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Advance spinning techniques

Sohail AD
Sohail AD
Sohail ADTextile Engineer at National Textile University

Textile advance yarn spinning techniques are briefly described.

Advance spinning techniques

1 of 246
Advance Spinning
Techniques
Coarse Code: YM-4013
By
Sohail AD
12-NTU-0024
National Textile University
What is Spinning?
• Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic
fibers are drawn out and twisted together to form yarn. For
thousands of years, fiber was spun by hand using simple tools, the
spindle and distaff.
• Spinning is a major part of the textile industry. It is part of the textile
manufacturing process where three types of fiber are converted into
yarn, then fabrics, which undergo finishing processes such as
bleaching to become textiles. The textiles are then fabricated into
clothes or other products.
Definition
Spinning could be defined as;
• The drafting and, where appropriate, the insertion of twist in natural
or staple man-made fibers to form a yarn.
• The extrusion of filaments by spiders or silkworms.
• The production of filaments from glass, metals, fiber-forming
polymers or ceramics.
Spinning Process
• Spinning process basically consists of three stages;
1) Reduction of strand thickness from supply roving or sliver to
required yarn count. This is usually done by roller drafting.
2) Prevention of fiber slippage usually by twist insertion, although
there are new methods invented now. Simply binding of individual
fibers.
3) Winding on to a package which is convenient for handling and
which protects yarn.
Spinning history & 1st Spinning technique
• The origins of spinning fiber to make string or yarn are lost in time but
some history researchers said that it was some 20,000 years ago.
Spinning was totally done by hand.
• Then man invented a hand wheel to produce yarn. This was the 1st
mechanical method produced to make yarn.
Spinning machines
• With passage of time human always try to make everything easy.
• Man tried to improve the spinning wheel to omit personal effort
(Wheel was run by hand or foot manually).
• Gradual improvements in manual spinning methods lead to different
type of spinning techniques and human becomes successful to omit
personal efforts.

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Advance spinning techniques

  • 1. Advance Spinning Techniques Coarse Code: YM-4013 By Sohail AD 12-NTU-0024 National Textile University
  • 2. What is Spinning? • Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic fibers are drawn out and twisted together to form yarn. For thousands of years, fiber was spun by hand using simple tools, the spindle and distaff. • Spinning is a major part of the textile industry. It is part of the textile manufacturing process where three types of fiber are converted into yarn, then fabrics, which undergo finishing processes such as bleaching to become textiles. The textiles are then fabricated into clothes or other products.
  • 3. Definition Spinning could be defined as; • The drafting and, where appropriate, the insertion of twist in natural or staple man-made fibers to form a yarn. • The extrusion of filaments by spiders or silkworms. • The production of filaments from glass, metals, fiber-forming polymers or ceramics.
  • 4. Spinning Process • Spinning process basically consists of three stages; 1) Reduction of strand thickness from supply roving or sliver to required yarn count. This is usually done by roller drafting. 2) Prevention of fiber slippage usually by twist insertion, although there are new methods invented now. Simply binding of individual fibers. 3) Winding on to a package which is convenient for handling and which protects yarn.
  • 5. Spinning history & 1st Spinning technique • The origins of spinning fiber to make string or yarn are lost in time but some history researchers said that it was some 20,000 years ago. Spinning was totally done by hand. • Then man invented a hand wheel to produce yarn. This was the 1st mechanical method produced to make yarn.
  • 6. Spinning machines • With passage of time human always try to make everything easy. • Man tried to improve the spinning wheel to omit personal effort (Wheel was run by hand or foot manually). • Gradual improvements in manual spinning methods lead to different type of spinning techniques and human becomes successful to omit personal efforts.
  • 7. Classification of spinning machines • Spinning machines are divided into two main groups; 1) Intermittent These machines only carry winding section, while drafting and binding are interrupted. Mule and centrifugal spinning lies in this category. 2) Continuous Machines of this type perform the three stages of spinning process (drafting, binding, winding) simultaneously on consecutive lengths of material. It is sub-divided in different categories.
  • 8. Continuous Spinning machines • These are sub-divided as; i. Conventional frame spinning machines These machines were invented during late 18th and early 19th centuries; a. Flyer Spinning b. Ring spinning c. Cap spinning ii. Modern commercial machines These machines became available during 1960s and 1970s as the result of intensive research effort; a. Open-end spinning b. Repco self-twist spinning
  • 9. Continuous Spinning machines iii. Other spinning machine developments This group include machines which have not yet been adopted widely for commercial stage of application; a. Twistless spinning b. Spin-folding and wrapped yarn spinning c. Front folding d. Jet Spinning e. Bobtex A.B.S. (aerodynamic brake spinning) f. Bobtec I.C.S. (integral composite spinning)
  • 10. Background for development of new spinning techniques • New spinning processes have been available in practicable form for almost 40 years and still the most of short staple yarns are spun on conventional systems. • Some pros and cons of each system are always there. Keeping in mind these pros and cons, a system is adopted and commercialized. • Ring spinning is one of the most used conventional spinning technique, which is still used in a great proportion. • Now the question is “Why new systems were developed and why ring spinning is still used.
  • 11. Why is ring spinning still in use? Ring spinning is still in use for its following salient features, to which no replacement is available; • Production of high strength yarns. • Spinning of fine count yarns. • Proper for special yarns. • It is universally applicable (any material can be spun). • The know-how for operation of machine is well established accessible to everyone. • It is flexible as regards quantities (blend and lot size). • Since the speeds in drawing section are best controlled, yarn evenness is excellent. But if short fibers are too much, yarn unevenness occurs. • Fine yarns can be produced as compared to open end system.
  • 12. Potential to develop new techniques What was the potential to develop new processes to produce yarn? Ring spinning has following drawbacks due to which man think to develop new processes; • Process stages are more numerous. Roving stage exists as an extra process compared to the other systems. • Yarn breakages are more numerous as a result of ring traveler friction and yarn air friction. • Interrupt ions, broken ends and piecing up problems exist because of the yarn breakages.
  • 13. Potential to develop new techniques • The high speed of the traveler damages the fibers. • The capacity of the cops is limited. • Energy cost is very high. • Low production rate. • Additional winding process is required at the end to make bigger packages. Due to these disadvantages of ring frame, researchers try to develop new systems to omit these negative points but new systems also have their individual limitations and are confined to restricted sectors of the market.
  • 14. Disadvantages of new systems • A yarn character different from that of the ring spun yarn, which still represents the basic standard for comparison. • Characteristics occasionally bordering on unusable. • Difficulties in maintaining consistently uniform characteristics. • Greater demands on the raw material. • Market segments limited to (narrow count range, specific raw material types and specific end product). • A high level of process know how. • Expenditure on repair and maintenance.
  • 15. Advantages of new techniques • High production rates • Elimination of process stages • A considerable reduction in personnel and space • Relative ease of automation • In some cases, with the use of auto-leveller at the cards, elimination of even the draw frame passage. • Less labor and power cost per kilogram of yarn.
  • 16. Ring spinning in future • Researches are on and in future may be researchers got success to eliminate disadvantages of new systems. So, these systems may eliminate ring spinning in future. • The ring frame can only survive in longer term if further success is achieved in automation of the ring spinning process. Also, spinning costs must be markedly reduced since this machine is significant cost factor in spinning mill.
  • 17. Ring and rotor spun yarn properties Yarn properties depend on raw material used, twist, fiber length, fiber density, individual fiber strength and many more basic terminologies but generally ring spun yarn has following properties: • Strongest yarn • Finest yarn • Softest yarn • "Z" and "S" twist • Lowest productivity • Most uneven • Most expensive • More hairy, generally • More torque • Widest range of yarn counts
  • 18. Ring and rotor spun yarn properties Generally rotor spun yarns have following properties: • More even • Higher strength uniformity • Higher production rate • Fewer processes • Lower cost • Fewer imperfections • Harsher hand (feel) • Not as strong • Limited counts-coarser yarns • “Z” twist only
  • 19. Comparison Ring Spun Yarn Rotor Spun Yarn Uniform with more strength than rotor spun. Uniform but less strength than ring spun. Low flexibility. Higher flexibility than ring spun. Dye ability is less than open end yarn. Dye ability is easy and more than ring spun. These yarns are made coarser to medium and medium to finer. These are limited to coarser to medium counts. Used for varied applications. Used for heavier fabrics such as denims, towels and poplins. Production rate is lower. 3-5 times faster production rate than ring spun. Stronger at optimum twist. It has 20% more twist and 15-20% weaker than ring spun. All staple fibers could be ring spun. Universally applicable. Man-made fibers except rayon could not be rotor spun.
  • 20. Comparison Ring spun Yarn Rotor Spun Yarn It is expensive because of some additional manufacturing steps. It is cheaper because of elimination of some manufacturing steps such as roving and comber. It is less abrasion resistant as compare to rotor spun. It has a good abrasion resistance. It is less absorbent because of tight packing of fibers. It is more absorbent because of loose packing of fibers. It breaks at ring frame because of ring traveler friction. Yarn breakage is very low so less production loss. It has more hairiness because of fiber migration during spinning. It has 20-40% low hairiness as compare to ring spun because of less fiber migration. It feels harsh because of tight packing of fibers and more hairiness. It is soft because of loose packing and less hairiness. Fiber packing is uniform and more towards surface. Fiber packing is not uniform, more towards yarn axis and less towards the surface. It has less hooked and looped fibers. More hooked and looped fibers in rotor yarn. It doesn’t give self-cleaning effect. It is dirt accumulative and give very good self-cleaning effect. It has higher C.V% in strength than rotor spun. It has less variation in strength.
