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TQM
(Total Quality Management)
Engr. Abdun Noor
bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Associate Consultant
Centre for Management Development
SEL Centre (6th Floor), 29-West Panthapath, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh
cmdconsultant@yahoo.com
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Course Objectives
At the end of the course the participants will be
able to:
Appreciate the concept of Total Quality
Management (TQM)
Explain implementation techniques of TQM
Implement TQM in their respective organizations
Implement KAIZEN & 5-S Techniques in their
respective field
Contribute in quality improvement through
Quality Control Circle (QCC)
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is TQM?
Total
• Complete
• Absolute
• Everyone
is
involved
in
• Complete
• Absolute
• Everyone
is
involved
in
Quality
• Characteristic
• Nature
• Something
that
distinguishes
• Characteristic
• Nature
• Something
that
distinguishes
Management
• Administrati
on
• The process
of dealing
with or
controlling
things or
people
• Administrati
on
• The process
of dealing
with or
controlling
things or
people
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is Quality?
Fitness for use
The extent to which The product and/or service
successfully serves the purpose of the customer
(which the customer can recognize as beneficial
during usage), is called its’ fitness for use.
ISO Definition
Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics
fulfils requirements
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is Quality?
Degree
refers to a level to which a product or service
satisfies. So, depending upon the level of
satisfaction, a product may be termed as excellent,
good or poor quality product
Inherent characteristics
 those features that are a part of the product and
are responsible to achieve satisfaction
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is Quality?
Requirements
refer to the needs of customer, needs of
organization & those of other interested parties
the expectations that may be stated, generally
implied or obligatory
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is Quality?
Some examples of inherent product characteristics
that will fulfill requirements are:
Product /
Service
Requirement Inherent
Characteristics
Ceiling Fan
Hotel
Car
Air delivery
Size & shape of blades,
Motor rating
Comfort
Room size, Furniture &
layout, Air-conditioning,
Lighting
Acceleration &
speed
Engine capacity,
Engine torque & rpm
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is Quality?
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is Quality?
Quality means
meeting the customer’s (agreed) requirements
formal and informal
at the lowest cost, first time, every time
for the benefit of the customer and the
organization
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is Quality?
Quality provides competitive advantage
Compliance to Requirement
Quality is about Excellence/ Perfection
 A Moving Target
A Matter of Continuous Improvement
Customer will never give up Quality
In the long run what survives is QUALITY
Quality Reduces Cost & Improves Productivity
Quality is an Integral Part of Our Daily Life
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is Quality?
Quality in different areas of society:
Area Examples of Quality Components
Airlines
Health Care
Food Services
Consumer
Products
Communications
On-time, comfortable, low-cost service
Correct diagnoses, minimum
wait time, low cost, security
Good Taste, free from contamination,
fast delivery, good environment.
Properly made, defect-free, cost effective
Clearer, faster, cheaper service
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is Management?
Wikipedia:
Management in businesses and organizations is
the function that coordinates the efforts of people to
accomplish goals and objectives by using available
resources efficiently and effectively
Business Dictionary:
Management consists of the interlocking functions
of creating corporate policy and organizing,
planning, controlling, and directing an organization's
resources in order to achieve the objectives of that
policy
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is TQM?
Scientific
Systemati
c
Company
wide
TQM
is
Activity
• A company
is devoted to
customers
through its
products and
services
• A company
is devoted to
customers
through its
products and
services
-Noriaki kano
in Which
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is TQM?
ISO Definition:
The management approach of an organization,
centered on quality, based on the participation of all
its members and aiming at long term success
through customer satisfaction and benefits to all
members of the organization and to society
Dennis S. Tachiki :
Total Quality Management is a structured system
for delighting internal and external customers by
integrating the business environment, continuous
improvement, & employee Participation
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is TQM?
According to ASQ:
TQM is a management approach to long–term
success through customer satisfaction
In TQM, all members of an organization
participate in improving processes, products,
services, and the culture in which they work
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Why TQM?
