APPLICATION AND TESTING OFNONWOVENSubmitted By:-Tina dhingraThe Technical Institute of Textile and Sciences ( Bhiwani)M.tech (F.A.E)
Defination of nonwoven• Defination According to ASTM 1989:-Structureproduced by bonding or interlacement of fiber or bothaccomplished by mechanical , chemical ,thermal or solventmean and the combination of techniques .Term does not includepaper or fabric that are woven, knitted or tufted or thosemade by other felting process.orwe can say that nonwoven is direct conversion of fiberto fabric.
Why to go for nonwoven????• Due to high production a versality of use ofdifferent fibres to produce final product havingrequired properties according to final productand also elimination of spinning and weavingprocess• The function and general textile-physical andchemical characteristics should also be evaluatedas a function of the very different end-uses of thevarious materials
INDA -Standard methods of testingnonwoven• Trapezoid tear• Cantilever stiffness• Tear strength• Breaking load and elongation• Thickness• Co-efficient of friction• Resistance to dry cleaning and laundering• Resistance to linting• Web uniformity test• Resistance to penetration of bacteria• Gurley stiffness test• Internal bond strength• Weight (grammage)Reference:- BY HASSAN M.BEHERY(Nonwovens- Theory, process, performance and testing) chapter -10/207
Standard Test Method forTearing Strength of Fabrics by the Tongue (Single rip)procedure• The CRE-type tensile testing machine has become thepreferred test apparatus for determining tonguetearing strength.• This test method applies to most fabrics including• woven fabrics, air bag fabrics, blankets, napped fabrics, knitfabrics, layered fabrics, pile fabrics. The fabrics may beuntreated, heavily sized, coated, resin-treated, or otherwisetreated.Instructions are provided for testing specimens with orwithout wetting.Reference:- Annual book of ASTM Standard, vol 07.02, D 5735-95
Standard Test Method forTearing Strength of nonwoven Fabrics• A rectangular specimen, cut in the centerof a short edge to form a two-tongued(trouser shaped) specimen,• in which one tongue of the specimen isgripped in the upper jaw and the othertongue is gripped in the lower jaw of atensile testing machine.• The separation of the jaws is continuouslyincreased to apply a force to propagate thetear.• At the same time, the force developed isrecorded.• The force to continue the tear is calculatedfrom autographic chart recorders ormicroprocessor data collection systems.Reference:- Annual book of ASTM Standard, vol 07.02, D 5735-95
Standard Test Method stiffness of nonwovenfabrics using the cantilever test• Scope :-• This test method covers stiffness properties of nonwovenfabrics by employing the principle of cantilever bending ofthe fabric under its own weight.• Bending length is measured and flexural rigidity calculated.• This test method applies to most nonwoven fabrics thatare treated or untreated, including those heavily sized,coated, or resin treatedReference:- Annual book of ASTM Standard, vol 07.02, D 5732-95
Stiffness testing method of thenon-woven fabrics• Set the tester on a table or bench .• Remove the movable slide. Place the specimen onthe stationary table with the length of thespecimen parallel to the edge of the table. Alignthe edge of the specimen with the line scribed6mm (1/4 in.) from the right-hand edge of thetable.• Place the movable slide on to the specimencareful not to change its initial position.• Verify that the bend angle indicator is at the (41.5degree) angle marked on the scale.• In manually testers, move the clamped specimenby hand in a smooth even manner until the edgeof the specimen touches the knife edge.• Read and record the overhang length from thelinear scale to nearest 1 mm.Reference:- Annual book of ASTM Standard, vol 07.02,D 5732-95
Application Area1)Sanitary and Medicaluses1.Feminine Hygiene2.Diapers3.Patient Apparel4.Surgical gown/ mask2)Packaging materials 1.Floor & wall covering2.Blankets3.Pillow covers, Bed sheets4.Towels5.Luggage & Table cloth6.House hold wipes3)Civil Engg. Application 1.Geotextiles water proofing2.Roofing material
Hygiene and medical products• The largest use of and textiles is for hygieneapplications such as wipes.• Babies diapers (nappies) and adult sanitary andincontinence products.• Nonwoven fabrics are used in the medical andhygiene sectors to treat patients both directly andindirectly.• This provides information on the compatibility ofmaterials and products which come into contactwith the skin.