  • 21. Comparison Ring Spun Yarn Rotor Spun Yarn Ring spun could have more yarn faults. Yarn faults are decreased by 80%. Fiber blending is not good in ring spun. It has much better fiber blending. It has more fly liberation. It has less fly liberation. More end breaks in spinning. 75% less end breaks. Air permeability is low because of tight packing. Air permeability is 15-25% better. It gives less cover in fabric formation. It gives 10% better cover. At this time 76% staple spun yarns are ring spun as compare to rotor spun in world. 24% are rotor spun as compare to ring spun production.
  • 22. Structure of ring and rotor spun yarn • The yarn structure is dependent primarily upon the raw material, spinning process, spinning unit, machine, machine settings, twist, etc. • The structure can be open or closed; voluminous or compact; smooth or rough or hairy; soft or hard; round or flat; thin or thick, etc. • Both ring and rotor spun yarns are produced by twisting but there lot of differences in both yarns due to difference of their structure. • Structure of yarn influence a lot of yarn properties.
  • 23. Structure of ring and rotor spun yarn Yarn structure is not simply appearance. It has a greater or lesser influence on; • Handle • Strength • Elongation • Insulating capacity • Covering power • Ability to resist wear, damage, strains, etc. • Resistance to abrasion • Ability to accept dye • Tendency towards longitudinal bunching of fibers • Wearing comfort, etc.
  • 24. Structure of ring and rotor spun yarn
  • 25. Structure of ring and rotor spun yarn
  • 26. Open-end Spinning • Open end spinning or open-end spinning is a technology for creating yarn without using a spindle. • It is also known as break spinning or rotor spinning. • In this process the fiber sliver is separated into single fibers and in which the separated fiber material is brought by an air stream to a collecting surface from which it is drawn off while being twisted.
  • 27. Principle of open-end spinning • The principle behind open end spinning is similar to that of a clothes dryer spinning full of sheets. • If you could open the door and pull out a sheet, it would spin together as you pulled it out. • Sliver from the card goes into the rotor, is spun into yarn and comes out, wrapped up on a bobbin, all ready to go to the next step.
  • 28. Advantages of open-end spinning • High speed of twist insertion which leads to high delivery speed • Lower power consumption • Large delivery package • Elimination of process steps like roving • Cheaper raw material • Reduced labour requirement & better working condition • Continuous operation • Lower yarn fault content • No twist variation
  • 29. Open-end Spinning techniques Following spinning methods lie in open-end spinning; 1) Rotor spinning 2) Air vortex spinning 3) Electro static spinning 4) Friction spinning 5) Break spinning 6) Disc spinning
  • 30. Short description Rotor Spinning: Individual fibers converted to yarn through rotary motion. Friction Spinning: External surface of two rotating rollers is used twist individual fibers into a yarn. Air-jet Spinning: Utilizes air to apply the twisting couple to the yarn during its formation.
  • 31. Short description Electrospinning uses an electrical charge to draw very fine (typically on the micro or nano scale) fibers from a liquid. Break Spinning: Sliver feed stock is highly drafted and assembled at end of rotating yarn. Disc spinning: Card sliver is fed to an opening roller just like rotor and then fibers are transferred to screened surface disc where an external twister twist fibers to yarn.
  • 33. History • The idea of producing yarn by the Rotor-Spinning technique is far from new. • Patent applications for this method were filed before the Second World War. • However, the first usable design was put forward only in the mid- 1950s by J. Meimberg at the Spinnbau company in Spinnbau showed this machine at Brussels exhibition in 1955, but further development of the machine was discontinued because performance proved unsatisfactory.
  • 34. Development • 1960s; The idea was taken up again in Czechoslovakia. • 1965; The first machine really suitable for industrial application was shown at Bruenn fair. • 1967; followed by the presentation of the BD200 machine at an exhibition in parallel to the ITMA of that year. • This was also the point of time at which the rotor-spinning came into practical industrial use in spinning mills. • The current market share is 20% of total staple yarn production and is steadily increasing. • 1970s; rapid development in technological and economical aspects.
  • 35. Development • Earliest yarn used to be a woolen-spun character (open, voluminous and rough with low strength). • After further research and development, now it is hardly possible to distinguish rotor spun yarn from ring spun yarn.
  • 36. Economical aspects • Rotor speed used to be 30,000 rpm. After 20 years of development, today speed of rotor is around 175,000 rpm. • Production of rotor spinning is four to ten times more than that of the ring spinning spindle. • Rotor spinning is more economical than the ring spinning for yarn counts up to Ne 40.
  • 37. Economical aspects • The rotor spinning is an excellent recycling device as the spinning mill- waste (secondary materials) is utilized and used. It was not previously possible in ring spinning. • Rotor spinning is the first final-spinning machine to be practically fully automated.
  • 38. General Overview This is normally used in cotton carded spinning. The frame is fed with slivers from the draw frames which transform the yarn directly into packages, eliminating the passage on the roving frame and, in many cases, further packaging operations.
  • 39. Principle The main function of the spinning unit is as follows; The sliver from the draw frame is introduced by a feeder cylinder and is subject to the action of an opener with saw-toothed wiring which rotates at a speed of between 6000 and 9000 rpm, separating the sliver into single fibers, then the fibers are sent to the rotor through a vacuum channel. The rotor, whose diameter is between 32.5 and 54 mm, rotates at a very high speed over 100,000 rpm, and compacts the fibers partly thanks to its special shape, twisting the fibers at the same time.
  • 41. Operational Sequence Sequence of operations performed on a rotor spinning machine is; 1) Sliver feed 2) Sliver opening 3) Fiber transport into rotor 4) Fiber collection 5) Yarn formation 6) Yarn take-up and winding
  • 44. Sliver feed • A card or draw frame sliver is fed through a sliver guide via a feed roller(F) and feed plate (B) to a rapidly rotating opening roller(O).
  • 45. Sliver feed • Sliver fed via trumpet into the feed shoe. If the yarn breaks the sliver fed is ceased shoe. If the yarn breaks the sliver fed is ceased immediately. • Feed roll has diagonal fluted to increase the clamping. Sometimes the distance between the feed shoe and opening roller is adjusted.
  • 46. Sliver opening • The opening roller removes the fiber from the sliver as it is fed in, and, after two or three rotations, delivers them to the feed tube in which the airflow takes them to the rotor. • Removal of fibers from the opening roller is by controlled air flow, aided by centrifugal acceleration. • The ratio of air speed to opener surface speed should be in the region of 1.5 to 4.0. The higher ratios result in a higher yarn tenacities because of the improved fiber orientation.
  • 47. Opening roller • Opening roller, comparable to that of the carding in-feed taker-in, but the assembly is much smaller. Opening roll rotate at 35 m/s and passes through the fiber beard that is slowly fed by feed roll.
  • 48. Opening roller • It rotates at 5,000 to 10,000 rpm, usually 6,500 to 8,000 rpm. • The diameter lies between 60 and 80mm. • High speed disadvantageous may lead to fiber deterioration or even damage melt spot and tearing out of fiber bunches. • Basically the opening roller speed should be as low as possible. It is important to note, however, that too slow a speed tends to cause fiber lapping and irregularly spaced thick and thin places in the yarn. • On the other hand, increased opening roller speed causes higher dust formation, higher fiber damage, reduction in yarn strength and breaking elongation.
  • 49. Opening roller • The opening roller surface speed usually depends on the type of fiber and the roller design. • A higher opening speed may be required to provide increased opening force in the following circumstances; i. increased feed sliver count, even when the feed rate in mass per unit time is constant. ii. increased fiber length. iii. the use of three-dimensional crimped fiber (compared with two- dimensional crimp). iv. the use of finer fibers, because of the increased fiber surface area.
  • 50. Opening roller • The clothing on the opening roll naturally exerts a great influence; a) Type of clothing b) Shape of teeth c) Point density • The card clothing used on the opening roller is usually of the rigid metallic type, varying from a face angle of about 65° and 18.5 points/cm2 for cotton and 80° to 100° with 15 points/cm2 for manmade fibers.
  • 51. Opening roller Clothing of opening roller is selected as; • for carded, combed and viscose – clothing with more agressive front flank, higher density (2.5 mm) (type B 174) • cotton with honeydew – clothing with wider tooth space (4.8mm) & type used (type B 174 - 4.8) • for man-made fibers especially polyster and blends – clothing with less sharply inclined and less sharp point (S 21) • for man-made fibers especially polyacrylic – clothing with low height and low density (S 43)
  • 52. Opening roller Geometry of wire clothing is as;
  • 53. Opening roller • Opening roller service life is considerably affected by the fiber material as well as by the dirt content in the fiber. • The main wear points are the tooth face and tooth tip. • Service life can be extended by the shape of the tooth (e.g. sickle shape, rounded tooth tip) and by tooth coating. Coated teeth show much lower levels of wear. • Diamond-coated opening rollers have proved excellent in this respect.
