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# Continuos improvement tools ii

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### Continuos improvement tools ii

1. 1. ContinuousImprovement Workshop Second PartEng. Naty A. Romero Alarcón
2. 2.  The 7 new quality tools: ◦ Affinity Diagram. ◦ Relations Diagram. ◦ Tree Diagram/ Decision Tree ◦ Matrix Diagram ◦ Matrix Data Analysis. ◦ Arrow Diagram. ◦ Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC).Quality Tools
3. 3. • The Affinity Diagram was devised by Jiro Kawakita in the 1960s and is sometimes referred to as the KJ Method.• Organizes a large number of ideas into their natural relationships.• You can use it when: - You are confronted with many facts or ideas in apparent chaos. - Issues seen to large and complex to grasp. - Group consensus is necessary.Typical situations are: After a brainstorming exercise.Affinity Diagram
4. 4. Affinity Diagram
5. 5.  Shows cause-and-effect relationships. Helps a group analyze the natural links between different aspects of a complex situation.We use the relations diagram when: Trying to understand links between ideas or cause and effect relationships, such as when trying to indentify and area of greatest impact for improvement. When a complex issue is being analyzed for causes. When a complex solution is being implemented. After generating an affinity diagram, cause-and-effect diagram or tree diagram, to more completely explore the relations of ideasRelation Diagram
6. 6.  Breaks down or stratifies ideas in progressively greater detail. The objective is to partition a big idea or problem into its smaller components, making the idea easier to understand, or the problem easier to solve.We can use it when:- Developing actions to carry out a solution or other plan.- Analyzing processes in detail.- As a communication tool, to explain details to others.Tree Diagram or Decision Tree
7. 7. Tree Diagram Example
8. 8.  The matrix diagram shows the relationship between two, three or four groups of information. It also can give information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles played by various individuals or measurements. Six differently shaped matrices are possible: L, T, Y, X, C and roof-shaped, depending on how many groups must be compared.Matrix Diagram
9. 9.  A complex mathematical technique for analyzing matrices, often replaced in this list by the similar prioritization matrix. One of the most rigorous, careful and time- consuming of decision-making tools, a prioritization matrix is an L-shaped matrix that uses pairwise comparisons of a list of options to a set of criteria in order to choose the best options.Matrix data analysis
10. 10.  The arrow diagram shows the required order of tasks in a project or process, the best schedule for the entire project, and potential scheduling and resource problems and their solutions. The arrow diagram lets you calculate the “critical path” of the project. This is the flow of critical steps where delays will affect the timing of the entire project and where addition of resources can speed up the project.Arrow Diagram
11. 11.  The process decision program chart systematically identifies what might go wrong in a plan under development. Countermeasures are developed to prevent or offset those problems. By using PDPC, you can either revise the plan to avoid the problems or be ready with the best response when a problem occurs.Process Decision Program Chart