnetic field. When this wire is coiled around
  10. 10. P a g e | 10 a magnetic material (i.e. metal), a current is passed through this wire. In doing this, the electric current will magnetize the metallic core. By using this simple principle, you can create all sorts of things including motors, solenoids, heads for hard disks, speakers, and so on. An electromagnet is one that uses the same type of principles as the permanent magnet but only on a temporary scale. This means that only when the current is flowing is there going to be an induced magnet. This type of magnet is an improvement to the permanent magnet because it allows somebody to select when and for how long the magnetic field lasts. It also gives a person control over how strong the magnet will be depending on the amount of current that is passed through the wire. Figure 2 Electromagnetic magnets 1.2.3 Electrodynamics type:- The ideas presented behind superconductive magnets are the same principles that are at work in an MRI. Superconductive magnets are the most common of all the magnets, and are sometimes called cry magnets. The idea behind the superconducting magnets is that there is a material which presents no electrical resistivity to electrical current. Once a current has been fed into the coils of this material, it will indefinitely flow without requiring the input of any additional current. The way that a material is able to have such a low resistivity to current is that it is brought to very low temperatures. The temperatures that are commonly found in superconducting magnets are around -258oC. This is done by immersing the coils that are holding the current into liquid Helium; this also helps in maintaining a homogenous magnetic field over time. The advantage to the superconducting magnet is that they don’t require constant power from a source to keep up the value of the current in the coils. Although a disadvantage is that they require an expensive cryogen such as helium to operate correctly. The magnetic field is in the direction of the long axis of the cylinder or bore of the magnet. Since the resistance in the coils can cause the current to decay, cryogens reduce the resistance to almost zero, which will
  11. 11. P a g e | 11 help maintain a homogenous magnetic field over time. Figure 3 Electrodynamics magnet
  12. 12. P a g e | 12 CHAPTER2:- WORKING PRINCIPLE 2.1 Levitation:- Support electromagnets built into the undercarriage and along the entire length of the train pull it up to the guide way electromagnets, which are called ferromagnetic reaction rails. The guidance magnets placed on each side of the train keep it centred along the track and guide the train along. All the electromagnets are controlled electronically in a precise manner. It ensures the train is always levitated at a distance of 8 to 10 mm from the guide way even when it isn't moving. This levitation system is powered by on-board batteries, which are charged up by the linear generator when the train travels. The generator consists of additional cable windings integrated in the levitation electromagnets. The induced current of the generator during driving uses the Propulsion magnetic field's harmonic waves, which are due to the side effects of the grooves of the long stator so the charging up process does not consume the useful propulsion magnetic field. The train can rely on this battery power for up to one hour without an external power source. The levitation system is independent from the propulsion system. Figure 4: Levitation
  13. 13. P a g e | 13 2.2 Propulsion:- The synchronous long stator linear motor of the Maglev system is used both for propulsion and braking. It is functioning like a rotating electric motor whose stator is cut open and stretched along under the guide way. Inside the motor windings, alternating current is generating a magnetic traveling field which moves the vehicle without contact. The support magnets in the vehicle function as the excitation portion (rotor). Propulsion system in the guide way is activated only in the section where the vehicle actually runs. The speed can be continuously regulated by varying the frequency of the alternating current. If the direction of the traveling field is reversed, the motor becomes a generator which breaks the vehicle without any contact. The braking energy can be re-used and fed back into the electrical network. The three-phase winded stator generates an electromagnetic travelling field and moves the train when it is supplied with an alternating current. The electromagnetic field from the support electromagnets (rotor) pulls it along. The magnetic field direction and speed of the stator and the rotor are synchronized. The Maglev's speed can vary from standstill to full operating speed by simply adjusting the frequency of the alternating current. To bring the train to a full stop, the direction of the travelling field is reversed. Even during braking, there isn't any mechanical contact between the stator and the rotor. Instead of consuming energy, the Maglev system acts as a generator, converting the breaking energy into electricity, which can be used elsewhere.
