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Smoke extraction in buildings

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  • We developed a 10 storey mixed use building in Toronto in 1974 and code required a smoke shaft with dampers and fusible links on each floor, with an extraction fan on the roof, all of which would open and extract the smoke in case of fire. This installation should be required in National Building Codes in buildings above 4 floors until sprinklers in all residential buildings are mandated. And now I'm going to check out Kim Irwin's We developed a 10 storey mixed use building in Toronto in 1974 and code required a smoke shaft with dampers and fusible links o each floor, with an extraction fan on the roof, all of which would open and extract the smoke in case of fire. This installation should be required in National Building Codes in buildings above 4 floors until sprinklers in all residential buildings are mandated.And now I'm going to check out Kim Irwin's http://www.curvent.co.za/extraction-systems/ ...
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  • In your file: you mention galvanized steel duct with additional protection for fire resisting smoke extract ducts. What's about ductwork must be protection itselt?
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  • Extraction systems play a crucial role in fire protection, and may even be the difference between life and death: Often it is not the flames that injure or kill people, but the resultant smoke. Thick smoke can obscure fire exits, while smoke inhalation can damage body tissue and lead to asphyxiation. Visit our website for more information: http://www.curvent.co.za/extraction-systems/
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Smoke extraction in buildings

  1. 1. SMOKE EXTRACTION IN BUILDINGS<br /> Presented by<br />VysakhManohar<br />GATE-Chennai<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />1<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />Effective smoke extraction in buildings has been one of the inevitable considerations in the building design as the number of buildings and the concern of people about the regular fire accidents in buildings are increasing much.<br />This presentation includes a brief description about the different design consideration principles and methods to be taken care for the effective heat extraction in different types of buildings . <br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />2<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  3. 3. What is smoke?<br />By product of combustion or pyrolysis .<br />Mixture of liquid , solid particulate matter and gaseous products.<br />It is a cocktail of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide ,HCL and HCN<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />3<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  4. 4. FIRE TIME LINE<br />00.00- Household is asleep<br />00.30- Fire ignites and grows in downstairs<br />1.04- Fire spreads and smoke begins to fill<br />In the room.<br />1.35- Smoke layer descends rapidly and<br /> temperature exceeds 88 deg<br />1.50 – Smoke detector sounds an alarm.<br />2.30- Temperature becomes 205 deg<br />2.48- smoke pours into other rooms<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />4<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  5. 5. 3.03-Temperature in the room becomes more than 260 deg<br />3.20-upstairs,corridors,all the rooms are filled with smoke<br />3.41- flashover occurs , temperature becomes 760 deg <br />3.50 –Two minutes after the alarm sound, only the second exit will be the way out<br />4.33- Flames will be apparent from the outside , the first evidence of fire visible from outside.<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />5<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  6. 6. Will follow similar scenario in other location<br />The variations will be based on<br /> 1-fire size<br /> 2-size of building<br /> 3-flammable materials in the building<br /> 4-alarm systems<br /> 5-safety measures available<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />6<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  7. 7. GETTING THE DESIGN RIGHT FROM THE BEGINNING<br />Factors affected<br /> Design fire size<br /> Stack and wind effects<br />Temperature effect of fire<br /> HVAC and ventilation systems<br />Climate<br /> Expansion of ducts<br />
  8. 8. COMMON SAFETY METHODS<br />Use sprinklers<br />Smoke curtains<br />HVAC system incorporating F & S dampers.<br />Extraction fans<br />Alarm systems<br />Pressurisation<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />8<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  9. 9. HAZARDS OF DANGEROUS SMOKE<br />Impair visibility<br />Coughing,nausea,vomiting<br />Generation of high temperature<br />Irritation and respiratory problems<br />Bronchospasms and hypoxia<br />Inflict death if it contains dangerous gases<br />Even low concentration of CO can cause diminished coordination and increased disorientation<br />Amount of oxygen is reduced- suffocation<br />Exacerbate corrosive nature of HCL<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />9<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  10. 10. Smoke Pathways<br />Air and service ducts connecting floors<br />HVAC/ventilation systems<br />Extract duct systems<br />Gaps between wall and floor constructions<br />Stairwells<br />Lift shafts<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />10<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  11. 