  • 54. Opening unit a) rotating teeth of opening roller b) feed table c) feed roller d) fixed fiber beard support e) trash removal f) adjustable bypass system
  • 55. Trash removal • The trash particles are extracted by centrifugal forces in the first 90 degree of the opening roller revolution. • The higher the peripheral speed, the coarse trash will be thrown away due to centrifugal force. • Trash can be eliminated by either pneumatically or mechanically by small transport tube on the chamber.
  • 56. Fiber transfer to rotor • Centrifugal forces and a vacuum in the rotor housing causes the fibers to disengage at a certain point from the opening roller and to move via the fiber channel to the inside wall of the rotor.
  • 57. Fiber transfer to rotor • After opening the fibers must be passed to the rotor, so a closed tube serves as a means of guidance and feed the fibers directly into the rotor wall for deposition. While the air directly into the rotor wall for deposition. • While the air-together with the dust flows over the rotor rim towards the collection unit. • This feed has got the shape of convergent tip towards the rotor which helps accelerate the fiber, hence draft occur and remain the 1 to 5 fiber in section.
  • 58. Fiber transfer to rotor • Ideally the fiber should pass down the feed tube one at a time, but in practice the average number of fibers in the feed tube cross section can be as many as four. • If too many fibers are fed along side each other, the rotor tends to accumulate tufts of fibers, thereby increasing yarn irregularity. • The fibers passing along the feed tube are in a relaxed state. • As a result fiber tensions are much more evenly distributed in yarn, causing less fiber migration than in ring spun yarns.
  • 59. Shape & direction of fiber transfer tube There are two ways of feed tube arrangements; 1) Axially 2) Tangentially • The shape of the fiber guide channel is crucial for fiber transport and the desired longitudinal orientation of the fibers. • The inlet and outlet openings of the fiber guide channel must be designed and produced so that the transfer of fibers from the opening roller, fiber transport in the guide channel itself and the transfer of fibers to the inside wall of the spinning rotor are trouble- free.
  • 60. Shape & direction of fiber transfer tube • The fiber channel narrows toward the rotor, which causes acceleration of the air and fiber flows. • This acceleration is of great significance because it leads to further separation of the fibers, down to between one and five fibers in section, and also straightens the fibers. • The narrowing region represents a second draft zone (following the feed roller/ opening roller).
  • 61. Shape & direction of fiber transfer tube Axial arrangement: • The only advantage of this arrangement is that it is possible to spin either S or Z twist merely by reversing the direction of the rotor rotation. • On the other hand, with such an arrangement there were at least two right-angled turns in the fiber flow path which contributed to fiber bucking, as well as problems with air turbulence near the rotor center and a greater incidence of wrapper fiber. • As a result, the disadvantages of this arrangement outweighed the one marginal advantage.
  • 62. Shape & direction of fiber transfer tube Tangential arrangement: • Latest designs have adopted a tangentially-placed feed tube. The tube is usually tapered thinner towards the exit end so that the accelerating air aligns and straightens out the fibers before their leading ends emerge from the tube to contact the smooth surface of the faster-moving rotor slide wall which slopes at an angle of from 20 to 40 degrees to the rotor axis. • This increases the likelihood that the fibers are fully straightened before they enter the actual collecting groove. • Only disadvantage of this arrangement is that only Z twist is possible.
  • 63. Fiber collection in rotor groove • The centrifugal forces in the rapidly rotating rotor cause the fibers to move from the conical rotor wall toward the rotor groove and be collected there to form a fiber ring. • The amount of rotation given to a fiber as it moves into the collecting groove depends on the rotor diameter, the slide wall angle, and the axial distance from the feed tube exit to the collecting groove.
  • 64. Yarn formation • The rotor rotates at high speed creating a centrifugal force. • To start spinning, a length of yarn already wound onto the package of the take-up mechanism is threaded through the nip line of the delivery rollers and into the draw-off tube. • Because of the vacuum, the tail end of this yarn is sucked into the rotor. • The rotation of the rotor pulls the yarn end onto the part collected ribbon of fibres through the air drag and the centrifugal forces, and simultaneously inserts twist into the yarn tail. • A little of this twist propagates into that part of the ribbon in contact with the yarn tail, binding it to the yarn end.
  • 66. Yarn formation • The yarn is pressed against the rotor wall by the high centrifugal force, and the separation point therefore rotates within the rotor. • Each revolution of the yarn at this point inserts one turn of twist. The yarn twist penetrates in to the fiber ring in the collection groove, where the fiber are bound together to form a yarn.
  • 67. Twist Insertion in rotor spinning • In rotor spinning, the fiber collecting surface, (rotor groove), is v- shaped and therefore fibers are usually translated from a triangular to a circular shape. The fiber assembly, being formed in the rotor groove. • In order to begin spinning, one end of an existing yarn (Y), is introduced into the rotor through the yarn withdrawal tube. • The free end of the seed yarn is thrown to the peripheral surface of the rotor by the centrifugal force produced. • The high speed of the rotor causes the yarn end to rotate in the same direction as the rotor itself.
  • 68. Twist Insertion in rotor spinning • When the rotating end of the yarn touches the fibers assembled in the rotor groove, it acts like a crank and twists the yarn section following the draw-off nozzle outside the rotor. • In this way, twist is produced primarily outside the rotor, between the draw-off nozzle and the subsequent yarn deflection or yarn nip point. Direction of Yarn Rotation Draw-off Nozzle Yarn in Rotor Groove Yarn Rolling Movement on Nozzle Yarn P O
  • 69. Twist Structure • The rotor groove enter as a thin stream of fibers and it takes many layers to make up sufficient linear density to make a yarn. There are many doublings, which tend to even out any short-term irregularities in the yarn. Thus, rotor yarns tend to be more even. • On the other hand, these doublings have an adverse influence on the twist structure of the yarn. • The first few layers make the core of the yarn and the other layers twist without any firm link being established between the layers. Due to the lack of interlinking, these layers form concentric sleeves. These sleeves easily slip when the yarn is subjected to a tensile load.
  • 70. Twist structure • Apart from the layers, which form the body of the yarn, the fibers caught by the rotating yarn arm also form a layer. • These fibers are irregularly distributed throughout the length of the yarn and wrapped around the yarn with a non-uniform winding angle and hardness. Thus, the twist in the core is not the same as in the outer layers.
  • 71. The Rotor This is the main part of this spinning technique. Different factors of rotor that effect the final product and spinning process are; 1) The rotor form 2) The groove 3) The rotor diameter 4) The rotational speed; together with 5) The rotor bearing 6) The coefficient of friction between the fiber and the rotor wall 7) The air flow conditions inside the rotor 8) Liability to fouling
  • 72. Rotor Cleaning • An essential element of a functioning spinning unit is automatic rotor cleaning capability. This is one of the major advantages of the rotor spinning system compared with other spinning processes, which are unable to clean the raw material fed in again at the spinning position itself. • Essentially, two systems are used to clean the rotors: pneumatic cleaning by means of compressed air and mechanical cleaning by means of scrapers. Both systems are also used in combination. • During rotor cleaning the surface of the draw-off nozzles and the draw-off tube are also cleaned.
  • 74. Rotor drive and bearing • Nowadays, the rotors on all rotor spinning machines are driven using the friction drive principle, i.e. by a tangential belt in contact with the rotor shafts on each side of the machine. • Rotor drives are classified in two types; 1) Direct 2) Indirect
  • 75. Direct drive • Direct rotor bearing in which tangentially driven rotor shaft(a) is encased in ball bearing housing(b). • The ball bearing rotates at the same speed (rpm) as the rotor shaft driven by the tangential belt. This bearing principle limits rotor speeds to approx. 110 000 rpm.
  • 76. Indirect drive • Indirect rotor bearing, in which the rotor shaft, also driven tangentially, runs on two pairs of supporting discs arranged side by side. • With the support disc bearing the rotor speed is reduced at a ratio of 1:8 to 1:10 relative to the bearing of the supporting discs, depending on the diameter of the discs, so that these bearings run at speeds of only 16 000 to a maximum of 20000 rpm (depending on the diameter of the supporting discs), even at rotor speeds of 160 000 rpm.
  • 77. Indirect drive • For one thing, this bearing system permits much higher rotor speeds than direct bearings, and at the same time the service life of indirect bearing systems is significantly higher than that of directly driven bearing systems. • High-performance rotor spinning machines operating at speeds of up to 160 000 rpm are therefore operated only with indirect rotor bearing.
  • 78. Indirect drive Tangential belt (a) is engaged with the rotor shafts via pressure rollers (b) to drive the rotors.
  • 79. Yarn take-off The yarn is taken from the rotor by the delivery shaft and pressure roller (a), diverted virtually at right angles in the process by draw-off nozzle (b) projecting into the rotor and guided out by draw-off tube (c) immediately following this.
  • 80. Yarn take-off • At take-off the yarn continuously rolls off on the surface of the draw- off nozzle due to the rotation of the rotor. • This rolling-off temporarily inserts additional twist into the yarn (contrary to the direction of twist of the yarn), thus creating the false- twist effect required for spinning stability, which can be up to 60 % of the set yarn twist. • The greater the false-twist effect, the higher the spinning tension.