  14. 14. P a g e | 14 Figure 5:Propulsion 2.3 Stability:- For successful levitation and control of all 6 axes (degrees of freedom; 3 translational and 3 rotational) a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnets or diamagnets or superconductors as well as attractive and repulsive fields can be used. From Earns haw’s theorem at least one stable axis must be present for the system to levitate successfully, but the other axes can be stabilized using ferromagnetism. Static stability means that any small displacement away from a stable equilibrium causes a net force to push it back to the equilibrium point. Earns haw’s theorem proved conclusively that it is not possible to levitate stably using only static, macroscopic, paramagnetic fields. The forces acting on any paramagnetic object in any combinations of gravitational, electrostatic, and magneto static fields will make the object's position, at best, unstable along at least one axis, and it can be unstable equilibrium along all axes. However, several possibilities exist to make levitation viable, for example, the use of electronic stabilization or diamagnetic materials (since relative magnetic permeability is less than one); it can be shown that diamagnetic materials are stable along at least one axis, and can be stable along all axes. Conductors can have a relative permeability to alternating magnetic fields of below one, so some configurations using simple AC driven electromagnets are self-stable. Dynamic stability occurs when the levitation system is able to damp out any vibration-like motion that may occur.
  15. 15. P a g e | 15 Magnetic fields are conservative forces and therefore in principle have no built-in damping, and in practice many of the levitation schemes are under-damped and in some cases negatively damped.[4] This can permit vibration modes to exist that can cause the item to leave the stable region. Figure 6 :Stability 2.4 Guidance:- Electronically controlled support magnets located on both sides along the entire length of the vehicle pull the vehicle up to the ferromagnetic stator packs mounted to the underside of the guide way. Guidance magnets located on both sides along the entire length of the vehicle keep the vehicle laterally on the track. Electronic systems guarantee that the clearance remains constant (nominally 10 mm). To hover, the Maglev requires less power than its air conditioning equipment. The levitation system is supplied from on-board batteries and thus independent of the propulsion system. The vehicle is capable of hovering up to one hour without external energy. While travelling, the on-board batteries are recharged by linear generators integrated into the support magnets. The Maglev hovers over a double track guide way. It can be mounted either at grade or elevated on slim columns and consists of individual steel or concrete beams up to 62 m in length. Guidance or steering refers to the sideward forces that are required to make the vehicle follow the guide way. The necessary forces are supplied in an exactly analogous fashion to the
  16. 16. P a g e | 16 suspension forces, either attractive or repulsive. The same magnets on board the vehicle, which supply lift, can be used concurrently for guidance or separate guidance magnets can be used. They use Null Flux systems, also known as Null Current systems, this use a coil which is wound so that it enters two opposing, alternating fields. When the vehicle is in the straight ahead position, no current flows, but if it moves off-line this creates a changing flux that generates a field that pushes it back into line. Figure 7: Guidance
  17. 17. P a g e | 17 CHAPTER3:-EVACUATED TUBE AND ENERGY SOURCE 3.1 Evacuated Tube Some systems (notably the Swiss metro system) propose the use of Victorians—maglev train technology used in evacuated (airless) tubes, which removes air drag. This has the potential to increase speed and efficiency greatly, as most of the energy for conventional maglev trains is lost to aerodynamic drag. One potential risk for passengers of trains operating in evacuated tubes is that they could be exposed to the risk of cabin depressurization unless tunnel safety monitoring systems can depressurize the tube in the event of a train malfunction or accident though since trains are likely to operate at or near the Earth's surface, emergency restoration of ambient pressure should be straightforward. The RAND Corporation has depicted a vacuum tube train that could, in theory, cross the Atlantic or the USA in ~21 minutes
  18. 18. P a g e | 18 Figure 8 Evacuated tube 3.2 Energy Source:- Energy for maglev trains is used to accelerate the train. Energy may be regained when the train slows down via regenerative braking". It also levitates and stabilizes the train's movement. Most of the energy is needed to overcome "air drag". Some energy is used for air conditioning, heating, lighting and other miscellany. At low speeds the percentage of power (energy per time) used for levitation can be significant consuming up to 15% more power than a subway or light rail service. For short distances the energy used for acceleration might be considerable. The power used to overcome air drag increases with the cube of the velocity and hence dominates at high speed. The energy needed per mile increases by the square of the velocity and the time decreases linearly.) For example, two and half times as much power is needed to travel at 400 km/h than 300 km/h.