Properties of the medical nonwoven• The main criteria for determining thesuitability of textile products are :-• – barrier efficiency toward bacteria, viruses,liquids and dust particles• – capacity to absorb and store body fluids• – resistance to mechanical influences
Barrier efficiency towardsbacteria and liquidsSS 8760019 EDANA 190.0-8ASTM F 1670-97ASTM F 1671-97DIN EN 20811Bacterial loading of products DIN EN 1174Particle emissions EDANA 220.0-96EDANA 300.0-84Liquid absorption capacity ASTM F 1819-97Liquid storage capacity ISO 9073-6Liquid transfer capacity Test methods of the leading organizationsof German medicalinsurance companiesTextile-physical properties ISO 9073-3ISO 9073-4ISO 13938-1STANDARD FOR MEDICAL AND HEIGIENE NON-WOVEN
Test methods for fluid barrierproperties of surgical gowns (AAMI)• Impact penetration• Hydrostatic pressure test• Blood repellency test• Antibacterial assessment
Test method for surgical gown• Impact penetration:-impact penetration testis performed according to the AATCC 42. A 178x33O mmsample with pre weighted blotting paper is placed on aninclined surface at an angle of 45 as shown in figure.• One end of specimen is clamped under the springclamp at the top of inclined stand. Another clamp of0.4536 kg is clamped to the free end of sample.• A 5OO ml of distilled water is poured in the funnel ofthe tester and allowed to spray on to the specimen froma height of 60 c.m.• The blotting paper is removed and reweighed. Theamount of water passing through the fabric is given bythe change in weight of the blotting paper, which can beused as an indication of water repellency.Spray impact penetrationtestReference:- VINAY KUMAR MIDHANational seminar on nonwovens and technical textiles, October 5-6,2012Department of textile technology, NIT Jalandhar
Household textiles• Nonwoven fabrics can be used in the followinghousehold textile applications:• – floor coverings• – sub-upholstery materials• – webbingsMaterials for use in the contract sector have tomeet legal specifications regarding theirflammability.
NONWOVEN HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTNonwoven wall hanging China nonwoven carpet
Materials for use in the contract sector haveto meet legal specifications regarding theirflammability:-DIN 53 855-3: 1979-01 Testing of textiles – Determination of thickness oftextilefabrics – Floor coveringsDIN 54 316: 1983-10 Testing of textiles – Determination of thickness lossoftextile floor coverings at static load.DIN 54 326: 1984-01 Testing of textiles – Determination of appearanceretentionof textile floor coverings – Tetra pod-walker-testDIN 54 345-3 1985-07 Testing of textiles – Electrostatic behavior –Determinationof electrostatic charge of textile floor coverings bymachineSpecial DIN Standards exist only for floor coverings;these are already subject to existing textile-physicaltesting procedures for use in special applications.These include, for example:-
Properties for household product(carpets)• Colorfastness to light• Colorfastness to water• Colorfastness to rubbing• Colorfastness to dry-cleaning solvents• Resistance to insects• Bond strength with backing• Resiliency• Flammability• Water repellency
Heat- and flame-resistant clothingEN 469 Protective clothing for fire fighters – Requirements andtest methods for protective clothing for fire fightingEN 1486 Protective clothing for fire fighters – Test methods andrequirements for reflective clothing for specialized fire fighting.EN 470-1 Protective clothing for use in welding and allied processes– Part 1: General requirementsEN 531 Protective clothing for industrial workers exposed to heat(excluding fire fighters’ and welders’ clothing)EN 533 Protective clothing – Protection against heat and flame –Limited flame spread materials and material assemblies