  • 81. Yarn Piecing • If a yarn breaks, the spinning process is interrupted at the particular spinning position. Re-starting the spinning process is called "piecing". • The robot "pieces" the newly spun yarn onto the yarn-end to be found on the package. • Number of robots vary with respect to machine length. Four types of robot option are available; i. Machines with one robot ii. Machines with two robots iii. Machines with three robots iv. Machines with four robots
  • 82. Yarn Piecing • The use of only one robot per machine is economically justifiable only for very short machines. • If one robot is used for longer machine lengths then it takes more time for robot to reach to every spindle that decreases efficiency by a great proportion. • One robot is suitable for 20-50 spinning positions. • Two robots are applied on machines with 240-280 spinning positions. • Three robots are applied where a 3rd robot works as alternative to other two on one side of machine. • Four robots are used for machines with 500 spinning positions.
  • 83. Position of piecing robots Machines with two robots
  • 84. Position of piecing robots Machines with three robots
  • 85. Position of piecing robots Machines with four robots
  • 86. Piecing process • Robot locks onto the spinning position with an end down. • The feed roller starts. Fibers are fed into the rotor where they form a fiber ring. • The yarn end, prepared by the Robot is "dropped" into the rotor and connects itself with the fiber ring. • The yarn is withdrawn from the rotor. The fiber ring is broken and the spinning process starts.
  • 87. Step-wise piecing process A. The end of the thread is taken off the package and inserted in the rotor at the same time as starting fiber feed. B. The piecing is formed under processor control and thread take-off is started. C. The piecing is examined electronically and then wound onto the package.
  • 88. Yarn take-up and winding • Once the yarn tail enters the rotor, the delivery rollers (K) are set in motion to pull the tail out of the rotor. The pulling action on the tail results in a peeling of the fibre ribbon from the rotor groove. The newly formed yarn (Y) is wound up on a cheese (P) by a winding drum. A yarn stop motion interrupts material supply to the opening roller (O) when an end breaks. Capacitive or optical sensors incorporated in the yarn path record yarn faults (thick and thin places), enabling them to be cleared in limits are exceeded.
  • 89. Yarn Package formation Cylindrical • package angle 2° to 4°20 • max. diameter 350 mm; max. • package weight up to 6 kg; Conical • package angle (2° - 4°51’) • max. diameter 280 mm; • package weight depends on package density.
  • 90. Yarn Package formation How to calculate of package density? Density () = Mass / Volume Density () = yarn net mass (g) / yarn volume (cm3) Standard values for package density for yarns made from cotton and cotton-like fibers: packages for package dyeing: γ = 0.33 - 0.38 g/cm3; hard packages: γ = 0.38 - 0.42 g/cm3 Volume of cone: 1/3  r2 h
  • 91. Yarn Package formation Anti-Patterning device ”to remove pattern zone and pattern winding” • Mathematical relationship between tranverse ferquency & rate of revolution of package (1:1, 1:2, 1:3)
  • 92. Yarn Package formation Length Measurement • Diameter of package base (old method) • Measuring length device (new method) • Technical standard of length variation is ±0.5%.
  • 93. Yarn Package formation Yarn waxing device • It is used to achieve the maximum reduction of coefficient of friction by 40-50%. • Amount of application is 0.5 – 3 gram / kg of yarn.
  • 94. Auto-Doffing • Package change on automated rotor spinning machines is actuated when the preset length of yarn or package diameter is reached. • When the package has reached the preset yarn length, the spinning position is switched off by the electronic length measurement device. • The full package is placed on the package conveyor belt in the center of the machine by a robot arm, and at the same time spinning is started on an empty tube.
  • 95. Selection of raw material Rotor can produce yarn from; 1) Cotton 2) Cotton waste 3) Cotton noil 4) Blend of two or more of these materials 5) PES 6) PAN 7) PA 8) CV 9) All other possible blends
  • 96. Raw material requirement Fiber length for cotton a. Cotton waste < 7/8” (Ne 15) b. Short staple < 1” (Ne 18) c. Med. Staple < 1” (Ne 35) Fiber length for man-made fibers a. Staple lengths 32-40mm up to 60mm (Ne 50) Fiber fineness a. Cotton 2.8-4.5 Fiber strength Greater strength should be selected because there is a linear relationship between yarn and fiber pressley strength.
  • 97. Raw material requirement Dirt and dust: The rotor spinning machines reacts very sensitively to the trash content of cotton. Coarse particle specially the seed husk are caught in the rotor groove and prevent and resist the yarn formation at this point, as a consequence the fiber agglomeration occurs. Other foreign matters: Mineral dust, honey dew, foreign fibers, synthetic fibers and yarn elements.
  • 98. Raw material requirement • Fiber length influences; i. Spinning limit ii. Yarn strength iii. Yarn evenness iv. Handle of product v. Luster of product vi. Yarn hairiness Productivity influence on the end-breakage rate; the quantity of waste; the required turns of twist (which affects the handle); general spinning conditions.
  • 99. Raw material requirement Fiber maturity a. mature fiber 50 – 80% of cross section b. immature fiber 30-45% c. dead fiber less than 25% Effect of Immature fiber a. loss of yarn strength b. neppiness c. high proportion of short fibers d. varying dyeability e. process dificulities, mainly at carding machine
  • 100. Raw material requirement Fiber cleanness Impurities a. up to 1.2% = very clean; b. 1.2-2.0% = clean; c. 2.1-4.0% = medium; d. 4.1-7.0% =dirty; e. 7.1 % and more =very dirty Findings of Uster Technologies Amount of neps per gram in 100% cotton bales; a. up to 150 = very low; b. 150-250 = low; c. 250-350 = average; d. 350-450 = high; e. above 550 = very high.
  • 101. Preparation of raw material Process flow of a rotor spun yarn is as; Fiber/Bale → Blow Room → Lap/Chute ↓ Lap/Chute → Carding → Sliver (Carded) ↓ Carded Sliver → 1st Drawing frame → Drawing Sliver ↓ Drawing Sliver → 2nd Drawing frame → Drawing Sliver ↓ Drawing Sliver → Rotor Spinning → Rotor Yarn
  • 102. Preparation of raw material Blow room: High cleaning effect is needed regarding the dust and dirt, required few machine but effective. Cards: It reduce the dirt content about 0.1%-0.2% and part of dust. B/R, Card and drawing expected to extract 1/3 of the dust. Web crushing bring significant cleaning effect for high to medium dirt content by bring significant cleaning effect for high to medium dirt content by the cotton.
  • 103. Preparation of raw material Draw frames: Dust is to be removed and need sliver evenness over the short and long lengths. The higher parallelization, the better fiber opening would be, so two passage of drawing frame are used. Sliver coiling is also important to avoid doubling, knots and loops. Combing: Preferably-nice to do. However, the benefits arises not only in quality but also; lowers end down rate, increase efficiency and spinning limit shifted.
  • 105. History • R & D in former Soviet Union for the possibility of forming the yarn strand from the aid of electrostatic field. • Battelle Institute only has had degree of success! • The Electrospin Corp. (USA) had demonstrated the machine based on this principle at the 1971 ITMA in Paris.
  • 106. Operating Principle • Roving input enters double-apron drafting arrangement, fiber attenuation takes place at draft of 180-200. • Fibers exit freely from front roller and must be collected to form a fiber strand & twisted (Yarn formation). • An electrostatic field is generated in between the front roller and twist imparting unit. • Twisting is not an issue. • A high voltage about 30,000 – 35,000 is to the twist element. The electrostatic field is the main complexity of this method!
  • 108. Process • Electrostatic field is generated by earthing the FR and applying high voltage of 30,000 - 35,000V to the twisting element. • Fibers take up charge and form dipole i.e. one end becomes (+)ve and other is (-)ve both in a fiber when entered into the electrostatic field. • An open yarn projects from the twist element into the field, which is (-)ve charged and always attracted to FR.
  • 109. Process • Thus, high degree of straightening between TE and FR. • Fibers leaving the FR are attracted to the yarn due to charges and hence join continuously to the yarn. • Since the yarn rotates, the fibers bound-in. • A yarn is formed continually and is then withdrawn by the withdrawal rollers. • The yarn is passed to the take-up device for winding into the cross wound package.
  • 111. Problems associated wit this process 1) Charging of the fibers, dependent on the air humidity. According to fiber type, a specific and highly uniform environment must be created. The machine may need to be air-conditioned. 2) The charge on each fiber and its movement dependent upon its mass. Short fibers will act different that the long fibers. 3) A limit must be set to the no of fibers available in the field, otherwise cause a mutual disturbance. 4) The same effect is observed with high through put speeds; there is corresponding limit on a production rate.
  • 112. Specifications • Spinning position per machine : 20 (Experimental machine) • Delivery speed : up to 40m/min • Raw material : Cotton • Cotton range : Ne 20-40 • Form of feed stock : Roving • Type of yarn : Conventional single yarn • Yarn characteristics : Good yarn quality at low production speeds, ring spun yarn character
  • 113. Specifications • Advantages : Yarn structure similar to ring spun yarn • Special features : Yarn quality strongly dependent upon ambient conditions • Remarks : Ozone formation
  • 115. Introduction • “VORTEX spinning” is a technology which uses an air vortex to spin out the yarn. • Fibers formed by these air flows possess a unique structure, and this provides the yarn with a wide range of functionalities. • New Technology • Modified form Air Jet spinning. • Can be used for wider range length of fiber.