  19. 19. P a g e | 19 CHAPTER 4:-COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONALTRAIN AND AIRCRAFT 4.1:-COMPARISONWITH CONVENTIONALTRAIN Maglev transport is non-contact and electric powered. It relies less or not at all on the wheels, bearings and axles common to wheeled rail systems. Speed: - Maglev allows higher top speeds than conventional rail, but experimental wheel-based high-speed trains have demonstrated similar speeds. Maintenance: - Maglev trains currently in operation have demonstrated the need for minimal guide way maintenance. Vehicle maintenance is also minimal (based on hours of operation, rather than on speed or distance traveled). Traditional rail is subject to mechanical wear and tear that increases exponentially with speed, also increasing maintenance. Weather: - Maglev trains are little affected by snow, ice, severe cold, and rain or high winds. However, they have not operated in the wide range of conditions that traditional friction- based rail systems have operated. Maglev vehicles accelerate and decelerate faster than mechanical systems regardless of the slickness of the guide way or the slope of the grade because they are non-contact systems. Track: - Maglev trains are not compatible with conventional track, and therefore require custom infrastructure for their entire route. By contrast conventional high-speed trains such as the TGV are able to run, albeit at reduced speeds, on existing rail infrastructure, thus reducing expenditure where new infrastructure would be particularly expensive (such as the final approaches to city terminals), or on extensions where traffic does not justify new infrastructure. John Harding, former chief maglev scientist at the Federal Railroad Administration claimed that separate maglev infrastructure more than pays for itself with higher levels of all-weather operational availability and nominal maintenance costs. These claims have yet to be proven in an intense operational setting and do not consider the increased maglev construction costs. Efficiency: - Conventional rail is probably more efficient at lower speeds. But due to the lack of physical contact between the track and the vehicle, maglev trains experience no rolling
  20. 20. P a g e | 20 resistance, leaving only air resistance and electromagnetic drag, potentially improving power efficiency. Some systems however such as the Central Japan Railway Company SC Maglev use rubber tires at low speeds, reducing efficiency gains. Weight: - The electromagnets in many EMS and EDS designs require between 1 and 2 kilowatts per ton. The use of superconductor magnets can reduce the electromagnets' energy consumption. A 50-ton Tran’s rapid maglev vehicle can lift an additional 20 tons, for a total of 70 tons, which consumes 70-140 kW. Most energy use for the TRI is for propulsion and overcoming air resistance at speeds over 100 mph. Weight loading: - High speed rail requires more support and construction for its concentrated wheel loading. Maglev cars are lighter and distribute weight more evenly. Noise: - Because the major source of noise of a maglev train comes from displaced air rather than from wheels touching rails, maglev trains produce less noise than a conventional train at equivalent speeds. However, the psychoacoustic profile of the maglev may reduce this benefit: a study concluded that maglev noise should be rated like road traffic, while conventional trains experience a 5–10 dB "bonus", as they are found less annoying at the same loudness level. Braking: - Braking and overhead wire wear have caused problems for the Fastest 360 rail Shinkansen. Maglev would eliminate these issues. Magnet reliability: -At higher temperatures magnets may fail. New alloys and manufacturing techniques have addressed this issue. Control systems: - No signaling systems are needed for high-speed rail, because such systems are computer controlled. Human operators cannot react fast enough to manage high- speed trains. High speed systems require dedicated rights of way and are usually elevated. Two maglev system microwave towers are in constant contact with trains. There is no need for train whistles or horns, either. Terrain: -Maglevs are able to ascend higher grades, offering more routing flexibility and reduced tunneling.
  21. 21. P a g e | 21 4.2:-Comparison with aircraft Differences between airplane and maglev travel: Efficiency: - For maglev systems the lift-to-drag ratio can exceed that of aircraft (for example Induct rack can approach 200:1 at high speed, far higher than any aircraft). This can make maglev more efficient per kilometer. However, at high cruising speeds, aerodynamic drag is much larger than lift-induced drag. Jets take advantage of low air density at high altitudes to significantly reduce air drag. Hence despite their lift-to-drag ratio disadvantage, they can travel more efficiently at high speeds than maglev trains that operate at sea level. Routing: - While aircraft can theoretically take any route between points, commercial air routes are rigidly defined. Maglevs offer competitive journey times over distances of 800 kilometers (500 miles) or less. Additionally, maglevs can easily serve intermediate destinations. Availability: - Maglevs are little affected by weather. Safety: - Maglevs offer a significant safety margin since maglevs do not crash into other maglevs or leave their guide ways. Combustible aircraft fuel is a significant danger during takeoff and landing. Travel time: - Maglevs do not face the extended security protocols faced by air travelers nor are time consumed for taxiing, or for queuing for take-off and landing.