 Strengthened competitive position
 Adaptability to changing or emerging market
conditions and to environmental and other
government regulations
 Higher productivity
 Enhanced market image
 Elimination of defects and waste
 Reduced costs and better cost management
 Higher profitability
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Why TQM?
 Improved customer focus and satisfaction
 Increased customer loyalty and retention
 Increased job security
 Improved employee morale
 Enhanced shareholder and stakeholder value
 Improved and innovative processes
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Evolution of TQM
 Our ancestors lived in a natural world
 Improvement of quality started with improvement
of hand tools
 During the Middle -Age
 Quality to a large extent controlled by the long
periods of training required by the guilds
 Training instilled pride in workers for quality
product
 Workmanship was important
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Evolution of TQM
 Industrial Revolution Instituted Specialization of
Labor
 A worker no longer makes the entire product
 Decline in workmanship
 Inspection and test to control deviation
 Quality control : a regulatory process
 Beginning of Statistical Quality Control
 In 1942, W.A Shewhart developed a Statistical
Chart for control of product variables
 H. F. Dodge and H.G. Roming : Acceptance
Sampling as a substitute for 100% inspection
 Inspection and test control deviation
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Evolution of TQM
 In 1946, American Society for Quality Control
was formed: Present name is ASQ
 Has promoted the use of Quality for all types of
production and service
 World War - II : Devastated Japanese Economy
 1946: Japanese Union of Scientists & Engineers
(JUSE)
 1949: QC Research Group (Prof. Ishikawa)
 Training Course on SQC (up to 1989 : 189 courses
attended by 24,270 engineers)
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Evolution of TQM
 1950 : Dr. W.E. Deming Visited
Japan
 Training course & seminars for
Top Management in Large Cities
 Deming Prize : established in 1951
 1954 : Mr. Joseph M Juran Visited
Japan
 1954 : Program in Radio
 1956 : Program in Television
 1962 : Gemba to QC : a Journal
 1962 : Formation of first QCC
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Characteristics of TQM
 A small Quality First-Not short term Profit
 Customer Orientation - Not Producer Orientation
 Next Process is Customer
 Statistical Methods
 Thoroughgoing Standardization/ Continuous
Systematic Improvement
 Management that Respect for Humanity
 Cross Functional Management
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
A Conceptual Framework of TQM
EDUCATION & TRAINING
DEVELOP CONCEPT
& ATTITUDE
REALISATION OF
MISSION, GOAL,
STRATEGY THROUGH
UTLISE
TECHNIQUES TO
ENSURE
 Quality
 Customer
Satisfaction/Delight
 Next process is
Customer
 Working with Facts
 Everybody’s business
(commitment)
 Behavior
Modification
ENSURE MIND-SET
Benchmarking
Policy Management,
Daily Management,
QFD
5-S Techniques,
Kaizen
Cross-Functional Mgt.
QCC, SQC, FMEA
Suggestion Scheme
Quality Assurance
ENSURE
INVOLVEMENT
 & PARTICIPATION
Corrective
Measure
Preventive
Measure
Continuos
Improvement
ENSURE
FOOLPROOF &
MISTAKE
PREVENTION
GLOBALIZATION
NATIONAL POLICIES & REWARD SYSTEM
ENTERPRISE
QUALITY DIAGNOSIS
Vision of
future role
Mission
Goal
Strategy
Customer &
Employee
Satisfaction/
Delight
Top mgt.
Commitment
Align the
Organization
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Key Elements of TQM
Comparing with a building, elements of TQM can be
divided into four groups according to their function.
The groups are:
Foundation:
 Ethics, Integrity and Trust
 Building Bricks:
 Training, Teamwork and Leadership
Binding Mortar:
 Communication
Roof:
 Recognition
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Key Elements of TQM
Ethics, Integrity and Trust
Training
Teamwork
Leadership
RecognitionCommunication Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Principles of TQM?
