Maglev is a system of transportation that suspends,
guides and propels vehicles, predominantly trains,
using magnetic levitation from a very large number
of magnets for lift and propulsion. This method has
the potential to be faster, quieter and smoother than
wheeled mass transit systems.
The highest recorded speed is 581 km/h achieved
in Japan in 2003.
Maglev Consist of Three
1) In electrodynamic suspension (EDS), both the
rail and the train exert a magnetic field, and the
train is levitated by the repulsive force between
these magnetic fields.
2) The basic Principle is based on
3) The superconducting magnets move at a very
high speed and magnetic field changes in the
“8” shaped coils
4) The trick is that the magnets fixed in trains
moves slightly below the center of “8” shaped
coils so the flux changing at the lower half is
more then the upper part
5) The magnetic pole of the lower half is same as
that of the moving magnet so both repel Each
6) Upper part has a opposite polarity so it attract
the moving magnet.
7) Both forces combine and produce the
component of force that pulls the train in the
1) No EDS system Can Levitate the train at rest
Because without movement no flux change occur
so consequently no Magnetic Force will appear
2) Train must have wheels or some other form of
landing gear to support the train until it reaches a
speed that can sustain levitation
3) Since a train may stop at any location, due to
equipment problems for instance, the entire track
must be able to support both low-speed and high-
Electrodynamic Systems Levitate only
Electrodynamic Systems are Naturally
The distance between the track and the
magnets creates strong forces to repel the
magnets back to their original position, while a
slight increase in distance greatly reduces the
force and again returns the vehicle to the right
separation. No feedback control is needed.
1) In electromagnetic Suspension train levitate
above the steel rails due to the attraction
between the opposite poles of magnets one in
the guideway and the other in the
2)Distance Between the rail and the
undercarriage must maintained 15mm.
3) Train also remain suspended in air when it
is not moving .
4)Guidance Magnets Ensure that the train
may not Collide with the rails During Motion.
5) Minor Changing Between the Magnets and
the Rail Produces a Varying force and this
force is very unstable do Complex electronic
Feedback system is Necessary to maintain the
6)The system varies the Current in
electromagnets and Control the Magnetic
force of attraction.
1)The coils in the beam propel the train in
the forward direction.
2) Once the train is reached to a proper
speed then due to the magnetic field
changing in the “8” shaped coils north and
south pole produce which produce upward
Component of force and lift the train
3) The electric current supplied to the coils in
the guideway walls is constantly alternating
to change the polarity of the magnetized
4)This change in polarity causes the
magnetic field in front of the train to pull
the vehicle forward, while the magnetic
field behind the train adds more forward
1)In EMS system electromagnets
Attract the track and the train
2) Linear Motors are at the Center
of The track which propel the train.
3) Gray area is Concrete and Blue
area is Steel.
1) An EDS system can provide both levitate and propulsion using an
onboard linear motor.
2) EMS systems can only levitate the train using the magnets onboard,
not propel it forward.
3) As such, vehicles need some other technology for propulsion A
linear motor (propulsion coils) mounted in the track is one solution.
4) Over long distances where the cost of propulsion coils could be
prohibitive, a propeller or jet engine could be used.
5) For propulsion and braking of a Maglev, a long electromagnetic
stator is installed underneath both sides of the guideway facing the
train's support electromagnets and the rotor is build on the
undercarriage of the train.
1)The Maglev's speed can vary from
standstill to full operating speed by simply
adjusting the frequency of the alternating
current in the stator.
2) To bring the train to a full stop, the direction
of the travelling field is reversed.
3) Even during braking, there isn't any
mechanical contact between the stator and
4)View of the Stator from bottom==
1) Onboard magnets and large margin between rail and
train enable highest recorded train speeds (581 km/h)
2) Heavy load capacity
1) Strong magnetic fields onboard the train would make
the train inaccessible to passengers with pacemakers or
magnetic data storage media such as hard drives
and credit card.
2) vehicle must be wheeled for travel at low speeds.
3) Magnetic Shielding is necessary .
1) Magnetic fields inside and outside the vehicle are less than
2) commercially available technology that can attain very high
speeds (500 km/h).
3) No wheels needed.
1) The separation between the vehicle and the guideway
must be constantly monitored and corrected by computer
systems to avoid collision due to the unstable nature of
2) Vibration issues may occur.
1)maglev trains produce less noise than a conventional train at
2) The weight of the large electromagnets in many EMS and EDS
designs is a major design issue. A very strong magnetic field is required
to levitate a massive train.
3) Maglev trains currently in operation are not compatible with
conventional track, and therefore require all new infrastructure for their
4) Due to the lack of physical contact between the track and the vehicle,
maglev trains experience no rolling resistance, leaving only air
resistance and electromagnetic drag potentially improving power
6) Maglev is atmosphere friendly not produce toxic Smoke.
7)Relatively very high speed then Commercial trains.
8) No resistance between the rail and Track so very high speed is
attainable that's why some times Maglev is compared with aero plans.