Engineering
Economics &
Financial Accounting
Ee&fa
12 September 2013
Dr.K.Baranidharan
Present by…
ECONOMICS SCALE
• Alfred Marshall divides the
economics of scale into two
groups:
• Internal and External
• Economics of s...
What is economies of scale?
• Economies of scale are the cost advantages that a
business obtains due to expansion. When
ec...
What is diseconomies of scale?
• Diseconomies of scale are the disadvantages
of being too large. A firm that increases its...
Internal and External economies of
scale.
• Internal economies of scale :-
lower long run average costs
resulting from a f...
Internal and external diseconomies of
scale.
• Internal diseconomies of scale :-
higher long run average cost arising
from...
Types of Internal economies of scale.
• Buying economies
• Selling economies
• Managerial economies
• Financial economies
...
Managerial Economies.
• As a firm grows, there is
greater potential for managers
to specialize in particular
tasks (e.g. m...
Buying Economies or Commercial
• These are the best known type. Large firms
that buy raw materials in bulk and place large...
Financial economies
• Many small businesses find it
hard to obtain finance and
when they do obtain it, the cost
of the fin...
Technical Economies.
• Businesses with large-scale production can
use more advanced machinery (or use
existing machinery m...
Selling Economies.
• Every part of marketing has a cost – particularly
promotional methods such as advertising and
running...
Research and development
economies.
• A large firm can have a Research and
Development department, since running such
a de...
Risk-bearing economies.
• Larger firms produce a range of
products. This enables them to spread
the risks of trading. If t...
Internal Diseconomies of scale.
• Growing beyond a certain output can cause a
firms average costs to rise. This is because...
External economies of scale.
• A skilled labour workforce – A firm
can recruit workers who have been
trained by other firm...
External economies of scale.
• Specialist services – Universities and
colleges ma run courses for workers in
large industr...
External Diseconomies of scale.
• Just as a firm can grow too
large, so can an industry.
• Larger firms -> transportation
...
Managerial uses of Production
Function
• Used to Compute least cost Input combination for
given output
• Used to Compute m...
• Production function has immense utility to the producer and executives in
decision making at the firm level.
• It has im...
Dr.K.Baranidharan
THANK YOU
EE&FA/C - ECONOMICS OF SCALE - FINAL YEAR CS/ 3RD YEAR IT - SRI SAIRAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, CHENNAI - Dr.K.BARANIDHARAN
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EE&FA/C - ECONOMICS OF SCALE - FINAL YEAR CS/ 3RD YEAR IT - SRI SAIRAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, CHENNAI - Dr.K.BARANIDHARAN

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EE&FA/C - ECONOMICS OF SCALE - FINAL YEAR CS/ 3RD YEAR IT - SRI SAIRAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, CHENNAI - Dr.K.BARANIDHARAN

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EE&FA/C - ECONOMICS OF SCALE - FINAL YEAR CS/ 3RD YEAR IT - SRI SAIRAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, CHENNAI - Dr.K.BARANIDHARAN

