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- 1. POPAGATION FACTORS AND LINK POWER BUDGET CALCULATION PREPARED BY, R.THANDAIAH PRABU M.E., thandaiah@gmail.com
- 2. Propagation factors: Atmospheric Losses Different types of atmospheric losses can perturb radio wave transmission in satellite systems: Atmospheric absorption; Atmospheric attenuation; Traveling ionospheric disturbances.
- 3. Radio Propagation: Atmospheric Absorption Energy absorption by atmospheric gases, which varies with the frequency of the radio waves. Two absorption peaks are observed: 22.3 GHz from resonance absorption in water vapour (H2O) 60 GHz from resonance absorption in oxygen (O2) Source: Satellite Communications, Dennis Roddy, McGraw-Hill
- 4. Radio Propagation: Atmospheric Attenuation Rain is the main cause of atmospheric attenuation (hail, ice and snow have little effect on attenuation because of their low water content). Total attenuation from rain can be determined by: A = αL [dB] where α [dB/km] is called the specific attenuation where L [km] is the effective path length of the signal through the rain; note that this differs from the geometric path length due to fluctuations in the rain density.
- 5. Radio Propagation: Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Traveling ionospheric disturbances are clouds of electrons in the ionosphere that provoke radio signal fluctuations which can only be determined on a statistical basis. The disturbances of major concern are: Scintillation; Polarisation rotation. Scintillations are variations in the amplitude, phase, polarisation, or angle of arrival of radio waves, caused by irregularities in the ionosphere which change over time. The main effect of scintillations is fading of the signal.
- 6. Signal Polarisation: What is Polarisation? Polarisation is the property of electromagnetic waves that describes the direction of the transverse electric field. Since electromagnetic waves consist of an electric and a magnetic field vibrating at right angles to each other it is necessary to adopt a convention to determine the polarisation of the signal. Conventionally, the magnetic field is ignored and the plane of the electric field is used.
- 7. Signal Polarisation: Types of Polarisation Linear Polarisation (horizontal or vertical): Circular Polarisation: Linear Polarisation Circular Polarisation Elliptical Polarisation the two orthogonal components of the electric field are in phase; The direction of the line in the plane depends on the relative amplitudes of the two components. The two components are exactly 90º out of phase and have exactly the same amplitude. Elliptical Polarisation: All other cases.
- 8. Signal Polarisation: Satellite Communications Alternating vertical and horizontal polarisation is widely used on satellite communications to reduce interference between programs on the same frequency band transmitted from adjacent satellites (one uses vertical, the next horizontal, and so on), allowing for reduced angular separation between the satellites. Information Resources for Telecommunication Professionals [www.mlesat.com]
- 9. Signal Polarisation: Depolarisation Rain depolarisation: Since raindrops are not perfectly spherical, as a polarised wave crosses a raindrop, one component of the wave will encounter less water than the other component. There will be a difference in the attenuation and phase shift experienced by each of the electric field components, resulting in the depolarisation of the wave. Polarisation vector relative to the major and minor axes of a raindrop. Source: Satellite Communications, Dennis Roddy, McGraw-Hill
- 10. Signal Polarisation: Cross-Polarisation Discrimination Depolarisation can cause interference where orthogonal polarisation is used to provide isolation between signals, as in the case of frequency reuse. The most widely used measure to quantify the effects of polarisation interference is called Cross-Polarisation Discrimination (XPD): XPD = 20 log (E 11 /E 12 ) Source: Satellite Communications, Dennis Roddy, McGraw-Hill To counter depolarising effects circular polarising is sometimes used. Alternatively, if linear polarisation is to be used, polarisation tracking equipment may be installed at the antenna.