 Produce quality work the first time
 Focus on the customer
 Have a strategic approach to improvement
 Encourage mutual respect and teamwork
 Improve continuously
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Implementation of TQM
 TQM is an activity in which many people
participate
 Promoting of TQM is the duty of Top Managers
 But they need staff to organize it
 Which means A TQM Promotion Function is
required
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Promotion of TQM
 An existing planning department or president’s/
CEO’s office may take responsibility
 Or a special TQM Promotion Office may be
established for the task
 At the same time A TQM Steering Committee
should be set up
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Responsibilities of TQM Promotion Office
 Drafting quality policies
 Drafting TQM promotion plans
 Acting as a secretary for TQM steering
committee
 Maintaining and promoting a policy management
system
 Acting as a promotion center for QCC circle
activities
 Planning and promoting in-house QCC training
and guidance
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Responsibilities of TQM Promotion Office
 Keeping records of important quality problems &
monitoring problems in solving them
 Planning, implementing and following up quality
diagnoses by top management
 Identifying the benefits achieved by promoting
quality management
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
TQM Steering Committee
 Basically it is a committee that deliberates and
reviews all necessary matters for promoting
quality management throughout the company
 The committee is chaired by either company’s
CEO or another senior executive with
responsibility for promoting quality management
and it members consist of representatives from
various divisions
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
TQM Steering Committee
This committee is responsible for
Reviewing the quality management promotion
plans
Receiving and transmitting the information
required to implement those plans
Deliberating and formulating strategy for
developing quality management activities
More vigorously &
 Effectively
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
MemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMember
Implementation of TQM
Steering CommitteeSteering Committee
FacilitatorFacilitator FacilitatorFacilitatorFacilitatorFacilitator
Team
Leader
Team
Leader
MemberMember
MemberMember
MemberMember
MemberMember
Team
Leader
Team
Leader
Team
Leader
Team
Leader
MemberMember
MemberMember
MemberMember
MemberMember
MemberMember
MemberMember
MemberMember
MemberMember
MemberMember
MemberMember
MemberMember
Team
Leader
Team
Leader
MemberMember
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is QCC?
The Quality Control Circle (QCC) is a
A small group
Within the same workplace
Conduct meeting once a week for half an hour
To perform voluntary quality control activities
Carries on quality control activities continuously
as a part of institution wide quality control
For self-development and mutual development
With all members participating
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
What is QCC?
The Quality Control Circle (QCC) carries on
Continuously
As a part of company-wide quality control
activities
Control and improvement
Within own workplace
Utilizing quality control techniques
With all members participating
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Objectives of QCC?
 To build a strong workplace
 To establish good management
 To enhance morale
 To improve human relations
 To create a culture of improvement at bottom
level
 To promote voluntary activities
 To think well and use wisdom
 To broaden the way of thinking
 To have better income
 To improve quality assurance
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Considerations of QCC?
 People are not treated as part of the machinery
 People can use their wisdom and creativity in the
work they are engaged
 People can develop their ability as they are given
an opportunity to use their brain
 People are not isolated from each other. Working
in-groups creates harmonious human relations
based on bonds and brother hood
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Considerations of QCC?
 People can mutually educate themselves by
sharing an experience
 People are given an opportunity to be recognized
 To display human capabilities fully and
eventually draw out infinite possibilities
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Quotation:
 “ A Quality Circle will not
last long unless the nature
of its activities is voluntary
and independent.”
- Kaoru Ishikawa
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
QCC Activities
Deming Cycle:
It is an iterative four-step
management method used in
business for the control and
continuous improvement of
processes and products
It is also known as the
PDCA circle/cycle/wheel,
Shewhart cycle, control
circle/cycle, or plan–do–
study–act (PDSA) Deming Cycle
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
QCC Activities
Continuous quality improvement with PDCA
Multiple iterations of the PDCA cycle are repeated until the problem is solved
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Responsibilities of Steering Committee
 Identify Vision, Mission, Quality policy,
Objectives and introducing them to the whole
organization
 Determining activities for quality promotion and
evaluating the improvements
 Employ Facilitator to support QCC
 Evaluating quality assurance, QCC, 5-S etc.
