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# TQM - 7 NEW TOOLS - FINAL YEAR ECE - SRI SAIRAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, CHENNAI - Dr.K.BARANIDHARAN

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TQM - 7 NEW TOOLS - FINAL YEAR ECE - SRI SAIRAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, CHENNAI - Dr.K.BARANIDHARAN

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### TQM - 7 NEW TOOLS - FINAL YEAR ECE - SRI SAIRAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, CHENNAI - Dr.K.BARANIDHARAN

1. 1. Dr.K.Baranidharan Present by…
2. 2. NEW SEVEN TOOLS OF Q C
3. 3. What are the New Seven Q.C. Tools  Affinity Diagrams  Relations Diagrams  Tree Diagrams  Matrix Diagrams  Arrow Diagrams  Process Decision Program Charts  Matrix Data Analysis
4. 4. History of the New Seven Q.C. Tools  Committee of J.U.S.E. - 1972  Aim was to develop more QC techniques with design approach  Work in conjunction with original Basic Seven Tools  New set of methods (N7) - 1977 Slide 1 0f 2
5. 5. History of the New Seven Q.C. Tools  Developed to organize verbal data diagrammatically.  Basic 7 tools effective for data analysis, process control, and quality improvement (numerical data)  Used together increases TQM effectiveness Slide 2 0f 2
6. 6. What are the Basic Seven Q.C. Tools?  Flow Charts  Run Charts  Histograms  Pareto Diagrams  Cause and Effect Diagrams  Scatter Diagrams  Control Charts
7. 7. Relation Between New Seven Q.C. Tools and Basic Seven Tools FACTS Data Numerical Data Verbal Data Organize The Seven New Tools Information The Basic Seven Tools •Generate Ideas •Formulate plans •Analytical approach Define problem after collecting numerical data Define problem before collecting numerical data Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
8. 8. Enhanced Capabilities  Generate ideas  Improve planning  Eliminate errors and omissions  Explain problems intelligibly  Secure full cooperation  Persuade powerfully Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools  Organize verbal data Slide 1 0f 4
9. 9. Enhanced Keys to Organizational Reform  Clarify the desired situation  Prioritize tasks effectively  Proceed systematically  Anticipate future events  Change proactively  Get things right the first time Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools  Assess situations from various angles Slide 2 0f 4
10. 10. Five Objectives of Organizational Reform which will establish a Culture that:  Gives importance to planning  Stresses the importance of the process  Prioritizes tasks  Encourages everyone to think systematically Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 3 0f 4  Identifies problems
11. 11. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams For Pinpointing the Problem in a Chaotic Situation and Generating Solution Strategies  Gathers large amounts of intertwined verbal data (ideas, opinions, issues)  Organizes the data into groups based on natural relationship  Makes it feasible for further analysis and to find a solution to the problem. Slide 1 0f 7
12. 12. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Advantages of Affinity Diagrams  Facilitates breakthrough thinking and stimulate fresh ideas  Permits the problem to be pinned down accurately  Ensures everyone clearly recognizes the problem  Incorporates opinions of entire group Slide 2 0f 7
13. 13. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Advantages of Affinity Diagrams (cont.)  Fosters team spirit  Raises everyone’s level of awareness  Spurs to the group into action Slide 3 0f 7 Topic Affinity Statement Data CardData Card Data CardData Card Affinity Statement Data CardData Card Data CardData Card Affinity Statement Data CardData Card Data Card Affinity Statement Data CardData Card Data CardData Card Data Card Data Card
14. 14. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach Slide 4 0f 7  Select a topic  Collect verbal data by brainstorming  Discuss info collected until everyone understands it thoroughly  Write each item on separate data card  Spread out all cards on table
15. 15. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.) Slide 5 0f 7  Move data cards into groups of similar themes (natural affinity for each other)  Combine statements on data cards to new Affinity statement  Make new card with Affinity statement  Continue to combine until less than 5 groups
16. 16. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.) Slide 6 0f 7  Lay the groups outs, keeping the affinity clusters together Next, complete the diagram