  • 116. Introduction • An entirely new technology “to spin yarn with the vortex flow of compressed air” created VORTEX, a quite new type of yarn. • In VORTEX spinning, the tip of the fiber is focused to the center of the yarn by the vortex of compressed air so that the center of the yarn is always made straight without twisted. The other tip forms the outer layer that twines another fiber.
  • 117. History • Goetzfried and Lord investigated extensively and has been testing. • Polish Company Wifama - Polmatex presented the machine in industry. • Several machine of this type are being used in Poland.
  • 119. Air Vortex yarn structure • Two Part structure • Core • Sheath/covering fibers
  • 120. Principle In this spinning method yarn is formed by; • an air vortex in a tube (1). • For this purpose, air is sucked by a vacuum source (6) into the tube through tangential slots (2). • This incoming air moves upward along the tube wall in a spiral and finally arrives at the upper tube seal (3).
  • 121. Principle • Since the top of the tube is closed by the seal (3), the air then flows to the center of the tube and moves down again to the vacuum source. • Thus an air vortex (5), rotating continuously in the same direction, is generated at the seal (3).
  • 122. Principle After the Air-Vortex formation; • Opened fiber material is allowed to enter the system through a tangential opening (4). • The rising air stream grasps this material and transports it upward into the vortex (5). • To form a yarn, an open yarn end is passed into the tube through a passage in the upper seal (3).
  • 123. Principle • The vortex grasps this yarn end and whirls it around in circles in the same way as the fibers. Since the upper yarn length is held by the withdrawal rollers and the lower end is rotating, each revolution of the yarn end in the vortex inserts a turn of twist into the yarn.
  • 124. Twist Insertion in Vortex Yarn • In Vortex, the twist insertion process of spinning a staple yarn, a strand of fibers is held on one end while the strand length is made to rotate on its axis. • The rotation of the strand causes the fibers to adopt helical forms and increase the number of turns of twist. • With the insertion of the twist, the fibers are packed together to-form a continuous yarn with special structure and properties.
  • 125. Twist Insertion in Vortex Yarn • The center of the yarn is not twisted. Twisting is given toward the outer side of the yarn, twisting at the center of the yarn is loose, while the outer side is fully twisted.
  • 126. Features of Air-Vortex Yarn • The Air-Vortex yarn provides diversified excellent functions. These functional and fashionable features make Vortex highly recognized as the most appropriate material for casual wear. • Many apparel companies leading the global market are developing high-value-added product using Vortex.
  • 128. Low Hairiness • Since it has the least hairiness among all the types of spun yarn, VORTEX enables to create textiles with unique excellent characteristics such as anti-pilling and anti-abrasion performance. • In VORTEX yarn, occurrence of lint is also suppressed, and this reduces troubles in post-spinning processes, and prevents deformation by repeated washing. • The picture below shows how VORTEX is strong against pilling and has clear appearance.
  • 129. Low Hairiness Yarn and Garment comparison of Ring and Air vortex yarn
  • 130. Moisture Absorbance • The field of casual clothing and sports wear requires fine absorbency and wash resistance. • VORTEX’s fiber structure itself is superior in moisture absorption and diffusion, which provides refreshing comfortableness absorbing sweat on hot summer days. • For outdoor activities in hot and humid environments, VORTEX ensures fresh-to-wear clothes. This is an ideal material for casual scenes. • It is Superior in absorbing water.
  • 131. Moisture Absorbance • Air vortex yarn diffuses water quickly, as compared to ring spun yarn.
  • 132. Low Pilling • Pilling is a phenomenon where fibers are inter-twisted into a ball-like shape by frictions between the surface of a textile and that of another. • On the casual fashion market, how to suppress pilling has been a significant challenge. Since it is of structure with less hairiness, VORTEX remarkably suppresses pilling, and has created new markets. • Because VORTEX not only has less long hairiness but also is structured so that fibers forming a textile hardly slide, so frictions between VORTEX-made textiles almost do not cause pilling.
  • 133. Low Pilling • Pilling test result of single jersey knitted from Rayon 100% Ne 30/1.
  • 135. Low Pilling • Comparison of pilling in Vortex and Ring.
  • 136. Wash-resistance • Against repeated washing and drying, VORTEX produces the minimal quantity of lint. This is one of VORTEX’s unique features never seen in other types of yarn, and comes from its yarn structure with less hairiness and firmly retaining yarn inside. • VORTEX is also resistant to washing, hardly causing fiber loss, size changes, skewness or color fading, so many fabric manufacturers highly evaluate this feature.
  • 140. Problems in this system • One associated problem is the correct ordered binding-in of the fibers, i.e., achieving adequate strength in the yarn. achieving adequate strength in the yarn. • For this reason, synthetic fibers of For this reason, synthetic fibers of highest attainable uniformity are mainly used. • Variability in twist level in spun yarn, twist can vary within a very wide range.
  • 141. Advantage in this system • Absence of any kind of rapidly rotating machine parts.
  • 142. Specifications • Spinning positions per machine : 192 • Delivery speed : 100 – 150m/min • Raw material : Synthetic • Count range : Ne 7.5 - 30 • Form of feed stock : Draw frame sliver • Type of yarn : Conventional single yarn • Yarn characteristics : Low strength, twist variability, rough surface • Advantages : No rapid rotating parts, simple m/c • Special features : Cotton can’t be spun • Field of end use : Undemanding woven goods
  • 143. Products Due to its characteristics such as; • less hairiness, • resistance to pilling, • moisture absorption function, • and washing resistance, VORTEX yarn is used in a variety of products worldwide as the most suitable material for everyday-use casual wear.
  • 144. Products These products include living goods such as; • towels, • sheets and pajamas, • and everyday clothes, • sportswear such as sweatshirts, T-shirts and socks.
  • 147. Introduction • Friction (DREF) spinning system is an Open-end spinning system. • Along with the frictional forces in the spinning zone the yarn formation takes place. • The DREF system is used to produce yarns with high delivery rate about 300mpm. • It produce a highly uniform yarn from diverse stock including short or difficult to handle at high production rates and low labor and energy expenses.
  • 148. Working Principle • This is an open end type machine. • Drawing sliver is the input and must be opened to individual fiber. • The formation of yarn is carried out by using suction to bring the individual fibers into engagement with the rotating open end of the engagement withy the rotating open end of yarn e.g. Perforated drum. • Binding-in and imparting strength, are effected by continual rotation of yarn in convergent region of continual rotation of yarn in convergent region of two drums which rotate. • Yarn formed by the frictional contact of these drums. • This must be then withdrawn and finally wound on a cross wound package.
  • 149. Working principle Yarn fineness is determined by the ratio of fiber mass feed per unit time to the withdrawal speed of yarn. TPI is determined by the relationship between yarn revolution and withdrawal speed. The rate at which twist is imparted is much lower than that which would be expected from the yarn rotating between two drums; this attributed due to the slip and is a complex detail. The count range is same as produced as by rotor, so directly competitors to each other in market.
  • 150. Yarn formation in Friction spinning system The mechanism of yarn formation is quite complex. It consists of three distinct operations. 1) Feeding of fibers 2) Fibers integration 3) Twist insertion.
  • 151. Feeding of fibers • The individualized fibers are transported by air currents and deposited in the spinning zone. • There are two methods of fiber feed 1) Direct feed • Fibers are fed directly onto the rotating fiber mass that outer part of the yarn tail.
  • 152. Feeding of fibers 2) Indirect feed • Fibers are first accumulated on the in-going roll and then transferred to the yarn tail.
  • 153. Fibers Integration • The fibers through feed tube assembles onto a yarn core/tail within the shear field, is provided by two rotating spinning drums and the yarn core is in between them. • The shear causes sheath fibers to wrap around the yarn core. • The fiber orientation is highly dependent on the decelerating fibers arriving at the assembly point through the turbulent flow. • The fibers in the friction drum have two probable methods for integration of incoming fibers to the sheath. i. the fiber assembles completely on to perforated drum before their transfer to the rotating sheath. ii. fibers are laid directly on to rotating sheath.
  • 154. Twist Insertion • The fibers are applied twist with more or less one at a time without cyclic differentials in tension in the twisting zone. • Therefore, fiber migration may not take place in friction spun yarns.
  • 155. Classification Feed • Single sliver feed • Multi-sliver feed (Dref-2 & Dref-3) Opening assembly • One opening assembly • Two opening assemblies (Dref-3) Separating of collecting and twisting functions • Collection and friction unit separated • Friction assembly also serves as collecting device Number of friction surfaces • One friction surface (Dref-1) • Two friction surface
  • 156. Classification Type of friction assembly • Perforated drums • One perforated drum with one smooth drum (blind drum) • Two discs • Disc and roller in combination • Two cross belts
  • 157. Classification The Most widely used with following Characteristics: • Single sliver feed • One opening roller • Friction assembly also act as collection device • Two friction surfaces • Two perforated drums or one perforated drum with one blind drum in combination
  • 158. DREF-II Friction Spinning • Friction spinning was first developed when Fehrer produced the DREF friction spinning system in 1973. • In this machine, the pre-opened fibers were made to fall onto a perforated cylindrical drum, the rotation of which imparted twist to the fiber assembly. • Due to problems in controlling the flow, slippage occurred between the fiber assembly and the perforated roller, which reduced the twist efficiency.
