Chapter 11


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Chapter 11

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Triggers, Traps, and Working within Incident Command Systems
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>List four methods that will help the ISO trigger safe behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>List the three ISO “traps” and discuss how each can render the ISO ineffective </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the organizational position of the ISO within the ICS </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>List the two primary communication tools the ISO uses and list guidelines for each </li></ul><ul><li>Define the national “typing” scheme and how the ISO function can expand for small and large incident types </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>An ISO at an incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates clearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeals to the safety sense that can be sidestepped during working incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can trigger favorable or unfavorable responses when confronted by firefighters driven by challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents concerns in a way that is appropriate and appealing to the IC </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Triggers <ul><li>ISOs remind firefighters to operate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within a plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a safe manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within solid risk/benefit ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work safe triggers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic approach of ISO to help firefighters work more safely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be passive or active </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Triggers (con’t.) <ul><li>Visibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive trigger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective in self-correction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wear a high-visibility vest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States “SAFETY” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a distinctive vest color (usually green) and highly reflective trim </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Triggers (con’t.) <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive trigger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISOs should: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in crew accountability system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use appropriate PPE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follow department policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obey zone markers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Triggers (con’t.) <ul><li>Example (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISOs working alone should: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always be in sight of another responder (or request a partner) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always be in shouting distance of another responder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Let somebody know where you are going when taking a tour of the incident scene </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t walk into, or breathe, smoke </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-monitor rehab needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Triggers (con’t.) <ul><li>Soft intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active trigger to provide awareness that a hazard or injury potential exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of humor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subtle reminders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information sharing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Peer-talk” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not be used to stop, suspend, or alter activities </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Figure 11-2 Often a simple reminder (a soft intervention) is all that is needed to prevent an injury.
  11. 11. Triggers (con’t.) <ul><li>Firm intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active trigger to immediately stop, suspend or alter an activity based on an imminent threat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imminent threat: activity, condition, or inaction that will most certainly lead to injury or death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 1521 states that the ISO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has the authority to use firm interventions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should immediately report firm interventions to IC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Traps <ul><li>ISOs can be trapped into operational modes and activities that render them ineffective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responders may dismiss ISO’s general approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well-intentioned, inexperienced ISOs fall into the following traps </li></ul>
  13. 13. Traps (con’t.) <ul><li>The Bunker Cop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spends too much time looking for missing, damaged, or inappropriate use of PPE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on skill proficiency at incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misses the big picture of incident safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May result in firefighter resentment </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Figure 11-4 The ISO who takes the Bunker Cop approach misses the big picture.
  15. 15. Traps (con’t.) <ul><li>The CYA Mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO tries to ensure that he or she is not held personally accountable for incident scene actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly citing CFRs, standards, and other numbered requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May wash his/her hands of an infraction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid CYA label, practice “good intent” and “personal concern” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Traps (con’t.) <ul><li>The Worker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitches in and helps crews with their tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot stay mobile and focused on the big picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often occurs when crew number is low </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Working within Command Systems <ul><li>Effective and efficient ISOs work within an incident management system (IMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts to make IMSs NIMS-compliant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident command systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National incident typing scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of ISO functions when necessary </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Working within Command Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>Incident command systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The IC is responsible for overall management at an incident scene and for the safety of responders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codependency between ISO’s support of IC and IC’s faith in ISO </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Working within Command Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>Incident command relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ISO must yield to the IC’s authority and present requests rationally and professionally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio: use “Safety” identifier and limit use to safety functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to-face: every 15 minutes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Figure 11-6 The ISO must respect the fact that the ultimate authority for firefighter safety rests with the incident commander.
  21. 21. Working within Command Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>Incident command relations (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution-driven approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Here’s what I see (a factual observation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Here’s what I think it means (your judgment about the hazard) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is what I would do (your solution) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What do you think? (acknowledge the IC’s authority) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 11-7 The ISO can be part of the solution path, as opposed to just bringing problems to the table.
  23. 23. Figure 11-8 The ISO should strive to be a consultant to the incident commander.
  24. 24. Working within Command Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>The National Incident “Typing” Scheme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NIMS integration center (NIC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for developing a national resource typing protocol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will most likely use and expand the typing scheme used by the wildland fire community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type ratings are ranked with lower numbers indicating higher capabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses incident management teams (IMT) with specific expertise exceeding that of local level </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Working within Command Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>The National Incident “Typing” Scheme (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type V: Local, agency, or jurisdiction specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type IV: Multiagency or jurisdiction (automatic and mutual aid responses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type III: Regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type II: State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type I: National </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Working within Command Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>Expanding the ISO function with the IMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICS/NIMS language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ICS is the hands-on responder management part of NIMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local-level ISO expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO request ASOs for prolonged, complex, hazmat, trench rescue, and confined spaced incidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISOs become central contact point for ASOs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Working within Command Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>Expanding the ISO function (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further ISO expansion options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Currently, NIMS does not allow ISO to have units (useful for full-blown incidents) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO should remain at command position when using multiple ASOs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a manageable span of control: five to one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For more than five ASOs: have ASOs in each functional area report to an ASO, who then reports to the ISO </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Working within Command Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>Expanding the ISO function (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A solution to the NIMS weakness: scaling the ISO function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a safety section </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO manages and coordinates safety management function across all participating organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give more specificity to ASO roles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divide safety functions into units </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Figure 11-10 An organizational chart for scaling the ISO function into units, used to bridge an NIMS weakness.
  30. 30. Working within Command Systems (con’t.) <ul><li>The ISO as part of the national response team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In national incidents, the ICS component and ISO become an area command of NIMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A joint field office (JFO) is established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A safety coordinator is assigned to assist the ICS safety officer and coordinate federal resources </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Summary <ul><li>ISOs are only as effective as their ability to trigger safe behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive or active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft intervention most often used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness, reminders, and suggestions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Traps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bunker Cop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing hands-on tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenting a liability-protecting front </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISOs understand and support the authorities of the IC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution-driven approach </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Growth of safety functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use national typing scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request ASOs from IC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If span of control is exceeded, multiple ASOs report to single ASO, who then reports to ISO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim to be NIMS compliant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaknesses in NIMS may lead to the creation of a scalable SO function </li></ul></ul>