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  1. 1. 3D-Biomechanical Analysis of the Soccer Kick
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>We chose to look at the biomechanics of the soccer kick </li></ul><ul><li>Two different kicks were looked at: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The straight kick </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The sweep kick </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Purpose & Objectives <ul><li>We sought to look at the angular velocities, moments and powers at the hip and knee joints </li></ul><ul><li>The different contributions of the specific muscle groups for each of the kicks </li></ul>
  4. 4. Literature reviewed <ul><li>Majority of previous studies have focused on the kinematics </li></ul><ul><li>Very few studies have performed 3-D analysis, those that have did kinematics only </li></ul><ul><li>Previous studies found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hip flexion followed by hip extension moment produces knee extension, not the knee extensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knee flexors are active during knee extension to prevent hyperextension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(study by D.G.E. Robertson, C. Fernando, M. Hart & F. Beaulieu) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Methods <ul><li>The motion was captured using the Vicon ® motion capture system </li></ul><ul><li>5 infrared cameras were used at a sampling rate of 100Hz. The data was filtered using a Woltring GCV filter </li></ul><ul><li>A 28-marker set was used as illustrated left </li></ul>
  6. 6. Methods <ul><li>The different kicking styles were analyzed for moment forces and power. </li></ul><ul><li>The first style looked at was the straight kick- where the athlete approaches the ball straight on. </li></ul><ul><li>The next style was the sweep kick- where the athlete approaches the ball from the side. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject was a male 22 year old experienced soccer player </li></ul><ul><li>Performed 4 trials of each kick, and we attempted to analyze the best trials </li></ul>
  7. 7. Straight Kick <ul><li>Approaching the ball straight on </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly a flexion/extension action </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal abduction/adduction </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sweep Kick <ul><li>Approaching the ball at an angle </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial abduction/adduction components </li></ul>
  9. 9. Joint Power Analysis (Flexion/ Extension) Straight Kick <ul><li>Hip: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension is negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion is positive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knee: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension is positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion is negative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moment power(W) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive = concentric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative = eccentric </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Joint Power Analysis (Flexion/ Extension) Sweep Kick <ul><li>Hip: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension is negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion is positive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knee: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension is positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion is negative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moment power(W) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive = concentric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative = eccentric </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Joint Power Analysis (Abduction/ Adduction) Sweep Kick <ul><li>Hip: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension is negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion is positive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knee: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension is positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion is negative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moment power(W) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive = concentric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative = eccentric </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Analysis Summary <ul><li>The hip flexors and extensors are responsible for producing the majority of the kicking force </li></ul><ul><li>During knee extension, the flexors are active just before strike preventing hyperextension </li></ul><ul><li>Hip extensor action just prior to contact is what initiates knee extension </li></ul>
  13. 13. Analysis Summary <ul><li>The abduction/ adduction curves follow a similar path to the flexion/ extension graphs. </li></ul><ul><li>The magnitudes of the abduction/ adduction are substantial for the velocities and moments, but much smaller for the powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical structures resist moments thus reducing powers </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusions and Recommendations <ul><li>Our results supported the previous studies concerning the powers and forces for flexion/ extension </li></ul><ul><li>Our abduction/ adduction results were what we expected based on anatomical predicions </li></ul><ul><li>Some studies have shown that the sweep kick produces higher ball velocities, possibly due to the added abduction/ adduction forces of the limb. </li></ul><ul><li>Now that more 3D capture technology is available more kinetic studies should be done. </li></ul>