- 11. Illustration of the various propagation loss mechanisms on a typical earth-space path The ionosphere can cause the electric vector of signals passing through it to rotate away from their original polarization direction, hence causing signal depolarization. The absorptive effects of the atmospheric constituents cause an increase in sky noise to be observed by the receiver Refractive effects (tropospheric scintillation) cause signal loss. the sun (a very “hot” microwave and millimeter wave source of incoherent energy), an increased noise contribution results which may cause the C/N to drop below the demodulator threshold. The ionosphere has its principal impact on signals at frequencies well below 10 GHz while the other effects noted in the figure above become increasingly strong as the frequency of the signal goes above 10 GHz
- 12. Atmospheric attenuation Attenuation of the signal in % Example: satellite systems at 4-6 GHz 50 40 rain absorption 30 fog absorption ε 20 10 atmospheric absorption 5° 10° 20° 30° elevation of the satellite 40° 50°
- 13. Signal Transmission Link-Power Budget Formula Link-power budget calculations take into account all the gains and losses from the transmitter, through the medium to the receiver in a telecommunication system. Also taken into the account are the attenuation of the transmitted signal due to propagation and the loss or gain due to the antenna. The decibel equation for the received power is: [P R ] = [EIRP] + [G R ] - [LOSSES] Where: [PR] = received power in dBW [EIRP] = equivalent isotropic radiated power in dBW [GR] = receiver antenna gain in dB [LOSSES] = total link loss in dB dBW = 10 log10(P/(1 W)), where P is an arbitrary power in watts, is a unit for the measurement of the strength of a signal relative to one watt.
- 14. Link Budget parameters Transmitter power at the antenna Antenna gain compared to isotropic radiator EIRP Free space path loss System noise temperature Figure of merit for receiving system Carrier to thermal noise ratio Carrier to noise density ratio Carrier to noise ratio
- 15. Signal Transmission Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Powe An isotropic radiator is one that radiates equally in all directions. The power amplifier in the transmitter is shown as generating PT watts. A feeder connects this to the antenna, and the net power reaching the antenna will be PT minus the losses in the feeder cable, i.e. PS. The power will be further reduced by losses in the antenna such that the power radiated will be PRAD (< PT). (a) Transmitting antenna Source: Satellite Communications, Dennis Roddy, McGraw-Hill
- 16. Antenna Gain We need directive antennas to get power to go in wanted direction. Define Gain of antenna as increase in power in a given direction compared to isotropic antenna. P (θ ) G (θ ) = P0 / 4π • P(θ) is variation of power with angle. • G(θ) is gain at the direction θ. • P0 is total power transmitted. • sphere = 4π solid radians
- 17. Link-Power Budget Formula Variables Link-Power Budget Formula for the received power [P R]: The equivalent isotropic radiated power [EIRP] is: [EIRP] = [PS] + [G] dBW, where: [PS] is the transmit power in dBW and [G] is the transmitting antenna gain in dB. [G R ] is the receiver antenna gain in dB. [LOSSES] = [FSL] + [RFL] + [AML] + [AA] + [PL], where: [P R ] = [EIRP] + [G R ] - [LOSSES] [FSL] = free-space spreading loss in dB = PT/PR (in watts) [RFL] = receiver feeder loss in dB [AML] = antenna misalignment loss in dB [AA] = atmospheric absorption loss in dB [PL] = polarisation mismatch loss in dB The major source of loss in any ground-satellite link is the free-space spreading loss.
- 18. More complete formulation Demonstrated formula assumes idealized case. Free Space Loss (Lp) represents spherical spreading only. Other effects need to be accounted for in the transmission equation: La = Losses due to attenuation in atmosphere Lta = Losses associated with transmitting antenna Lra = Losses associates with receiving antenna Lpol = Losses due to polarization mismatch Lother = (any other known loss - as much detail as available) Lr = additional Losses at receiver (after receiving antenna) Pt Gt Gr Pr = L p La Lta Lra L pol Lother Lr
- 19. Transmission Formula Some intermediate variables were also defined before: Pt =Pout /Lt EIRP = Pt Gt Where: Pt = Power into antenna Lt = Loss between power source and antenna EIRP = effective isotropic radiated power •Therefore, there are many ways the formula could be rewritten. The user has to pick the one most suitable to each need. Pt Gt Gr Pr = L p La Lta Lra L pol Lother Lr EIRP x Gr = L p La Lta Lra L pol Lother Lr Pout Gt Gr = Lt L p La Lta Lra L pol Lother Lr
- 20. Link Power Budget Tx EIRP Transmission: Power Transmission Losses (cables & connectors) Antenna Gain Antenna Pointing Loss Free Space Loss Atmospheric Loss (gaseous, clouds, rain) Rx Antenna Pointing Loss Reception: Antenna gain Reception Losses (cables & connectors) Noise Temperature Contribution Rx Pr
- 21. Translating to dBs The transmission formula can be written in dB as: Pr = EIRP − Lta − L p − La − L pol − Lra − Lother + Gr − Lr This form of the equation is easily handled as a spreadsheet (additions and subtractions!!) The calculation of received signal based on transmitted power and all losses and gains involved until the receiver is called “Link Power Budget”, or “Link Budget”. The received power Pr is commonly referred to as “Carrier Power”, C .
