Writing Proposal Arguments


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Tutorial on writing proposal arguments for Freshman Composition college course.

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Writing Proposal Arguments

  1. 1. Writing Proposal Arguments <ul><li>Dr. Alisa Cooper </li></ul><ul><li>Freshman Composition </li></ul><ul><li>South Mountain Community College </li></ul>
  2. 2. Proposal Claims <ul><li>ask the audience to act in a certain way - to do something based on the information you provide and the argument you make, and the claims are often stated as &quot;should/should not&quot; statements. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reasons <ul><li>The reasons in the argument justify why the action is to be taken. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Presence <ul><li>An argument is said to have &quot;presence&quot; when the reader or listener senses the immediacy of the speaker/ writer’s words. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Appeal to Emotion <ul><li>Should you choose to use an appeal to emotion, consider limiting it to your introduction or conclusion. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Proponent of Change <ul><li>the current method of operation isn’t working. </li></ul><ul><li>even though it appears as though the current method of operation is working, it isn’t, or there is a better way. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Predict Future Consequences <ul><li>You will need to try to predict future consequences as reasonably as possible. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Developing a Proposal Argument <ul><li>Convince your reader that a problem exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Presence </li></ul><ul><li>Show the specifics of your proposal. </li></ul><ul><li>The justification: convincing your reader that your proposal should be enacted </li></ul><ul><li>Touching the right pressure points </li></ul>
  9. 9. Special Problems of Proposal Arguments <ul><li>Establish your authority through ethos, pathos, and logos </li></ul><ul><li>Overcome the cautious or skeptical nature of your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Predict future consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the consequences. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Taking Stock of What you Have <ul><li>Will your Topic Work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does a real problem exist? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will my proposal really solve the existing problem without causing bigger problems? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there another, simpler means of solving the problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is my solution really practical? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the consequences and undetermined problems associated with my proposal? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Writing Your Proposal Argument <ul><li>Ask yourself the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is the problem a problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For whom is the problem a problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will these people suffer if the problem is not solved? (details) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. More Questions <ul><li>Who has the power to solve the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Why hasn’t the problem been solved up to this point? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the problem be solved? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the possible benefits of acting on your proposal? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Final Questions <ul><li>What costs are associated with your proposal? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will bear these costs? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should this proposal be implemented? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it better than alternative proposals? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Organizing a Proposal Argument (Sample Outline) <ul><li>I. Present the problem that needs to be solve. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Describe the problemB. Provide a history for the problemC. Argue that the problem can be solved, but don't solve it yet </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Organizing a Proposal Argument (Sample Outline) <ul><ul><li>II. Present the proposal.A. Present your claim (thesis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. Explain the specifics of the proposal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. Explain the specifics of the proposal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Organizing a Proposal Argument (Sample Outline) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>III. Provide a summary of the opposing viewpoints. A. Counter Argue: (this section can summarize opposing solutions and discus why they aren't valid) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Organizing a Proposal Argument (Sample Outline) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IV. Justification: Convince the reader that the proposal should be adopted. A. Solution is Feasible: Reason 1, presented and developed B. Solution Solves the Problem: Reason 2, presented and developed C. Solution is the Best Solution: Reason 3, presented and developed etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Organizing a Proposal Argument (Sample Outline) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V. Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. Restate Your Proposed Solution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. Summarize main arguments C. Entice your readers to act </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Paper 3 Guidelines <ul><li>Write a 2-3 page paper that defines the problem for your proposal paper. Use the information in this presentation to help establish your &quot;presence.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Use sources as much as needed, and be sure to cite your sources using parenthetical notation. Use your book as a guide. </li></ul><ul><li>Include a works cited page with a list of the sources used in this section of your paper. </li></ul><ul><li>If you're following the outline presented in this presentation, you will only do section I. </li></ul>