unexpected event training


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Unexpected event in aviation training is required by Operation Circular 6 of 2011 issued by DGCA

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unexpected event training

  1. 1. Unexpected Events Training Operation Circular 6 of 2011 8.08.2012 By S P SinghORIENT FLIGHT CENTRE 36, ECR ROAD PONDICHERRY
  2. 2. IntroductionThe objective of this visual guide is to reinforcethe importance of being ready for and properlyhandling unexpected events to avoid associatedaircraft upsets. Even though the eventsdescribed are mostly unanticipated, a flight crewcan effectively prepare to deal with them,thereby avoiding problems. The material may beused for self-study or as part of a formal trainingpresentation. 3.TG_01_VIS_01
  3. 3. Contents1. Defining Unexpected Events2. Types of Unexpected Events3. Unexpected Events and Aircraft Upsets4. Surprise, Stress and Error5. Preparing and Responding6. Summary 3.TG_01_VIS_01
  4. 4. Unexpected Events DefinedAn event is unexpected if it disagrees withexpectations as determined by planning and the contextof the situation. The nature of an unexpected event may be: – Normal – Abnormal – Emergency An unexpected event may be: – Frequent – Infrequent – Novel or surprisingThe absence of an expected event is an unexpectedevent in itself. 3.TG_01_VIS_01
  5. 5. Types and Causes of Unexpected Events Types of unexpected events:  Events omitted from a plan  Planned events that do not occur at all or at the expected time  Unplanned events (e.g., abnormal events and emergencies) even if they are included in training Causes of unexpected events:  System malfunctions  Changes in flight plans while en route  Weather or environmental threats  Crewmember incapacitation  Loss of situational awareness  Failure to receive instructions when they are normally provided  ATC or other crewmember communications  Aerodynamic anomalies 3.TG_01_VIS_01
  6. 6. Aircraft Upset (Loss of Control)The most serious consequence of an unexpected eventis aircraft upset or loss of control, defined as: Unintentional pitch > 25 degrees nose-up or 10 degrees nose-down Bank > 45 degrees Inappropriate airspeeds for flight conditions Any other aircraft state not intended by the pilotTypes of Aircraft Upsets: Environmentally induced Systems failure induced Pilot inducedOften, loss of control is due to a fixation on the unexpectedevent instead of returning to essential flight duties. 3.TG_01_VIS_01
  7. 7. Factors Involved in Unexpected Events That Lead to Aircraft Upsets Factors Leading to an Aircraft Upset Aircraft Air Other Aircraft System Automation In-flight Low position traffic crewmember state status turbulence visibility control actionsPercentage of upset events in which the 65.8 51.1 42.3 31.7 19.3 14.9 11.6 10.0factor was present* * Percentages add to more than 100 because multiple factors can be present in a single event. 3.TG_01_VIS_01
  8. 8. SurpriseAll unexpected events cause at least some level of surprise. Anevent causing no surprise is not an unexpected event.Levels of surprise: Mild surprises are usually caused by unexpected events that are fairly common or have no significant consequences. High surprise levels are usually generated by events that are extremely unlikely, rare or directly threaten safety. The Process of Surprise Event Surprise Assessing Finding no Action data about memory Analysis selection the situation image to fit and and the situation evaluation execution 3.TG_01_VIS_01
  9. 9. Surprise Can Cause Stress and Error Surprise may contribute to an interruption of thought processes and motor activities that may then lead to error.•.  The same unexpected event may induce higher stress for some pilots than for others.  Experience level, personality, attention level and fatigue may influence the extent of stress generated by surprises.  High levels of stress may lead to a spiraling effect in which loss of situational awareness causes a larger number of events to be unexpected.  Eventually, the stress from an unexpected event can lead to aircraft upset. 3.TG_01_VIS_01
  10. 10. Preparing and RespondingFlight instruction should apply realistic, scenario-basedtraining to teach students to: Maintain situational awareness Recognize and respond to ill-defined events Modify known procedures to fit novel situations Learn problem-solving techniques to avoid becoming fixated on a solution that is not working Strive for optimal stress/arousal levels — neither too little (complacency) or too much (overloaded) Strive for a measured emotional response – Do not completely ignore your own senses or internal dialogue – Be sensitive to instinctive reactions and the ―hair standing up on the back of your neck‖ Integrate creative thinking and emotional control with the requisite ―stick-and-rudder‖ skills 3.TG_01_VIS_01
  11. 11. Preparing and Responding (continued)  Apply proven procedures for using maximum available flight control inputs and power — employ alternate control strategies as required  Deliberately seek all available information during flight and as part of preflight planning  Continually evaluate the unfolding situation  Practice monitoring thoughts and actions  Continuously ask, ―What if?‖  Maintain cognitive flexibility by keeping an open mind to alternatives and possibilities at all times  Approach flying with an appropriate attitude (mental, physical and social) so that when faced with an unexpected event the detrimental effects of surprise are minimized 3.TG_01_VIS_01
  12. 12. Summary There are many types of unexpected events in aviation. Many events prompt a surprise reaction from the flight crew. Any unexpected event can produce an undesirable outcome. The reactions of pilots to unexpected events are major contributors to loss of control in flight. When pilots seek all available information in flight and during preflight planning, fewer events will be unexpected, and surprise will be less likely. Flight training should integrate mental skills and emotion management with the ―stick-and-rudder‖ skills necessary to promote successful perception, processing and response to any unexpected event. 3.TG_01_VIS_01