  • 159. DREF-II Friction Spinning • Later the DREF-II friction spinning machine was developed to overcome this problem. • This machine incorporates a specially designed inlet system which provides the required draft. These drafted slivers are opened into individual fibers by a rotating carding drum (opening roller) covered with saw-tooth wires. The individual fibers are stripped from the carding drum by centrifugal force supported by an air stream from a blower. • The fibers are then transported by additional rollers to two perforated friction drums. The mechanical friction on the surface of the drums twists the fibers. • Suction through the perforation of the drum assists the twisting process and helps in the removal of dust and dirt.
  • 161. DREF-III friction spinning • The DREF-III friction spinning machine was introduced into the market in 1981. This machine was developed to improve yarn quality, extend the yarn count up to 18s Ne and produce multi-component yarns. • The DREF-III uses a core-sheath type friction arrangement. • In this machine an attempt is made to improve the quality of yarn by aligning the majority of fibers in the direction of yarn axis. The remaining fibers are wrapped round the core fibers to form a sheath. The sheath fibers are wrapped round the core fibers by the false twist generated by the rotating action of drums. • Two drafting units are used in this system, one for the core fibers and other for the sheath fibers. This system produces a variety of core-sheath type structures and multi-component yarns using different core and sheath fibers in the count range of 1-18sNe with delivery speeds as high as 300 m/min.
  • 163. Dref-2000 • It is the latest development in friction spinning demonstrated in ITMA 99.
  • 164. Dref-2000 • DREF-2000 employs a rotating carding drum for opening the slivers into single fibers and a specially designed system being used for sliver retention. • The fibers stripped off from front the carding drum by centrifugal force and carried into the nip of the two perforated spinning drums. • The fibers are subsequently twisted by mechanical friction on the surface of the drums. • Drums are rotates in the same direction.
  • 165. Advantages of DREF-2000 • Insertion of twist in ‘S’ and ‘Z’ direction is possible without mechanical alterations to the machine. • Yarns up to 14.5s Ne can be produced at speeds of 250 m/min. • Reduced yarn preparation costs due to high sliver weights (card slivers). • Dust extraction for secondary fibers. • Low energy costs due to the use of only 1 fan for 12 spinning heads. • Feeding of all types of filaments, yarns and components as yarn cores, in order to attain high yarn strength and production speeds, voluminous yarns and specific product characteristics.
  • 166. DREF-2000 Application and Fields • Blankets for the homes, hotels, hospitals, camping, military uses, plaids etc. • Cleaning rags and mops from cotton waster and various waste-blends • Deco- and upholstery fabrics • Outerwear and leisure-wear • Filter cartridges for liquid filtration • Secondary carpet backing for tufting carpets • Canvas and tarpaulins for the military and civil sectors • High-tenacity core yarn for ropes, transport and conveyor belts • Asbestos substitutes for heavy protective clothing (protective gloves, aprons etc) packing, gaskets, clutch and brake-linings, flame retardant fabrics etc. • Filter Yarns for the cable, shoe and carpet industries • Carpet Yarns (Berber carpets, hand-woven and hand-knotted carpets) and filler weft yarns for carpets
  • 167. Properties of Friction Spun Yarns • Friction spun yarns (DREF) yarns have bulky appearance (100-140% bulkier than the ring spun yarns). • The twist is not uniform and found with loopy yarn surface. • Usually weak as compared to other yarns. • The yarns possess only 60% of the tenacity of ring-spun yarns and about 90% of rotor spun-yarns. • The breaking elongation of ring, rotor and friction spun yarns is equal.
  • 168. Properties of Friction Spun Yarns • Depending on the type of fiber, the differences in strength of these yarns differ in magnitude. i. 100% polyester yarns-strength deficiency is 32% ii. 100% viscose yarns-it ranges from 0-25% • In polyester-cotton blend, DREF yarns perform better than their ring-spun counterparts. i. 70/30% blend yarn-superior in strength by 25% • DREF yarns are inferior in terms of unevenness, imperfections, strength variability and hairiness. • The friction spun yarns are more hairy than the ring spun yarns • DREF yarns are most irregular in terms of twist and linear density while ring spun yarns are most even.
  • 169. Properties of Hybrid Yarns/DREF core yarns • If one yarn creates out of 2 or more single yarn components is called hybrid yarn. • Hybrid yarns are used; For reinforced plastics Properties of the yarn • Core/Sheath structure with centric position of the reinforcing filament. • Zero twisted reinforced filament gives best strength result. • Definable fiber matrix proportion. • Protection of the reinforcing filament through the sheath fibers.
  • 170. Hybrid Yarns/DREF core yarns For liquid filter cartridges Yarn Properties • Huddle fiber arrangement for best filter action • High elongation values • Long yarn length knotless • Uniform yarn with high tensile strength For heat proof woven and knitted fabrics Yarn properties • Flame resistance • High temperature resistance • High tear abrasion resistance • Good wearing comfort • Good care properties • Skin friendly
  • 171. Properties of Hybrid Yarns/DREF core yarns For Secondary carpet backings Yarn Properties • Steady high tensile strength • High uniformity of the yarn • Long knotless length of the yarn • Good non-rotating properties • High chemical resistance • Good thermal transfer • Dust free product • Electric insulation • Good dimension stability for carpets
  • 172. Properties of Hybrid Yarns/DREF core yarns For asbestos substitutes Yarn properties • High yarn volume • Good temperature resistance • High tensile strength • Low elongation Cut proof woven and knitted fabrics Yarn properties • High cut resistance • Good wearing comfort • High dimension stability
  • 173. Advantages of Friction spinning system • It can spin yarn at very high twist insertion rates (ie.3,00,000 twist/min). • The yarn tension is practically independent of speed and hence very high production rates (up to 300 m/min) can be attainable. • Improved dirt particle retention and up to twice the filter service life. • Considerable reduced yarn production costs (up to 50%) due to lower yarn mass requirement, lower preparation costs, lower spinning costs and lower personnel expenses.
  • 174. Limitations of Friction spinning system • Low yarn strength and extremely poor fiber orientation made the friction spun yarns very weak. • The extent of disorientation and buckling of fibers are predominant with longer and finer fibers. • Friction spun yarns have higher snarling tendency. • High air consumption leads to high power consumption. • The twist variation from surface to core is quite high; this is another reason for the low yarn strength. • It is difficult to hold spinning conditions as constant. • The spinning system is limited by drafting and fiber transportation speeds.
  • 175. Specifications • Spinning positions per machine : 4 – 38 • Delivery speed : 280m/min • Raw material : Wool, Bast fiber, Synthetic fiber • Count range : Ne 0.18 – 5 • Form of feed stock : Card sliver • Type of yarn : Normal OE yarn • Yarn characteristics : Woven spun character, round, even • Advantages : Spinning of waste, Elimination of process stages • Special features : Cotton can’t be spun • Field of end use : Home textiles, Carpets, Blankets, Recycling, Technical products
  • 176. Platt Saco Lowell’s (PSL) Master spinner • Platt Saco Lowell’s (PSL) Master spinner is also a true open-end (OE) friction spinning system. • It differs from the DREF-II in respect of fiber feed and the construction of the friction drums.
  • 177. Principle • The principle of operation of this machine is shown in Figure. • A draw frame sliver (1) runs from a can into an opening assembly. This consists of a feed roller and an opening roller (2), and opens the fiber strand in the same way as the opening device in rotor spinning.
  • 178. Principle • The separated fibers pass through a specially shaped fiber channel (3), carried by an air flow from a vacuum inside the suction roller (4) into the converging region between the two friction rollers. • One of these rollers is perforated to act as a suction roller, whereas the second roller is solid(5). A yarn (6) is formed in the convergent zone.
  • 179. Principle • A secondary suction duct at the end of transfer duct helps to give fiber orientation, and therefore to keep the fibers parallel to the yarn axis, resulting in improved fiber orientation and fiber extent in the final yarn. • In the twisting assembly, one friction drum is perforated and includes a suction slot while the other is a solid roller which provides effective friction transfer.
  • 180. Reason for failure in industry Platt Saco Lowell’s (PSL) Master spinner machines have not been successful in the longer run, mainly for two reasons: • Inadequate yarn strength, i.e. low utilization of the fiber properties, and • Inconsistency of the spinning results
  • 181. Twist spinning & Self-twist spinning
  • 182. Twist spinning This method of spinning is used mainly in worsted spinning mills. Two systems are available: • Duospun, from Ems SA and Huber and Suhner AG; and • Sirospun, from Zinser Textilmaschinen GmbH. • The difference, and the only patentable aspect of the process, lies in the procedure adopted when one of the two ends leaving the drafting arrangement breaks. • In the Duospin process, the two yarns are recombined almost instantly, whereas the Sirospun system interrupts spinning at this single spinning position.