17. 17. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Completing an Affinity Diagram Slide 7 0f 7 Topic Affinity Statement Data CardData Card Data CardData Card Affinity Statement Data CardData Card Data CardData Card Affinity Statement Data CardData Card Data Card Affinity Statement Data CardData Card Data CardData Card Data Card Data Card Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
18. 18. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams For Finding Solutions Strategies by Clarifying Relationships with Complex Interrelated Causes  Resolves tangled issues by unraveling the logical connection  Allows for “Multi-directional” thinking rather than linear  Also known as Interrelationship diagrams Slide 1 0f 7
19. 19. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Advantages of Relations Diagrams  Useful at planning stage for obtaining perspective on overall situation  Facilitates consensus among team  Assists to develop and change people’s thinking  Enables priorities to be identified accurately Slide 2 0f 7
20. 20. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Advantages of Relations Diagrams (cont.)  Makes the problem recognizable by clarifying the relationships among causes Slide 3 0f 7 Why doesn’t X happen? Primary Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause Tertiary Cause Secondary Cause Secondary Cause Secondary Cause Secondary Cause Tertiary Cause 4th level Cause Tertiary Cause Tertiary Cause 4th level Cause 5th level Cause 6th level Cause Tertiary Cause Secondary Cause
21. 21. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach Slide 4 0f 7  Express the problem in form of “Why isn’t something happening?”  Each member lists 5 causes affecting problem  Discuss info collected until everyone understands it thoroughly  Write each item on a card
22. 22. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.) Slide 5 0f 7  Move cards into similar groups  Asking why, explore the cause-effect relationships, and divide the cards into primary, secondary and tertiary causes  Connect all cards by these relationships  Further discuss until all possible causes have been identified
23. 23. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.) Slide 6 0f 7  Connect all related groups Next, complete the diagram  Review whole diagram looking for relationships among causes
24. 24. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Completing a Relations Diagram Slide 7 0f 7 Why doesn’t X happen? Primary Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause Tertiary Cause Secondary Cause Secondary Cause Secondary Cause Secondary Cause Tertiary Cause 4th level Cause Tertiary Cause Tertiary Cause 4th level Cause 5th level Cause 6th level Cause Tertiary Cause Secondary Cause Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
25. 25. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams For Systematically Pursuing the Best Strategies for Attaining an Objective  Develops a succession of strategies for achieving objectives  Reveals methods to achieve the results.  Also known as Systematic diagrams or Dendrograms Slide 1 0f 5
26. 26. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Advantages of Tree Diagrams  Systematic and logical approach is less likely that items are omitted  Facilitates agreement among team  Are extremely convincing with strategies Slide 2 0f 5 To Accomplish Primary means Constraints Secondary means Secondary means 3rd means 3rd means 3rd means 3rd means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means
27. 27.  Discuss means of achieving objective (primary means, first level strategy) New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Constructing a Tree Diagram Group Method Approach Slide 3 0f 5  Write Relations Diagram topic (Objective card)  Identify constraints on how objective can be achieved  Take each primary mean, write ob- jective for achieving it (secondary means)
28. 28. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Constructing an Tree Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.) Slide 4 0f 5  Continue to expand to the fourth level  Review each system of means in both directions (from objective to means and means to objective)  Add more cards if needed  Connect all levels Next, complete the diagram
29. 29. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Completing a Tree Diagram Slide 5 0f 5 To Accomplish 3rd means 3rd means Primary means 3rd means 3rd means Constraints Primary means Secondary means Secondary means Secondary means Secondary means 3rd means 3rd means 3rd means 3rd means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