 Evaluating the presentation of Quality Control
Circles, Award and reward policy
 Arranging competition, Performing Quality Day
through out the institution
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Facilitator
Steering committee will appoint a facilitator to
facilitate the Quality Control Circles
One facilitator will be employed for each & every
circle
Depending on capability one facilitator may help
to more than one circle
Facilitation will be additional to routine work
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
 Facilitator is such a personnel who help the QCC
to be self-reliant
 QCC develop with the support of Facilitator
 Facilitator will support, help & inspire the QCC
in all circumstances even in critical situations
 Facilitator must have access to all offices of the
institute
 Traditionally is selected among mid level
management
Eligibility of Facilitator
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Responsibilities of Facilitator
 Support and advice the QCC as a facilitator
 Arranging training program & providing training
 Monitoring the problems of QCC
 Act as a coordinator between the QCC &
organization
 Reporting the improvement of QCC in the
steering committee
 Support & inspire QCC to make presentation
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Responsibilities of Facilitator
 Advise QCC
 Ensure to have pen, pencil, paper etc. when
needed
 Primarily act as an observer in the meeting
 Cordially communicate with the QCC leader &
members
 Assist to pursue QCC activities
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Leader
Who will be the LEADER?
Each & Every circle will have a leader
QCC member will select one as a leader among
them
Team leadership may be rotated among the
members
According to necessity deputy leader, even
member secretary might be selected
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Responsibilities of Leader
 Conduct meeting
 Maintain discipline in the QCC
 Establish a good relationship among the QCC
members
 Ensuring participation of QCC members without
any hesitation
 Ensure good team spirit
 Arranging meeting
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Responsibilities of Leader
 Ensuring that, every member of QCC are aware
about the time and location of the meeting
 Discuss & take decision
 Make opening and closing remarks
 To maintain self-esteem of the members
 Guide QCC to achieve the goal
 Maintaining attendance, a record of meeting
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Eligibility of the Leader
 Might have the Proper knowledge on the
activities of the circle
 Have the ability to conduct the meeting
 Cordial attitude to the members
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Responsibilities of Members
 Regularly & Timely attending meeting
 Master the art of problem solving tools properly
 Participate in the meeting diligently
 Listening when other member speak
 Participate in the management presentation
 Help the leader in all respect
 Have positive mind-set and act cordially with
members
 Maintain discipline
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
QCC Activities
Plan
Do
Action
Check
Sample Test/
Trial & Error test
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Challenges of TQM
 TQM is not a device, but it’s a matter of culture
that’s take time to adopt
 TQM is for long run, not short term profit
 Lack of leadership, commitment of the top
management
 Lack of effective measurement of quality
improvement
 Resistance of the workforce
 Lack of proper training/ Inadequate Human
Resource Development
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Why TQM Fails?
 Top management is not concerned for its staff
 Top management is not committed to the TQM
program
 The company loses interest in the program after
six months
 The workforce and the management do not agree
on what needs to happen
 TQM is imposed on the workforce, which does
not inwardly accept it
 Processes and progresses are not analyzed,
systems are weak
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Characteristics of Successful TQM Comp.
 Strive for owner/customer satisfaction and
employee satisfaction
 Strive for accident-free workplace
 Recognize the need for measurement and fact-
based decision making
 Arrange for employees to become involved in
helping the company improve
 Train extensively
 Place a strong emphasis on the right kind of
leadership
 Strive for continuous improvement
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
5. Provide Quality Training Programs at
regular interval
4. Outline the Vision Statement, Mission
Statement, & Guiding Principles
3. Create Steering Committee and
establish QCCs
2. Educate Upper-Level
Management
How to start TQM?
1. Obtain CEO/ Top
Management Commitment
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
10. Establish Quality day: yearly
competition and rewarding system
9. Monitor, motivate and follow-up
regularly
8. Implement Process Improvements,
Use the Tools of TQM
How to start TQM?