  • 183. Principle and working • Two rovings are passed individually through a slightly modified, but generally conventional drafting arrangement of a normal ring spinning machine. • The fiber strands, attenuated by a draft in the normal range, leave the delivery roller separately. At this point, they are each subjected to twist generated by a common spindle (cop); thus, within the spinning triangle, they are twisted into two single yarns, and these are simultaneously bound together to form a composite yarn. • Each of the two single strands and the resulting composite yarn contains twist, and the direction of twist is the same for both the single ends and the composite product.
  • 184. Twist spinning with modified ring frame
  • 185. Advantages • This twist-on-twist (ZZ or SS) produces a yarn that is somewhat more compact, with a firmer core, than the usual ply yarn with opposing twist (ZS or SZ). • It primarily offers economic advantages, because the production of the ring spinning and winding machines is roughly doubled (two ends instead of one at approximately the same speed). • In addition, plying and twisting are eliminated.
  • 186. Application • It is used for worsted spinning and is running successfully. • In worsted spinning, twist spinning has therefore secured a certain share of the market. However, due to the different twist structure, it cannot completely replace the conventional 2-fold yarn process.
  • 187. REPCO Spinning (Self-twist spinning) • Platt Saco Lowell has obtained a license from CSIRO for the self-twist spinning process. The corresponding machine has been called the Repco Spinner. • This process of spinning involves inserting alternating S and Z twist in the fiber strands that come from the drafting system. This is done by passing the slivers between the draft rollers which rotate along the axis as they rotate to deliver the threads.
  • 188. Operating principle • Eight roving strands (2) run from a creel (1) into a double apron drafting arrangement (3), where they are drafted in a normal drafting range. • A friction assembly (4) adjoins the drafting arrangement and consists of two reciprocating friction rollers. In passing through this device, the fiber strands leaving the drafting arrangement are subjected to alternating twist.
  • 189. Operating principle • Before the turns of twist can cancel each other out, the strands are brought together in pairs with a phase shift between the components of the two strands. • This produces the previously described self-twist (ST) twofold yarn. • The four yarns proceed to a winding device (5), where they are wound onto cross-wound packages.
  • 190. Process of REPCO machine • Pairs of roving are fed onto the drafting rollers. • The roving slivers are drawn out on succession of these drafting rollers and pass through a pair of synthetic rubber covered rollers which rotate axially. • The rollers wrap the strands around each other. • After the rollers complete their side ways motion in one direction, the movement is then shifted in the opposite direction. • The resultant yarn therefore has alternating sections of S and Z twist.
  • 191. Advantages 1) Low yarn tensions 2) Low end breakages rate 3) Finer count 4) High speed of twist insertion 5) Low energy consumption 6) Low space requirement 7) Low personnel demand 8) Low-noise process 9) Low cost 10) Low Spinning waste 11) Low maintenance
  • 192. Limitations of REPCO Spinning • Yarn clearing • Streaky appearance • Not suitable for knitting • Strength
  • 193. Specifications Spinning position per machine : 4(5) Delivery speed : upto 300 m/min Raw material : wool & synthetic fibers Count range : 9/2 - 45/2 Feed stock : roving Type of yarn : two folded Advantages : low energy, space and personnal Industry : worsted spinning
  • 194. Uses of self-twist yarns • Used in Knitwear fabrics
  • 195. Uses of self-twist yarns • Used for making socks, sweaters and other winter cloths.
  • 196. Reason for failure • Platt Saco Lowell discontinued the further development of this process (the Platt Saco Lowell company no longer exists). • The twist structure of the Repco yarn is different from that of a conventional 2-ply yarn. • The twist insertion is dependent on friction and thus quite delicate to adjust and keep constant.
  • 198. Introduction • A wrap yarn is a composite structure comprising a core of twisted or twist-less fibers bound by a yarn or continuous filament. • The wrap yarn always thus consists of two components; a twist free staple fiber component (core yarn) and wrapping filament yarn (around the core).
  • 199. Principle • A roving or sliver feedstock (1) is drafted in a three-, four- or five- roller drafting arrangement. • The fiber strand delivered runs through a hollow spindle (3) without receiving true twist. • In order to impart strength to the strand before it falls apart, a continuous-filament thread (4) is wound around the strand as it emerges from the drafting arrangement.
  • 200. Principle • The continuous-filament thread comes from a small, rapidly rotating bobbin (5) mounted on the hollow spindle. • Take-off rollers lead the resulting wrap yarn to a winding device.
  • 201. Manufacturers • Lessona, Mackie and ParafiL are major manufacturers of wrap spinning systems. • Most common wrap spinning system is ParafiL by Suessen company.
  • 202. Parafil system • Three, four, or five roller drafting arrangements are used, depending upon the raw material to be processed. • The hollow spindle permits rotation speeds of up to 35 000 rpm and is designed as a false-twist assembly. • The fiber strand does not pass directly through the spindle vertically; instead, shortly after entering the spindle, the strand is led out again and back around the spindle, with a wrap of about one-quarter of the spindle periphery.
  • 203. Parafil system • In this way, as the spindle rotates, the strand is provided with twist between the drafting arrangement and the head of the hollow spindle. • These turns of twist are canceled out again in the spindle head in accordance with the false-twist principle. This false twist prevents the strand from falling apart in the length prior to wrapping with filament.
  • 204. Features of Parafil system • Slivers are used as feedstock, the roving frame is eliminated. • Parafil yarn (called Parallel yarn by Suessen) is usually more even than ring-spun yarn. • Its strength is also better because of the filament and because of the high degree of parallel orientation of the fibers. • Covering power is high and hairiness low.
  • 205. Use of Parafil yarns The yarns are used primarily for: • Machine-knitting yarn • Velours (home and automobile upholstery materials) • Woven goods (men‘s and ladies‘ wear) • Carpet yarns (mainly for tufted carpets). • At present, the process is more suited to the long-staple than the short-staple field, i.e. for fiber lengths above 60 mm. • In ParafiL yarns, the filament makes up 2 - 5% of the yarn.
  • 206. Technological & Economic Inter relationships • High percentage of filament always has a disturbing effect. • More often in the coarse-yarn sector, and to some extent in the coarse-to-medium- yarn range. • The high price of filament relative to staple fibers exerts a strong influence on costs. • Economic production of fine yarns using the wrap-spinning process is therefore not possible, due to higher raw material costs. • Fine filaments in the 20 - 110 dTex count range are usually used. • Most common are polyamide fiber, polyester fiber, and viscose.
  • 207. Adhesive processes / Twist-less spinning
  • 208. Introduction • This process of spinning involves the arrangement of fibers parallel to each other, bonding them together with the aid of a bonding agent. • In this process, the fibers are placed at an angle to the axis of the yarn, leading to decreased translation of the strength in the axial direction of the yarn. • Since yarns are commonly subjected to axial tensile forces, the fiber strength is not fully utilized in the twisted yarns. • In twist-less yarns with cotton and synthetic fibers, the staple fibers are held together by means of adhesives.
  • 209. Achievements in this era Pioneer achievements using the adhesive have been made by: • The Vezelinstitut TNO (Holland), with the Twilo process, • Reiter (Switzerland), with the Pavena process, and • Bobtex Corporation (Canada), with the Bobtex process. • The line of thought is very attractive, but the realization has proved just as difficult. These processes have so far been unable to achieve acceptance, and Reiter has abandoned this line of development.
  • 210. The Twilo process • In this method, which is used on machinery made by Signaalapparaten, of Holland, third passage draw frame sliver is used as feedstock. • The first passage is usually carried out on a blending draw frame at which a small percentage (5-11%) of adhesive fibers is blended with a sliver of cotton, synthetic fiber, or viscose. • The adhesive fibers can be poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers, which become tacky and activated at a water temperature of about 70°C. The addition of water is therefore a precondition for bonding.
  • 211. Principle • The draw frame sliver (1) passes into a first drafting zone (2) of a four-line drafting arrangement and is here pre-drafted in a still-dry condition with a draft of 5-10. • The pre-drafting zone (2) is followed by the wetting position (3), which also contains a false- twist assembly. • Here, the use of a water-jet leads to twisting of the strand (false twist).
  • 212. Principle • Thereafter, the final attenuation is performed in a twist-free condition in a second two-line drafting zone (4), with a draft of up to 40. • To ensure that the strand leaves the drafting arrangement (4) as narrow and compact as possible, the drafting arrangement is followed by a second false-twist device (5). • This device also serves to assist warming of the yarn to about 70°C (7).
  • 213. Principle • A steam-jet is therefore used here for twisting. Finally, cylindrical cross-wound packages above the machine take up the yarn. • Instead of adhesive fibres, Signaalapparaten now also uses a bonding agent as an alternative means of imparting strength.
  • 214. Process parameters • In this process, cotton and pure synthetic fibers can be processed, and so can blends. • The range of fiber linear density lies between 1.4 and 6 dTex, with staple lengths in the range 30-80 mm. • The finer the fibers, the more adhesive fibers must be used. The latter usually have a linear density of 1.7 dTex and length of 40 mm.
  • 215. Yarn parameters • The yam is not round but flat and therefore gives an end product with high covering power. • Because of the binder, the yam is stiff with low elongation. • The evenness corresponds to that of ring-spun yarn. • The strength is partly dependent upon delivery speed.