30. 30. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams For Clarifying Problems by “Thinking Multidimensionally”  Consists of a two-dimensional array to determine location and nature of problem  Discovers key ideas by relationships represented by the cells in matrix. Slide 1 0f 7
31. 31. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Advantages of Matrix Diagrams  Enable data on ideas based on extensive experience  Clarifies relationships among different elements  Makes overall structure of problem immediately obvious  Combined from two to four types of diagrams, location of problem is clearer. Slide 2 0f 7
32. 32. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Advantages of Matrix Diagrams (cont.)  5 types: L-shaped, T-shaped, Y-shaped, X- shaped, and C-shaped Slide 3 0f 7 O O =1 O =4 Principal O =2 O X =5 O Subsidiary =3 X =6 Efficacy Practicability Rank SiteQCcircle Section/Plant QCcirclesupporter Section/Plant Manager Leader Member 4th level means from Tree diagram O O 1 O 4th level means from Tree diagram O O 1 O Hold 4 times/month 4th level means from Tree diagram O 3 O At every meeting 4th level means from Tree diagram O 2 O 4th level means from Tree diagram O X 5 O At least 3 times/year/person 4th level means from Tree diagram O O 1 O O 4th level means from Tree diagram 4 O Evaluation Responsibilities Remarks
33. 33. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Constructing a Matrix Diagram Slide 4 0f 7  Write final-level means from Tree diagram forming vertical axis  Write in Evaluation categories (efficacy, practicability, and rank) on horizontal axis.  Write names along horizontal axis  Examine final-level means to identify whom will implement them
34. 34. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.) Slide 5 0f 7  Label group of columns as “Responsibilities”  Label right-hand end of horizontal axis as “Remarks”  Examine each cell and insert the appropriate symbol: Efficacy: O=good, =satisfactory, X=none Practicability: O=good,=satisfactory, X=none
35. 35. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.) Slide 6 0f 7  Fill out remarks column and record meanings of symbol Next, complete the diagram  Examine cells under Responsibility Columns, insert double-circle for Principal and single-circle for Subsidiary  Determine score for each combination of symbols, record in rank column
36. 36. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Completing a Matrix Diagram Slide 7 0f 7 O O =1 O =4 Principal O =2 O X =5 O Subsidiary =3 X =6Efficacy Practicability Rank SiteQCcircle Section/Plant QCcirclesupporter Section/Plant Manager Leader Member 4th level means from Tree diagram O O 1 O 4th level means from Tree diagram O O 1 O Hold 4 times/month 4th level means from Tree diagram O 3 O At every meeting 4th level means from Tree diagram O 2 O 4th level means from Tree diagram O X 5 O At least 3 times/year/person 4th level means from Tree diagram O O 1 O O 4th level means from Tree diagram 4 O 4th level means from Tree diagram O 2 O 4th level means from Tree diagram O O 1 O 4th level means from Tree diagram O O 1 O Evaluation Responsibilities Remarks Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
37. 37. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams For Working Out Optimal Schedules and Controlling Them Effectively  Shows relationships among tasks needed to implement a plan  Network technique using nodes for events and arrows for activities  Used in PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method) Slide 1 0f 7
38. 38. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Advantages of Arrow Diagrams  Allows overall task to viewed and potential snags to be identified before work starts  Leads to discovery of possible improvements  Makes it easy to monitor progress of work  Deals promptly with changes to plan  Improves communication among team Slide 2 0f 7
39. 39. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Advantages of Arrow Diagrams (cont.)  Promotes understanding and agreement among group Slide 3 0f 7 Strategy 1 Constraints Activity 2 4 3 5 9 6 8 7 10 13 12 11
40. 40. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Constructing an Arrow Diagram Slide 4 0f 7  From strategies on Tree diagram, select one (Objective of Arrow Diagram)  Identify constraints to Objective  Write all essential activities on separate cards  List all activities necessary to achieving Objective
41. 41. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.) Slide 5 0f 7  Organize cards in sequential order of activities  Remove any duplicate activities  Review order of activities, find sequence with greatest amount of activities  Arrange parallel activities