  22. 22. P a g e | 22 CHAPTER5:- ECONOMICS The Shanghai maglev demonstration line cost US$1.2 billion to build. This total includes capital costs such as right-of-way clearing, extensive pile driving, on-site guide way manufacturing, in- situ pier construction at 25 metre intervals, a maintenance facility and vehicle yard, several switches, two stations, operations and control systems, power feed system, cables and inverters, and operational training. Ridership is not a primary focus of this demonstration line, since the Long yang Road station is on the eastern outskirts of Shanghai. Once the line is extended to South Shanghai Train station and Hongqiao Airport station, ridership was expected to cover operation and maintenance costs and generate significant net revenue. The South Shanghai extension was expected to cost approximately US$18 million per kilometre. In 2006 the German government invested $125 million in guide way cost reduction development that produced an all-concrete modular design that is faster to build and is 30% less costly. Other new construction techniques were also developed that put maglev at or below price parity with new high-speed rail construction. The United States Federal Railroad Administration, in a 2005 report to Congress, estimated cost per mile of between $50m and $100m
  23. 23. P a g e | 23 CHAPTER6:- MERITS AND DEMERITS With that we come to the core issue, the pros and cons of the Maglev Train System that need to be taken into consideration in order to determine whether it is really feasible when it comes to the United States. Basically, the practice tracks are already in place in different parts of the world; the US in no exception. More importantly, the Maglev Train System has already tasted success in various countries, including Japan and China. On the basis of the performance of existing maglevs, which include the ones that are in service as well as the ones which are being tested, we were able to come up with the following advantages and disadvantages of the system. MERITS The foremost advantage of maglev trains is the fact that it doesn't have moving parts as conventional trains do, and therefore, the wear and tear of parts is minimal, and that reduces the maintenance cost by a significant extent. More importantly, there is no physical contact between the train and track, so there is no rolling resistance. While electromagnetic drag and air friction do exist, that doesn't hinder their ability to clock a speed in excess of 200 mph. Absence of wheels also comes as a boon, as you don't have to deal with deafening noise that is likely to come with them Maglevs also boast of being environment friendly, as they don't resort to internal combustion engines. These trains are weather proof, which means rain, snow, or severe cold don't really hamper their performance. Experts are of the opinion that these trains are a lot safe than their conventional counterparts as they are equipped with state-of-the-art safety systems, which can keep things in control even when the train is cruising at a high speed. DEMERITS while the advantages of Maglev Train System may seem quite promising in themselves, they are not enough to overshadow the biggest problem with the maglev trains: the high cost incurred on the initial setup. While the fast conventional trains that have been introduced of late, work fine on tracks which were meant for slow trains, maglev trains require an all new set up right from the scratch. As the present railway infrastructure is of no use for maglevs, it will either have to be replaced with the Maglev System or an entirely new set up will have to be
  24. 24. P a g e | 24 created―both of which will cost a decent amount in terms of initial investment. Even though inexpensive as compared to EDS, it is still expensive compared to other modes. If the advantages and disadvantages of these trains are pitted against each other, it can be a bit difficult to come to a concrete conclusion. While the high cost of initial set up is something that a developed nation like the United States won't have to worry about, the fact that the entire infrastructure has to be replaced with a new one will be something that will have the experts in a catch-22 situation. But obviously, we will have to do away with their disadvantages if we are to invest in maglev trains. If the commercial success of the Shanghai maglev train is to be taken into consideration, these trains can be surely considered the transport system of the future.