7. Consider the Employee as an
Internal Owner/customer
6. Focus on the Owner/Customer
(External) & Surveys
Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
Tips for Successful Implementation of
TQM
 Start with a great BIG BANG, with bulletins,
leaflet (emphasis on pictorial notice) etc.
 Whatever the situation is, ensure regular meeting
of the QCCs
 Attend at the QCC meetings randomly, without
notice and guide as necessary
 Motivate & follow up regularly
 No alternative of rewards and recognitions
Total Quality Management (TQM)

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Total Quality Management (TQM)

  • 1. TQM (Total Quality Management) Engr. Abdun Noor bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Associate Consultant Centre for Management Development SEL Centre (6th Floor), 29-West Panthapath, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh cmdconsultant@yahoo.com
  • 2. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Course Objectives At the end of the course the participants will be able to: Appreciate the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) Explain implementation techniques of TQM Implement TQM in their respective organizations Implement KAIZEN & 5-S Techniques in their respective field Contribute in quality improvement through Quality Control Circle (QCC)
  • 3. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is TQM? Total • Complete • Absolute • Everyone is involved in • Complete • Absolute • Everyone is involved in Quality • Characteristic • Nature • Something that distinguishes • Characteristic • Nature • Something that distinguishes Management • Administrati on • The process of dealing with or controlling things or people • Administrati on • The process of dealing with or controlling things or people
  • 4. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is Quality? Fitness for use The extent to which The product and/or service successfully serves the purpose of the customer (which the customer can recognize as beneficial during usage), is called its’ fitness for use. ISO Definition Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements
  • 5. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is Quality? Degree refers to a level to which a product or service satisfies. So, depending upon the level of satisfaction, a product may be termed as excellent, good or poor quality product Inherent characteristics  those features that are a part of the product and are responsible to achieve satisfaction
  • 6. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is Quality? Requirements refer to the needs of customer, needs of organization & those of other interested parties the expectations that may be stated, generally implied or obligatory
  • 7. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is Quality? Some examples of inherent product characteristics that will fulfill requirements are: Product / Service Requirement Inherent Characteristics Ceiling Fan Hotel Car Air delivery Size & shape of blades, Motor rating Comfort Room size, Furniture & layout, Air-conditioning, Lighting Acceleration & speed Engine capacity, Engine torque & rpm
  • 8. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is Quality?
  • 9. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is Quality? Quality means meeting the customer’s (agreed) requirements formal and informal at the lowest cost, first time, every time for the benefit of the customer and the organization
  • 10. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is Quality? Quality provides competitive advantage Compliance to Requirement Quality is about Excellence/ Perfection  A Moving Target A Matter of Continuous Improvement Customer will never give up Quality In the long run what survives is QUALITY Quality Reduces Cost & Improves Productivity Quality is an Integral Part of Our Daily Life
  • 11. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is Quality? Quality in different areas of society: Area Examples of Quality Components Airlines Health Care Food Services Consumer Products Communications On-time, comfortable, low-cost service Correct diagnoses, minimum wait time, low cost, security Good Taste, free from contamination, fast delivery, good environment. Properly made, defect-free, cost effective Clearer, faster, cheaper service
  • 12. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is Management? Wikipedia: Management in businesses and organizations is the function that coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives by using available resources efficiently and effectively Business Dictionary: Management consists of the interlocking functions of creating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing an organization's resources in order to achieve the objectives of that policy
  • 13. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is TQM? Scientific Systemati c Company wide TQM is Activity • A company is devoted to customers through its products and services • A company is devoted to customers through its products and services -Noriaki kano in Which
  • 14. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is TQM? ISO Definition: The management approach of an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long term success through customer satisfaction and benefits to all members of the organization and to society Dennis S. Tachiki : Total Quality Management is a structured system for delighting internal and external customers by integrating the business environment, continuous improvement, & employee Participation
