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# Maglev Basic Introduction

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in this Presentation i discus EMS and EDS System of Levitation.Maglev Basic is Described here in very easy way.

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### Maglev Basic Introduction

1. 1. Maglev is a system of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles, predominantly trains, using magnetic levitation from a very large number of magnets for lift and propulsion. This method has the potential to be faster, quieter and smoother than wheeled mass transit systems. The highest recorded speed is 581 km/h achieved in Japan in 2003.
2. 2. Maglev Consist of Three parts 1)Levitation 2)Guidance 3)Propulsion
3. 3.  Electromagnetic suspension  Eelctrodynamic Suspension
4. 4. 1) In electrodynamic suspension (EDS), both the rail and the train exert a magnetic field, and the train is levitated by the repulsive force between these magnetic fields. 2) The basic Principle is based on electromagnetic Induction 3) The superconducting magnets move at a very high speed and magnetic field changes in the “8” shaped coils 4) The trick is that the magnets fixed in trains moves slightly below the center of “8” shaped coils so the flux changing at the lower half is more then the upper part
5. 5. 5) The magnetic pole of the lower half is same as that of the moving magnet so both repel Each other. 6) Upper part has a opposite polarity so it attract the moving magnet. 7) Both forces combine and produce the component of force that pulls the train in the upward Direction
6. 6. 1) No EDS system Can Levitate the train at rest Because without movement no flux change occur so consequently no Magnetic Force will appear 2) Train must have wheels or some other form of landing gear to support the train until it reaches a speed that can sustain levitation 3) Since a train may stop at any location, due to equipment problems for instance, the entire track must be able to support both low-speed and high- speed operation Electrodynamic Systems Levitate only in Motion.
7. 7. Electrodynamic Systems are Naturally Stable The distance between the track and the magnets creates strong forces to repel the magnets back to their original position, while a slight increase in distance greatly reduces the force and again returns the vehicle to the right separation. No feedback control is needed.
8. 8. 1) In electromagnetic Suspension train levitate above the steel rails due to the attraction between the opposite poles of magnets one in the guideway and the other in the undercarriage. 2)Distance Between the rail and the undercarriage must maintained 15mm. 3) Train also remain suspended in air when it is not moving . 4)Guidance Magnets Ensure that the train may not Collide with the rails During Motion.
9. 9. 5) Minor Changing Between the Magnets and the Rail Produces a Varying force and this force is very unstable do Complex electronic Feedback system is Necessary to maintain the accurate Distance. 6)The system varies the Current in electromagnets and Control the Magnetic force of attraction.
10. 10. 1)The coils in the beam propel the train in the forward direction. 2) Once the train is reached to a proper speed then due to the magnetic field changing in the “8” shaped coils north and south pole produce which produce upward Component of force and lift the train 3) The electric current supplied to the coils in the guideway walls is constantly alternating to change the polarity of the magnetized coils. EDS System
11. 11. 4)This change in polarity causes the magnetic field in front of the train to pull the vehicle forward, while the magnetic field behind the train adds more forward thrust.
12. 12. EMS system 1)In EMS system electromagnets Attract the track and the train levitate 2) Linear Motors are at the Center of The track which propel the train. 3) Gray area is Concrete and Blue area is Steel.
13. 13. 1) An EDS system can provide both levitate and propulsion using an onboard linear motor. 2) EMS systems can only levitate the train using the magnets onboard, not propel it forward. 3) As such, vehicles need some other technology for propulsion A linear motor (propulsion coils) mounted in the track is one solution. 4) Over long distances where the cost of propulsion coils could be prohibitive, a propeller or jet engine could be used. 5) For propulsion and braking of a Maglev, a long electromagnetic stator is installed underneath both sides of the guideway facing the train's support electromagnets and the rotor is build on the undercarriage of the train.
14. 14. 1)The Maglev's speed can vary from standstill to full operating speed by simply adjusting the frequency of the alternating current in the stator. 2) To bring the train to a full stop, the direction of the travelling field is reversed. 3) Even during braking, there isn't any mechanical contact between the stator and the rotor. 4)View of the Stator from bottom==
15. 15. 1) Onboard magnets and large margin between rail and train enable highest recorded train speeds (581 km/h) 2) Heavy load capacity 1) Strong magnetic fields onboard the train would make the train inaccessible to passengers with pacemakers or magnetic data storage media such as hard drives and credit card. 2) vehicle must be wheeled for travel at low speeds. 3) Magnetic Shielding is necessary .
16. 16. 1) Magnetic fields inside and outside the vehicle are less than EDS. 2) commercially available technology that can attain very high speeds (500 km/h). 3) No wheels needed. 1) The separation between the vehicle and the guideway must be constantly monitored and corrected by computer systems to avoid collision due to the unstable nature of electromagnetic attraction. 2) Vibration issues may occur.
17. 17. 1)maglev trains produce less noise than a conventional train at equivalent speeds. 2) The weight of the large electromagnets in many EMS and EDS designs is a major design issue. A very strong magnetic field is required to levitate a massive train. 3) Maglev trains currently in operation are not compatible with conventional track, and therefore require all new infrastructure for their entire route. 4) Due to the lack of physical contact between the track and the vehicle, maglev trains experience no rolling resistance, leaving only air resistance and electromagnetic drag potentially improving power efficiency
18. 18. 6) Maglev is atmosphere friendly not produce toxic Smoke. 7)Relatively very high speed then Commercial trains. 8) No resistance between the rail and Track so very high speed is attainable that's why some times Maglev is compared with aero plans.