  • 216. Features of Twilo process Characteristics of the process are: • Relatively high energy consumption. • The use of water in a spinning mill. • The adhesive fibers or binder must be washed out, and are therefore lost; if they were not washed out, the end-product would be unusable. • A great deal of specific know-how is needed.
  • 217. Specifications • Spinning positions per machine : 8 • Delivery speed : 500m/min • Raw material : Cotton & Synthetic fiber (up to 80mm) • Count range : Ne 6 – 40 • Form of feed stock : Draw frame sliver • Type of yarn : Bonded yarn • Yarn characteristics : Flat, high covering power, good evenness • Advantages : Elimination of twist • Field of end use : Bath towels, Interlinings, coating material
  • 218. Bobtex process The Bobtex spinning machine (the name "Bobtex" is derived from the name of the inventor, Bobkowicz) has two spinning positions and produces a multiple-component yam, which is composed of: • A core of mono- or multi-filaments making up 10-60% and forming the yam carrier (a); • A polymer intermediate layer (20-50%) (b); and • Staple fibers embedded in the intermediate layer to provide a covering layer and making up 30--60% (c).
  • 219. Principle • In the course of production of this yarn, as shown in, the filament (2) runs through an extruder (3), after which a coating of molten polymer (1) remains stuck to it. • Before this polymer can solidify, opened staple fibers forming a covering layer are pressed into the molten material in the unit (4). • This unit represents an opening assembly for the attenuation of two draw frame or card slivers (5) fed in from the side. • A false-twist device (7) ensures good binding-in of the staple fibers. • The resulting yarns are wound onto large packages on the base of the machine.
  • 220. Specifications • Spinning positions per machine : 2 • Delivery speed : 600m/min • Raw material : Filament/polymer/fibers • Count range : Ne 2 – 20 • Form of feed stock : Card sliver • Type of yarn : Three component yarn • Yarn characteristics : High covering power, stiffness, evenness, wool spun characteristics • Advantages : High production, Package mass up to 50kg • Field of end use : Sacks, carpet backing, Industrial woven fabric • Special features : High consumption of energy and water
  • 222. False twist spinning methods • Yarn manufacture using the air jet primarily produces fascinated yarns using the false twist principle. • Hence, we discuss about the principle of false twisting before going into actual air jet spinning.
  • 223. Principle • If a fiber strand A is held firmly at two spaced points by clamps K1 and K2 and is twisted somewhere between them, this strand always takes up the same number of turns of twist before and after the twist element (T). • If the clamps are replaced by rotating cylinders (Z1 and Z2) and the yarn is allowed to pass through the cylinders while twist is being imparted, the result is governed by the false-twist law and is different from the case of the stationary yarns, as previously assumed.
  • 224. Principle • A moving yarn entering the section (b) already has turns of twist imparted in section (a). In the example illustrated (B), there are turns of Z twist. • As the twist element is generating turns of S twist in the left hand section, this simply means that each turn of the Z twist imparted in the first section (a) is canceled by a turn of S twist imparted in the second section (b).
  • 225. Principle • The fiber strand thus never has any twist between the twisting element and the delivery cylinder. • In a false-twist assembly, turns of twist are present only between the feed cylinders and the twisting element. • This principle is exploited, for instance, in false-twist texturing.
  • 226. Yarn structure • The idealized structure of the fascinated yarn, consists of parallel fibers held together by wrapper fibers. The wrapper and core fibers are composed of same staple fiber material. • Since there is no real twist in the core, this type of yarn structures facilitate high production rates.
  • 227. Yarn formation • Figure demonstrates the principle involved in the production of fascinated yarn using the false twisting method.
  • 229. Spinning elements A variety of devices can be imagined as twist-imparting assemblies; • Pneumatic (one or two jets) • Hydraulic • Mechanical • Perforated drums • Double discs • Double belts • Rotating tubes, etc. Some mechanical assemblies would require a higher spinning tension than the pneumatic systems.
  • 231. Introduction • The Air jet spinning method, in which the yarn is obtained from staple fibers because of the action of the swirled air jet alone, has been very attractive mainly because it has become possible to eliminate such movable elements as the spindle and the traveler in ring spinning, or the centrifuge in rotor spinning. • Sliver is fed into the machine and is further drawn out to the final count and twist is inserted by means of one or two nozzles containing high pressured air. The resultant yarn is cleared of any defects and wound onto packages ready for use in fabric formation.
  • 232. Invention & Manufacturing • An invention by the Japanese company Murata was the next step in the progress of air-jet spinning methods. • At the beginning of the 1980s, this company manufactured (and still manufactures) an air-jet spinning frame in which the yarn is formed by means of the false-twist MJS (Murata Jet Spinning) method and the product continuity is maintained during the whole spinning process. • This spinning method (MJS) in comparison with the previous one (OE) has enabled to miniaturize the spinning chamber (the swirl chamber diameter equals 3 – 3.5 mm).
  • 233. Invention & Manufacturing • To supply the spinning chamber with compressed air (overpressure chamber). • To improve the yarn quality. The yarn obtained with this method has a carrier almost without twist, which is braided on the yarn surface.
  • 234. Operating principle • Air-jet spinning is a pneumatic method which consists of passing a drafted strand of fibers through one or two fluid nozzles located between the front roller of a drafting system and a take up a device. Look at the figure which demonstrates the Murata principle of producing fascinated yarns with two nozzles N1 and N2. • The drafting system drafts the input material into a ribbon like form with parallel fibers. Air is injected into the two nozzles N1 and N2 at high pressures, which cause swirling air streams in opposite directions. • N2 works as false twist element and produce yarn from fiber ribbon.
  • 235. Working • The feed material is a draw frame sliver fed from a can (1) which is passed to a drafting arrangement (2), where it is attenuated by a draft in the range of 100 - 200. • The fiber strand delivered then proceeds to two air jets (3 and 4) arranged directly after the drafting arrangement. • The second jet (4) is the actual false-twist element.
  • 236. Working • The air vortex generated in this jet, with an angular velocity of more than 2 million rpm, twists the strand as it passes through so that the strand rotates along a screw-thread path in the jet, achieving rotation speeds of about 250 000 rpm. • The compressed air reaches the speed of sound when entering the central canal of the false- twist element.
  • 237. Working • The ability of the vortex to impart torque is so high that the turns of twist in the yarn run back to the drafting arrangement. The fiber strand is therefore accelerated practically to full rotation speed as soon as it leaves the front roller. • The edge fibers which ultimately bind the yarn together by becoming wrapping fibers are in a minority. • The resulting bundled staple-fiber yarn passes from the take-off rollers (6) through a yarn-suction device (7) and an electronic yarn clearer (8) before being wound onto a cross-wound package (9).
  • 238. Distribution of twist Distribution of twist in running fiber strand in MJS is shown in figure.
  • 240. Yarn structure • The air-jet spun yarn consists of an untwisted core of parallel fibers and a surface wrapping of fibers. • The core fibers account for approximately 85-95% of the yarn mass. • The surface wrapper fibers are helical in nature unlike the wrapper fibers in the rotor yarn. The wrapper fibers are not uniformly distributed over the length; sometimes they are more on the surface and sometimes very few are on the surface. Their frequency and tightness being influenced by the fiber physical properties and the spinning process parameters. • “The high level of constriction of the straight core fibers by the surface wrapper fibers results in high bending modulus of air-jet yarns”.
  • 241. Yarn properties Hairiness: • Compared to yarn spun using other spinning processes, air-jet-spun yarn displays the lowest hairiness. • The advantages of low hairiness range from cost savings in the knitting process to unique advantages in the textile product in terms of abrasion, wear resistance, pilling and wash fastness.
  • 242. Yarn properties Abrasion and wear resistance: • Yarn abrasion is directly related to yarn hairiness and the integration of the fibers in the yarn strand. • One advantage of air-jet-spun yarn is clearly apparent: Lower abrasion will result in significantly less soiling and less fiber fly during downstream yarn processing, thereby extending cleaning intervals on the machines. • The abrasion resistance of the yarns is a further important criterion in subsequent downstream yarn-processing stages and the yarn's serviceability properties in the textile fabric.
  • 243. Advantages of Air-jet spinning • Creates functional & fashionable yarn • Integration of three processes; roving, spinning & winding by the MJS • Integration of four processes; roving, spinning, winding & doubling by the MTS • User-friendly in operation management • The spinning speed of 340m/min • User-friendly in quality control • Totally saves space, labor & energy
  • 244. Advantages of air jet yarns • Less hairiness & Clear appearance • High resistance to Pilling & abrasion • High moisture absorption • Less shrinkage & High wash resistance • Can be spun with various other materials such as cotton, synthetic fiber, regenerated fiber and blended fiber. • Yarn structure also suitable as core yarn.
  • 245. Raw material requirements • In air-jet spinning, the requirements imposed on the raw material and the quality of spinning preparation are very high. • Yarn count and usable fiber length are also limited in comparison to ring spinning. • The feed sliver must be very clean, the short fiber content may not exceed a certain level, and the fibers must display good parallelism. • The better these preconditions are fulfilled, the higher the machine efficiency.