  • 15. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is TQM? According to ASQ: TQM is a management approach to long–term success through customer satisfaction In TQM, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work
  • 16. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Why TQM?  Strengthened competitive position  Adaptability to changing or emerging market conditions and to environmental and other government regulations  Higher productivity  Enhanced market image  Elimination of defects and waste  Reduced costs and better cost management  Higher profitability
  • 17. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Why TQM?  Improved customer focus and satisfaction  Increased customer loyalty and retention  Increased job security  Improved employee morale  Enhanced shareholder and stakeholder value  Improved and innovative processes
  • 18. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Evolution of TQM  Our ancestors lived in a natural world  Improvement of quality started with improvement of hand tools  During the Middle -Age  Quality to a large extent controlled by the long periods of training required by the guilds  Training instilled pride in workers for quality product  Workmanship was important
  • 19. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Evolution of TQM  Industrial Revolution Instituted Specialization of Labor  A worker no longer makes the entire product  Decline in workmanship  Inspection and test to control deviation  Quality control : a regulatory process  Beginning of Statistical Quality Control  In 1942, W.A Shewhart developed a Statistical Chart for control of product variables  H. F. Dodge and H.G. Roming : Acceptance Sampling as a substitute for 100% inspection  Inspection and test control deviation
  • 20. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Evolution of TQM  In 1946, American Society for Quality Control was formed: Present name is ASQ  Has promoted the use of Quality for all types of production and service  World War - II : Devastated Japanese Economy  1946: Japanese Union of Scientists & Engineers (JUSE)  1949: QC Research Group (Prof. Ishikawa)  Training Course on SQC (up to 1989 : 189 courses attended by 24,270 engineers)
  • 21. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Evolution of TQM  1950 : Dr. W.E. Deming Visited Japan  Training course & seminars for Top Management in Large Cities  Deming Prize : established in 1951  1954 : Mr. Joseph M Juran Visited Japan  1954 : Program in Radio  1956 : Program in Television  1962 : Gemba to QC : a Journal  1962 : Formation of first QCC
  • 22. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Characteristics of TQM  A small Quality First-Not short term Profit  Customer Orientation - Not Producer Orientation  Next Process is Customer  Statistical Methods  Thoroughgoing Standardization/ Continuous Systematic Improvement  Management that Respect for Humanity  Cross Functional Management
  • 23.
  • 24. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com A Conceptual Framework of TQM EDUCATION & TRAINING DEVELOP CONCEPT & ATTITUDE REALISATION OF MISSION, GOAL, STRATEGY THROUGH UTLISE TECHNIQUES TO ENSURE  Quality  Customer Satisfaction/Delight  Next process is Customer  Working with Facts  Everybody’s business (commitment)  Behavior Modification ENSURE MIND-SET Benchmarking Policy Management, Daily Management, QFD 5-S Techniques, Kaizen Cross-Functional Mgt. QCC, SQC, FMEA Suggestion Scheme Quality Assurance ENSURE INVOLVEMENT  & PARTICIPATION Corrective Measure Preventive Measure Continuos Improvement ENSURE FOOLPROOF & MISTAKE PREVENTION GLOBALIZATION NATIONAL POLICIES & REWARD SYSTEM ENTERPRISE QUALITY DIAGNOSIS Vision of future role Mission Goal Strategy Customer & Employee Satisfaction/ Delight Top mgt. Commitment Align the Organization
  • 25. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Key Elements of TQM Comparing with a building, elements of TQM can be divided into four groups according to their function. The groups are: Foundation:  Ethics, Integrity and Trust  Building Bricks:  Training, Teamwork and Leadership Binding Mortar:  Communication Roof:  Recognition
  • 26. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Key Elements of TQM Ethics, Integrity and Trust Training Teamwork Leadership RecognitionCommunication Communication Communication Communication Communication
  • 27. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Principles of TQM?  Produce quality work the first time  Focus on the customer  Have a strategic approach to improvement  Encourage mutual respect and teamwork  Improve continuously
  • 28. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Implementation of TQM  TQM is an activity in which many people participate  Promoting of TQM is the duty of Top Managers  But they need staff to organize it  Which means A TQM Promotion Function is required
  • 29. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Promotion of TQM  An existing planning department or president’s/ CEO’s office may take responsibility  Or a special TQM Promotion Office may be established for the task  At the same time A TQM Steering Committee should be set up