EN 348 Protective clothing – Test method: determination of behavior ofmaterials on impact of small splashes of moltenmetalEN 366 Protective clothing – Test method: determination of behavior ofmaterials on impact of small splashes of moltenMetalEN 367 Protective clothing – Protection against heat and fire – Method ofdetermining heat transmission on exposure to flameEN 373 Protective clothing – Assessment of resistance of materials tomolten metal splashEN 532 Protective clothing – Protection against heat and flame – Testmethod for limited flame spreadEN 702 Protective clothing – Protection against heat and flame Testmethod: Determination of the contact heat transmission throughprotective clothing or its materialsSpecial testing standards:-
NONWOVEN INPROTECTIVE CLOTHINGFLAME RESISTANCE NONWOVEN GLOVESNONWOVEN USEDRESIST TO CHEMICAL
Filter fabrics• Pulsejet fabric filters are widely used in manyindustries like solid, fuel, Fired power generation.• e.g. for industrial dust removal or for cleaningatmospheric air.• Conveyor belts, seal gasket, other industrialequipment.• nonwoven fabrics are to be used as filter media forboth wet and dry filtration.• The end-use-specific textile physical and generalphysical parameters should also be determined:-
Property of filter nonwoven fabric• mass per unit area• – thickness• – gross density• – percentage of pores• – air permeability• – strength and deformation characteristics• – surface characteristics• – behavior during further processing• – moisture absorption capacity• – burning behavior• – electrostatic behavior
Required property of industrial fabrics• Their resistance to other materials should alsobe determined:• – chemical resistance• – thermal resistance• – biological resistance, e.g. to bacteria
Geo Textiles• Nonwoven geotextiles:-nonwoven geotextiles arethicker and made either from short and continuousfilaments, carded or laid in even patterns and thenmechanically (needle punched) or thermally bonded.Woven geotextiles Nonwoven geotextiles
Benefits of nonwoven geotextiles• Cheap and easy to manufacture.• Superior chemical resistance in even theaggressive environment application.• Highly porous structure• Staple fibres needle punched together to formfabric capable of withstanding constructioninstallation stresses.
Published product standards for geotextiles and relatedproducts, situation as at 1999-06 :-
Mechanical property of geo textile• Tensile and puncture properties of geotextiles• Frictional behavior of geotextiles• Creep behavior of geotextiles• Hydraulic properties of geotextiles• Porous structure of geotextiles• Permeability characteristics of geotextiles
1) Breaking (grab strength) ASTM D 5034-952) Trapezoid tearing strength ASTM D4533-043) Puncture strength ASTM D4833-00e14) Permittivity ASTM D4491-99a(D5493-93)5) Pore size ASTM D4451-04(D6767-02)6) Mass per unit area ASTM D5261-927) Bursting strength ASTM D3786-01
(An apparatus for in Soiltesting)Reference:- Amit Rawal , Tahir Shah and shubash AnandTextile progressGeotextiles : production, properties and performanceVol. 42, no. 3, September 2010, 181-226
Conclusion…..• nonwoven is direct conversion of fiber to fabric.elimination of spinning and weaving process.• Application area of nonwoven are medical and hygiene,civil Engg. (geotextiles) apparel, footwear and other uses.• These are standard method used for nonwoven.Trapezoid tear, Cantilever stiffness, Tear strength,Breaking load and elongation,Thickness,Co-efficient offriction, Resistance to dry cleaning and laundering,Resistance to linting.• Nonwoven fabric is a cheap and easy to manufacture.
Other References• www.Conteches.com “product/geotextlies/woven-geotextiles.”• www.geofabrics.com “geotextiles”.• www.conteches.com “geotextiles/nonwoven-geotextles”.• Huang, W and Leonas, k. (2000). Evaluating a one Bath process for Imparting Antimicrobialactivity and Repellency to Nonwoven Surgical Gown Fabrics, Textile Research journal 70(9),774-782.