  1. 1. Engineering Economics & Financial Accounting Ee&fa 12 September 2013
  2. 2. Dr.K.Baranidharan Present by…
  3. 3. ECONOMICS SCALE • Alfred Marshall divides the economics of scale into two groups: • Internal and External • Economics of scale occur in the Long-run
  4. 4. What is economies of scale? • Economies of scale are the cost advantages that a business obtains due to expansion. When economists are talking about economies of scale, they are usually talking about internal economies of scale. These are the advantages gained by an individual firm by increasing its size i.e having larger or more plants or production.
  5. 5. What is diseconomies of scale? • Diseconomies of scale are the disadvantages of being too large. A firm that increases its scale of operation to a point where it encounters rising long run average costs is said to be experiencing internal diseconomies of scale.
  6. 6. Internal and External economies of scale. • Internal economies of scale :- lower long run average costs resulting from a firm growing in size. • External economies of scale :- lower long run average costs resulting from an industry growing in size.
  7. 7. Internal and external diseconomies of scale. • Internal diseconomies of scale :- higher long run average cost arising from a firm growing too large. • External diseconomies of scale:- higher long run average costs resulting from an industry growing too large
  8. 8. Types of Internal economies of scale. • Buying economies • Selling economies • Managerial economies • Financial economies • Technical economies • Research and development economies • Risk-bearing economies.
  9. 9. Managerial Economies. • As a firm grows, there is greater potential for managers to specialize in particular tasks (e.g. marketing, human resource management, finance). Specialist managers are likely to be more efficient as they possess a high level of expertise, experience and qualifications compared to one person in a smaller firm trying to perform all of these roles.
  10. 10. Buying Economies or Commercial • These are the best known type. Large firms that buy raw materials in bulk and place large orders for capital equipment usually receive a discount. This means that they have paid less for each item purchased. They may receive a better treatment because the suppliers will be anxious to keep such large customers.
  11. 11. Financial economies • Many small businesses find it hard to obtain finance and when they do obtain it, the cost of the finance is often quite high. This is because small businesses are perceived as being riskier than larger businesses that have developed a good track record. Larger firms therefore find it easier to find potential lenders and to raise money at lower interest rates.
  12. 12. Technical Economies. • Businesses with large-scale production can use more advanced machinery (or use existing machinery more efficiently). This may include using mass production techniques, which are a more efficient form of production. A larger firm can also afford to invest more in research and development.
  13. 13. Selling Economies. • Every part of marketing has a cost – particularly promotional methods such as advertising and running a sales force. Many of these marketing costs are fixed costs and so as a business gets larger, it is able to spread the cost of marketing over a wider range of products and sales – cutting the average marketing cost per unit.
  14. 14. Research and development economies. • A large firm can have a Research and Development department, since running such a department can reduce average costs by developing more efficient methods of production and raise total revenue by developing new products.
  15. 15. Risk-bearing economies. • Larger firms produce a range of products. This enables them to spread the risks of trading. If the profitability of one of the products it produces falls, it can shift its resources to the production of more profitable products.
  16. 16. Internal Diseconomies of scale. • Growing beyond a certain output can cause a firms average costs to rise. This is because the firm may encounter a number of problems including difficulties :- • controlling the firm. • communication problems. • poor industrial relations.
  17. 17. External economies of scale. • A skilled labour workforce – A firm can recruit workers who have been trained by other firms in the industry. • A good reputation – An area can gain a reputation for high quality production. • Specialist suppliers of raw materials and capital goods – When an industry becomes large enough, it can become worthwhile for other industries, called subsidiary industries to set up for providing for the needs of the industry.
  18. 18. External economies of scale. • Specialist services – Universities and colleges ma run courses for workers in large industries and banks and transport firms may provide services, specially designed to meet the particular needs of firms in the industry. • Specialist markets – Some large industries have specialist selling places and arrangements such as corn exchanges and insurance markets. • Improved infrastructure – The growth of an industry may encourage a govt and private sector firms to provide better road links, electricity supplies, build new airports and develop dock facilities.
  19. 19. External Diseconomies of scale. • Just as a firm can grow too large, so can an industry. • Larger firms -> transportation increase -> congestion -> increased journey time -> high transport cost -> reduced workers productivity. • Growth of industry may increase competition for resources, pushing up the price of key sites, capital equipment and labour.
  20. 20. Managerial uses of Production Function • Used to Compute least cost Input combination for given output • Used to Compute maximum input output combination for a given cost • It is useful in deciding on the value of employing a variable input factor • It aids in long run decision making (increasing return to scale implies increasing production) • decreasing return to scale implies decreasing production • Producer is indifferent about increasing / decreasing return to scale provided the demand is of no constraint
  21. 21. • Production function has immense utility to the producer and executives in decision making at the firm level. • It has important economic implications for the firm. • It aid two ways mainly: • 1.how to obtain the maximum Output from given combination of inputs. • 2.how to attain a given output from the minimum combined cost of various inputs. • With the help of production function the producer can say whether additional employement of a variable input factor promises to be profitable or unprofitable. • The production function were all factor are variable is highly useful in making long-run decision. • When some factor are fixed and some factor are variable it helps in making short-run decision • When the firm experience the increasing the returns to scale, production function in therefore a statement of technical facts which these to produce an output. producer uses obtain the least cost combination on input •
  22. 22. Dr.K.Baranidharan THANK YOU

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