  • 30. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Responsibilities of TQM Promotion Office  Drafting quality policies  Drafting TQM promotion plans  Acting as a secretary for TQM steering committee  Maintaining and promoting a policy management system  Acting as a promotion center for QCC circle activities  Planning and promoting in-house QCC training and guidance
  • 31. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Responsibilities of TQM Promotion Office  Keeping records of important quality problems & monitoring problems in solving them  Planning, implementing and following up quality diagnoses by top management  Identifying the benefits achieved by promoting quality management
  • 32. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com TQM Steering Committee  Basically it is a committee that deliberates and reviews all necessary matters for promoting quality management throughout the company  The committee is chaired by either company’s CEO or another senior executive with responsibility for promoting quality management and it members consist of representatives from various divisions
  • 33. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com TQM Steering Committee This committee is responsible for Reviewing the quality management promotion plans Receiving and transmitting the information required to implement those plans Deliberating and formulating strategy for developing quality management activities More vigorously &  Effectively
  • 34. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com MemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMember Implementation of TQM Steering CommitteeSteering Committee FacilitatorFacilitator FacilitatorFacilitatorFacilitatorFacilitator Team Leader Team Leader MemberMember MemberMember MemberMember MemberMember Team Leader Team Leader Team Leader Team Leader MemberMember MemberMember MemberMember MemberMember MemberMember MemberMember MemberMember MemberMember MemberMember MemberMember MemberMember Team Leader Team Leader MemberMember
  • 35. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com
  • 36. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is QCC? The Quality Control Circle (QCC) is a A small group Within the same workplace Conduct meeting once a week for half an hour To perform voluntary quality control activities Carries on quality control activities continuously as a part of institution wide quality control For self-development and mutual development With all members participating
  • 37. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com What is QCC? The Quality Control Circle (QCC) carries on Continuously As a part of company-wide quality control activities Control and improvement Within own workplace Utilizing quality control techniques With all members participating
  • 38. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Objectives of QCC?  To build a strong workplace  To establish good management  To enhance morale  To improve human relations  To create a culture of improvement at bottom level  To promote voluntary activities  To think well and use wisdom  To broaden the way of thinking  To have better income  To improve quality assurance
  • 39. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Considerations of QCC?  People are not treated as part of the machinery  People can use their wisdom and creativity in the work they are engaged  People can develop their ability as they are given an opportunity to use their brain  People are not isolated from each other. Working in-groups creates harmonious human relations based on bonds and brother hood
  • 40. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Considerations of QCC?  People can mutually educate themselves by sharing an experience  People are given an opportunity to be recognized  To display human capabilities fully and eventually draw out infinite possibilities
  • 41. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Quotation:  “ A Quality Circle will not last long unless the nature of its activities is voluntary and independent.” - Kaoru Ishikawa
  • 42. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com QCC Activities Deming Cycle: It is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products It is also known as the PDCA circle/cycle/wheel, Shewhart cycle, control circle/cycle, or plan–do– study–act (PDSA) Deming Cycle
  • 43. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com QCC Activities Continuous quality improvement with PDCA Multiple iterations of the PDCA cycle are repeated until the problem is solved
  • 44. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Responsibilities of Steering Committee  Identify Vision, Mission, Quality policy, Objectives and introducing them to the whole organization  Determining activities for quality promotion and evaluating the improvements  Employ Facilitator to support QCC  Evaluating quality assurance, QCC, 5-S etc.  Evaluating the presentation of Quality Control Circles, Award and reward policy  Arranging competition, Performing Quality Day through out the institution
  • 45. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Facilitator Steering committee will appoint a facilitator to facilitate the Quality Control Circles One facilitator will be employed for each & every circle Depending on capability one facilitator may help to more than one circle Facilitation will be additional to routine work