  25. 25. P a g e | 25 CHAPTER7:- EXISTING MAGLEV SYSTEM A)-Japan has a demonstration line in Yamanashi prefecture where test train SC Maglev MLX01 reached 581 km/h (361 mph), slightly faster than any wheeled trains. These trains use superconducting magnets which allow for a larger gap, and repulsive/attractive-type electrodynamics suspension (EDS). In comparison Tran’s rapid uses conventional electromagnets and attractive- type electromagnetic suspension (EMS). On 15th November 2014, The Central Japan Railway Company ran eight days of testing for the experimental maglev Shinkansen train on its test track in Yamanashi Prefecture. One hundred passengers covered a 42.8 km (27-mile) route between the cities of Uenohara and Fuefuki, reaching speeds of up to 500 km/h (311 mph) B) - San Diego, USA General Atomics has a 120-metre test facility in San Diego that is used to test Union Pacific's 8 km (5.0 mi) freight shuttle in Los Angeles. The technology is "passive" (or "permanent"), using permanent magnets in a halfback array for lift and requiring no electromagnets for either levitation or propulsion. General Atomics received US$90 million in research funding from the federal government. They are also considering their technology for high-speed passenger services. C) - Southwest Jiao tong University, China On 31 December 2000, the first crewed high-temperature superconducting maglev was tested successfully at Southwest Jiao tong University, Chengdu, China. This system is based on the principle that bulk high-temperature superconductors can be levitated stably above or below a permanent magnet. The load was over 530 kg (1,170 lb.) and the levitation gap over 20 mm (0.79 in). The system uses liquid nitrogen to cool the superconductor. PROPOSED:- 1) Australia- Sydney-Illawarra A maglev route was proposed between Sydney and Wollongong. The proposal came to prominence in the mid-1990s. The Sydney–Wollongong commuter corridor is the largest in
  26. 26. P a g e | 26 Australia, with upwards of 20,000 people commuting each day. Current trains use the Illawarra line, between the cliff face of the Illawarra escarpment and the Pacific Ocean, with travel times about two hours. The proposal would cut travel times to 20 minutes. 2) Melbourne- In late 2008, a proposal was put forward to the Government of Victoria to build a privately funded and operated maglev line to service the Greater Melbourne metropolitan area in response to the Erdington Transport Report that did not investigate above-ground transport options. The maglev would service a population of over 4 million and the proposal was coasted at an$8 billion. However despite road congestion and Australia's highest road space per capita, the government dismissed the proposal in favor of road expansion including an A$8.5 billion road tunnel, $6 billion extension of the East link to the Western Ring Road and a $700 million Frankston Bypass. 3) Italy- A first proposal was formalized on April 2008, in Brescia, by journalist Andrew Spandau’s who recommended a high speed connection between Malpensa airport to the cities of Milan, Bergamo and Brescia. On March 2011 Nicola Oliva proposed a maglev connection between Pisa airport and the cities of Prato and Florence (Santa Maria Novella train station and Florence Airport). The travelling time would be reduced from the typical hour and a quarter to around twenty minutes. The second part of the line would be a connection to Livorno, to integrate maritime, aerial and terrestrial transport systems. 4) United Kingdom- London – Glasgow: A line was proposed in the United Kingdom from London to Glasgow with several route options through the Midlands, Northwest and Northeast of England. It was reported to be under favorable consideration by the government. The approach was rejected in the Government White Paper Delivering a Sustainable Railway published on 24 July 2007Another high-speed link was planned between Glasgow and Edinburgh but the technology remained unsettled
  27. 27. P a g e | 27 -: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION:- • Maglev Transport Offers Many Major Benefits, Including – Very High Energy Efficiency, Low Cost Transport – Does Not Use Oil, Helps Curb Global Warming – New U.S. Industry with Many Thousands of Jobs & Billions of Dollars in Exports • 1st Generation Passenger Only German and Japanese Maglev Systems Too Expensive -- Steel Wheeled HSR Systems Too Limited • 2nd Generation U.S. Maglev-2000 System Much Lower in Cost and Much More Capable Than 1st Generation Systems. – Can Carry High Revenue Highway Trucks, Freight Containers, & Personal Autos – Levitated Travel on Existing RR Tracks in Urban and Suburban Areas – Payback Time <5 years • 25,000 Mile National Maglev Network and Electric Cars Will Eliminate Oil Imports By 2030 • U.S. Can Be World Leader in Maglev, But Must Act Now.  They consume less energy.  Require no engine.  Move faster than normal trains because they are not affected by ground friction; their rights-of-way, meanwhile, cost about the same to build.  Incompatible with existing rail lines, unlike traditional high-speed rail.  Initial cost is very high.
  28. 28. P a g e | 28 -: REFERENCES:- 1) B. Ning, T. Tang, H. Dong, D. Wen, D. Liu, S. Gao, and J. Wang, “An introduction to parallel control and management for high-speed railway systems,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1473– 1483, Dec. 2011 2) R.S.He,Z.D.Zhong,B.Ai,J.Ding,Y.Yang,andA.F.Molisch,“Short-term fading behaviour in high-speed railway cutting scenario: Measurements, analysis, and statistical models,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 2209–2222, Apr. 2013 3) S. Atev, G. Miller, and P. Papanikolopoulos, “Clustering of vehicle trajectories,”IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 647–657, Sep. 2010. 4) 5)