Chapter 13


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Chapter 13

  1. 1. Chapter 13 The ISO at Structure Fires
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the relationship of risk-taking to incident benchmarks </li></ul><ul><li>With respect to structure fires, list the two factors that can help operational effectiveness and the three resource considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Name the three communication ingredients to an effective PAR </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Define zoning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>List four examples where an ISO should request ASO assistance at structure fires </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what is meant by “rescue-profile” </li></ul><ul><li>List the three dimensions that need to be defined during environmental reconnaissance </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>Name the five crew-exposure considerations </li></ul><ul><li>List several unique hazards at strip-mall structure fires </li></ul><ul><li>List four ISO functions and six ASO functions at high-rise fires </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction to Specific Incident Types <ul><li>Standard format to address multiple incident types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General ISO duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues associated with the four Rs of the ISO Action Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific concerns unique to incident type </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ISO General Duties at Structure Fires <ul><li>Structure fires considered the most risky incident type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed time window </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must rapidly read structure fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke, building, risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor general issues </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate personal safety system issues </li></ul><ul><li>Define other needs </li></ul>
  7. 7. Monitoring Issues at Structure Fires <ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactical priorities and incident benchmarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do risks taken match preestablished criteria? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read smoke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine adequate ventilation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 13-1 In structure fires, benchmarks and acceptable risk levels are associated with tactical priorities.
  9. 9. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires <ul><li>PAR (personal accountability report) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized reporting activity for all personnel working an incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio communications should include assignment, location, and number of people in the assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished periodically (every 15 minutes at high-risk environments) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triggered during changes or reporting situations </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Control zones (NFPA 1521) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot zone: IDLH atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm zone: limited access area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold zone: establishes clean zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No-entry zone: no entry for anyone </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Control zones (a better way to label zones) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IDLH zone: use an accountability system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No-entry zone: no entry for anyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse zone: more specific form of no-entry zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responder area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public is not allowed except media with approval </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Personal Safety System Issues at Structure Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Radio transmissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen for unanswered calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine radio message priority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rehab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on heat, physical exertion, and weather exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage mandatory rehab after every air cylinder use or equivalent work period </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Figure 13-2 Firefighters overdue for rehab are at high risk for injury.
  14. 14. Defining Other Needs at Structure Fires <ul><li>Traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of arriving or moving apparatus, especially with water-tender shuttle operations underway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate traffic flow plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate apparatus placement and traffic lanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use soft intervention </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Defining Other Needs at Structure Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Need for ISO assistance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For large buildings with significant fire involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a “plans section” is established at a fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For fires in buildings with unusual or unique hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anytime the ISO is requested to go into an IDLH environment </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires Figure 13-3 The four Rs of the Incident Safety Action Model: Reconnaissance, Resources, Risk, and Report.
  17. 17. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Risk evaluation at a structure fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the rescue profile of the incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probability that victims will survive the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classifications: high, moderate, or zero </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate pace of incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A quick pace can minimize response time to a surprise hazard </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Recon evaluation at a structure fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat often during an incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define environment in three dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Principle hazard: what is likely to kill firefighters? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental integrity: judge the potential rate of change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical surroundings: sloping grades, foliage, fences, barriers, antennae, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Figure 13-4 A fire that has captured a central hallway will lead to rapid fire spread and is the principle hazard at this incident.
  20. 20. Figure 13-5 Sloping grades may cause dangerous miscommunication. In this figure, both team 1 and 2 may believe they are on the first floor.
  21. 21. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Recon evaluation (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate crew exposure to hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Principal hazard +- Integrity + Physical hazards + Crew activity = Crew exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tool versus task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team versus task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid withdrawal options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid intervention options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trip/fall/struck-by hazards </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 13-6 Having too many people perform a task is just as dangerous as having too few.
  23. 23. Figure 13-7 Can you spot the trip or fall hazards in this typical overhaul operation?
  24. 24. Figure 13-8 Did you spot more than nine?
  25. 25. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Resource evaluation at structure fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time tends to “slip away” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO should project on-scene time and evaluate reflex time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of responders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issues of “fit” or “reach” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Figure 13-9 Dispatch can help time management by announcing time in 5- to 15-minute intervals.
  27. 27. Applying the ISO Action Model at Structure Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Report issues at structural fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISOs should follow the 15-minute rule for face-to-face communications with the IC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss risk, recon, and resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Update checklists, forms, diagrams, and other documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider developing a safety briefing sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps responders get dialed in </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Unique Considerations at Structure Fires <ul><li>Residential versus commercial fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traps of classifying a building as either residential or commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some residential properties can exceed size and fire load of commercial properties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some commercial buildings present minimal hazards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Residential buildings are used commercially and vice versa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify according to building size and use </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Unique Considerations at Structure Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Residential versus commercial fires (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings with central hallways and stairwells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation is number one tactical priority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strip malls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-fire load, common ceiling spaces, long open-span trusses, decorative facades, inexpensive materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use sound risk management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Figure 13-10 Note the fire spread and collapse in this strip mall façade. Firefighters made a good stop.
  31. 31. Unique Considerations at Structure Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Residential versus commercial fires (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-rise buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Request one or more ASOs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO should take position at command post </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASOs work with operations on: physical demands of firefighters; internal traffic control; compartment integrity; establishing no-entry zones around lost windows; safety briefings; outside issues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Summary <ul><li>ISO general duties at structural fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor risk and operational effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply reading skills to determine fit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the IC for a PAR when accountability issues arise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Label zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine need for ASOs </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>The ISO Action Model at structural fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk: rescue profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate principal hazard, integrity, and physical surroundings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine crew exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate time, personnel, and equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report: utilize safety briefings </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Classify buildings according to building size and use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central-hallway/stairwells, strip malls, and high-rise buildings present unique challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISOs should request assistance at high-rise fires </li></ul></ul>