- 22. Link Power Budget Tx EIRP Transmission: + Power - Transmission Losses (cables & connectors) + Antenna Gain Now all factors are accounted for as additions and subtractions - Antenna Pointing Loss - Free Space Loss - Atmospheric Loss (gaseous, clouds, rain) - Rx Antenna Pointing Loss Reception: + Antenna gain - Reception Losses (cables & connectors) + Noise Temperature Contribution Rx Pr
- 23. Easy Steps to a Good Link Power Budget First, draw a sketch of the link path Next, think carefully about the system of interest Include all significant effects in the link power budget Note and justify which common effects are insignificant here Roll-up large sections of the link power budget Doesn’t have to be artistic quality Helps you find the stuff you might forget Ie.: TXd power, TX ant. gain, Path loss, RX ant. gain, RX losses Show all components for these calculations in the detailed budget Use the rolled-up results in build a link overview Comment the link budget always use units on parameters (dBi, W, Hz ...) Describe any unusual elements (eg. loss caused by H 20 on radome)
- 24. Simple Link Power Budget
- 25. Why calculate Link Budgets? System performance tied to operation thresholds. Operation thresholds Cmin tell the minimum power that should be received at the demodulator in order for communications to work properly. Operation thresholds depend on: Modulation scheme being used. Desired communication quality. Coding gain. Additional overheads. Channel Bandwidth. Thermal Noise power.
- 26. Closing the Link We need to calculate the Link Budget in order to verify if we are “closing the link”. Pr >= Cmin Link Closed Pr < Cmin Link not closed Usually, we obtain the “Link Margin”, which tells how tight we are in closing the link: Margin = Pr – Cmin Equivalently: Margin > 0 Margin < 0 Link Closed Link not closed
- 27. Carrier to Noise Ratios C/N: Allows simple calculation of margin if: Receiver bandwidth is known Required C/N is known for desired signal type C/No: carrier/noise power in RX BW (dB) carrier/noise power density. (dbHz) Allows simple calculation of allowable RX bandwidth if required C/N is known for desired signal type Critical for calculations involving carrier recovery loop performance calculations
- 28. System Figure of Merit G/Ts: RX antenna gain/system temperature Also called the System Figure of Merit, G/Ts Easily describes the sensitivity of a receive system Must be used with caution: Some (most) vendors measure G/Ts under ideal conditions only G/Ts degrades for most systems when rain loss increases This is caused by the increase in the sky noise component This is in addition to the loss of received power flux density
- 29. System Noise Power - 1 Performance of system is determined by C/N ratio. Most systems require C/N > 10 dB. (Remember, in dBs: C - N > 10 dB) Hence usually: C > N + 10 dB We need to know the noise temperature of our receiver so that we can calculate N, the noise power (N = Pn). Tn (noise temperature) is in Kelvins (symbol K): 5 0 0 [ ] T [ K ] = T C + 273 ( [ ] T [ K ] = T F − 32 ) 9 + 273
- 30. System Noise Power - 2 System noise is caused by thermal noise sources External to RX system Transmitted noise on link Scene noise observed by antenna Internal to RX system The power available from thermal noise is: N = kTs B (dBW) where k = Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38x10-23 J/K(-228.6 dBW/HzK), Ts is the effective system noise temperature, and B is the effective system bandwidth
- 31. Thank you

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