42. 42. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.) Slide 6 0f 7  Record names and other necessary information Next, complete the diagram  Examine path, number nodes in sequence from left to right
43. 43. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Completing an Arrow Diagram Slide 7 0f 7 Strategy 1 Constraints Activity 2 4 3 5 9 6 8 7 10 13 12 11 Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)
44. 44. New Seven Q.C. Tools Process Decisions Program Charts For Producing the Desired Result from Many Possible Outcomes  Used to plan various contingencies  Used for getting activities back on track  Steers events in required direction if unanticipated problems occur  Finds feasible counter measures to overcome problems Slide 1 0f 7
45. 45. Advantages of Process Decisions Program Charts (PDPC’s)  Facilitates forecasting  Uses past to anticipate contingencies  Enables problems to pinpointed  Illustrates how events will be directed to successful conclusion  Enables those involved to understand decision-makers intentions Slide 2 0f 7 New Seven Q.C. Tools Process Decisions Program Charts
46. 46. Advantages of PDPC’s (cont.)  Fosters cooperation and communication in group  Easily modified and easily understood Slide 3 0f 7 New Seven Q.C. Tools Process Decisions Program Charts Start GOAL YESYES NONO NO NO NO YES NO NO
47. 47. Constructing a PDPC Slide 4 0f 7  Select a highly effective, but difficult strategy from the Tree diagram  Decide on a goal (most desirable outcome)  Identify constraints of objective  Identify existing situation (Starting point) New Seven Q.C. Tools Process Decisions Program Charts  List activities to reach goal and potential problems with each activity
48. 48. Constructing an PDPC (cont.) Slide 5 0f 7  Review list. Add extra activities or problems not thought of previously  Prepare contingency plan for each step and review what action is needed if step is not achieved  Examine carefully to check for inconsistencies and all important factors are included New Seven Q.C. Tools Process Decisions Program Charts
49. 49. Constructing an PDPC (cont.) Slide 6 0f 7 Next, complete the diagram  Examine to make sure all contingency plans are adequate New Seven Q.C. Tools Process Decisions Program Charts
50. 50. Completing a PDPC Slide 7 0f 7 New Seven Q.C. Tools Process Decisions Program Charts Start GOAL YESYES NONO NO NO NO YES NO NO Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation,1984)
51. 51. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Principal Component Analysis  Technique quantifies and arranges data presented in Matrix  Based solely on numerical data  Finds indicators that differentiate and attempt to clarify large amount of information Slide 1 0f 6
52. 52. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Advantages of Principal Component Analysis  Can be used in various fields (market surveys, new product planning, process analysis)  Can be when used when Matrix diagram does not give sufficient information  Useful as Prioritization Grid Slide 2 0f 6
53. 53. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Constructing a Prioritization Grid Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001) Slide 3 0f 6  Determine your goal, your alternatives, and criteria for decision  Place selection in order of importance  Sum individual ratings to establish overall ranking (Divide by number of options for average ranking)  Apply percentage weight to each option (all weights should add up to 1)
54. 54. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.) Slide 4 0f 6  Rank order each option with respect to criterion (Average the rankings and apply a completed ranking)  Multiply weight by associated rank in Matrix (in example, 4 is best, 1 is worst)  Result is Importance Score  Add up Importance Scores for each option
55. 55. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.) Slide 5 0f 6 See completed the diagram  Rank order the alternatives according to importance
56. 56. Completing a Prioritization Grid Slide 6 0f 6 New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001) Cost Reliability Options Design A .30 .20 3 3 .90 .60 3.2 1 (tie) Design B .40 .10 4 1 1.6 .10 3.0 2 Design C .25 .25 2 4 .50 1 2.5 3 Design D .10 .20 1 3 .10 .60 3.2 1 (tie) 1.05 .75 .26 .19 2 4 Importance Sum Score Option Ranking(least important) Strength Importance score Rank Percentage weight Percentage weight Rank Importance score Percentage weight Rank Importance score Percentage weight Rank Importance score Sum of weights Average weight Criterion Ranking Customer Acceptance (most important) .40 4 1.6 .30 3 .90 .25 1 .25 0.3 3 .90 1.25 2 .40 .25 .75 .10 1 .10 .20 .95 .24 3 Criteria .40 4 3 1.6 .31 1
57. 57. Dr.K.Baranidharan THANK YOU