  • 46. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com  Facilitator is such a personnel who help the QCC to be self-reliant  QCC develop with the support of Facilitator  Facilitator will support, help & inspire the QCC in all circumstances even in critical situations  Facilitator must have access to all offices of the institute  Traditionally is selected among mid level management Eligibility of Facilitator
  • 47. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Responsibilities of Facilitator  Support and advice the QCC as a facilitator  Arranging training program & providing training  Monitoring the problems of QCC  Act as a coordinator between the QCC & organization  Reporting the improvement of QCC in the steering committee  Support & inspire QCC to make presentation
  • 48. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Responsibilities of Facilitator  Advise QCC  Ensure to have pen, pencil, paper etc. when needed  Primarily act as an observer in the meeting  Cordially communicate with the QCC leader & members  Assist to pursue QCC activities
  • 49. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Leader Who will be the LEADER? Each & Every circle will have a leader QCC member will select one as a leader among them Team leadership may be rotated among the members According to necessity deputy leader, even member secretary might be selected
  • 50. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Responsibilities of Leader  Conduct meeting  Maintain discipline in the QCC  Establish a good relationship among the QCC members  Ensuring participation of QCC members without any hesitation  Ensure good team spirit  Arranging meeting
  • 51. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Responsibilities of Leader  Ensuring that, every member of QCC are aware about the time and location of the meeting  Discuss & take decision  Make opening and closing remarks  To maintain self-esteem of the members  Guide QCC to achieve the goal  Maintaining attendance, a record of meeting
  • 52. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Eligibility of the Leader  Might have the Proper knowledge on the activities of the circle  Have the ability to conduct the meeting  Cordial attitude to the members
  • 53. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Responsibilities of Members  Regularly & Timely attending meeting  Master the art of problem solving tools properly  Participate in the meeting diligently  Listening when other member speak  Participate in the management presentation  Help the leader in all respect  Have positive mind-set and act cordially with members  Maintain discipline
  • 54. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com QCC Activities Plan Do Action Check Sample Test/ Trial & Error test
  • 55. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Challenges of TQM  TQM is not a device, but it’s a matter of culture that’s take time to adopt  TQM is for long run, not short term profit  Lack of leadership, commitment of the top management  Lack of effective measurement of quality improvement  Resistance of the workforce  Lack of proper training/ Inadequate Human Resource Development
  • 56. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Why TQM Fails?  Top management is not concerned for its staff  Top management is not committed to the TQM program  The company loses interest in the program after six months  The workforce and the management do not agree on what needs to happen  TQM is imposed on the workforce, which does not inwardly accept it  Processes and progresses are not analyzed, systems are weak
  • 57. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Characteristics of Successful TQM Comp.  Strive for owner/customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction  Strive for accident-free workplace  Recognize the need for measurement and fact- based decision making  Arrange for employees to become involved in helping the company improve  Train extensively  Place a strong emphasis on the right kind of leadership  Strive for continuous improvement
  • 58. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com 5. Provide Quality Training Programs at regular interval 4. Outline the Vision Statement, Mission Statement, & Guiding Principles 3. Create Steering Committee and establish QCCs 2. Educate Upper-Level Management How to start TQM? 1. Obtain CEO/ Top Management Commitment
  • 59. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com 10. Establish Quality day: yearly competition and rewarding system 9. Monitor, motivate and follow-up regularly 8. Implement Process Improvements, Use the Tools of TQM How to start TQM? 7. Consider the Employee as an Internal Owner/customer 6. Focus on the Owner/Customer (External) & Surveys
  • 60. Engr. Abdun Noor, Centre for Management Development, bd.abdunnoor@gmail.com Tips for Successful Implementation of TQM  Start with a great BIG BANG, with bulletins, leaflet (emphasis on pictorial notice) etc.  Whatever the situation is, ensure regular meeting of the QCCs  Attend at the QCC meetings randomly, without notice and guide as necessary  Motivate & follow up regularly  No alternative of rewards and recognitions