11. Need of smoke extraction<br /> for life safety and reducing property loss<br /> for fire fighter access<br />To clear smoke after a fire –smoke purging<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />11<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  12. 12. Smoke extraction design objectives<br />Effective protection of building occupants by maintaining tenable conditions on egress systems.<br />Reliable and functional fire fighting controls used by firefighters to increase visibility and reduce heat exposure.<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />12<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  13. 13. Make up air routes<br />External doors<br />Louvers in wall or roof<br />Central air plant configured to supply air<br />From adjacent unaffected areas<br />->avoid mixing of smoke and make up air<br />->extraction points-avoid creation of “hole”<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />13<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  14. 14. Smoke Production and movement<br />Amount of smoke produced is dependent on size of fire<br />Path through which it goes<br />Plume height<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />14<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  15. 15. Fundamental design factors<br />Design fire size<br />Smoke layer depth<br />Identify smoke reservoirs<br />Calculate smoke volume and temperature<br />Minimum number of extract points<br />Vent or fan size and fan temperature rating<br />Inlet air<br />Duct work<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />15<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  16. 16. Design fire size<br />Fire starts small and becomes large<br />Vent area=2.5 % of floor area-otherwise mechanical<br />6 ac/hour is used often<br />Design fire size is greatly dependent on building contents.<br />Based on the largest fire source<br />Cannot surely withstand post flash over conditions<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />16<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  17. 17. Heat output of fire<br />National bureau of standards in USA<br />Based on time-<br /> safe escape time<br /> brigade response time<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />17<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  18. 18. Acceptable smoke layer depth<br />Smoke layer base should be above the people<br />2.5 m-single storey<br />3 m - upper storey of 2 storey<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />18<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  19. 19. Smoke reservoirs<br />If smoke is held in a too large reservoir-lose buoyancy<br />2000 m^2 - natural extraction<br />2600 m^2 -powered extraction<br />Smoke curtains can be used to reduce horizontal spread<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />19<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  20. 20. Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />20<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  21. 21. Smoke- volume, mass flow rate and temperature<br />T=Q/m cp<br />1/3 is gained by building structure<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />21<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  22. 22. Minimum no of extract points<br />Mcr is not exceeded<br />No smoke need to travel more than 30 m to extraction point<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />22<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  23. 23. Inlet air<br />To make up the smoky gases<br />At least 1.5m beneath smoke layer<br />If natural inlet is given<br />Inlets should be away from the outlets<br />Inlet velocity should be less than 3 m/s<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />23<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  24. 24. Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />24<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  25. 25. Ductwork<br />Must be able to withstand anticipated temp- From the formula<br />HVCA specification DW144<br />For sprinkled buildings<br />To limit fire spread<br /> -fire protection of steel ducts<br /> -construct from proprietary material<br /> - use fire and smoke dampers<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />25<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  26. 26. Fire resisting requirement of ductwork<br />To prevent fire inside one duct to breaking out to other compartment.<br />To prevent fire from outside enter into duct and then enter another fire compartment<br />To prevent fire from outside enter into duct and the break out into other compartment<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />26<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  27. 27. Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />27<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  28. 28. Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />28<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  29. 29. Performance criteria for fire resisting duct work<br />Stability<br />Integrity<br />Insulation<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />29<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  30. 30. Other things to be noted<br />Duct must be able to retain at least 75% of its size after the smoke removal.<br />Sound or thermal insulation should not be raised to ignition temperature.<br />Fire stopping seals should be used<br />Buckling or collapse.<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />30<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  31. 31. Construction of fire resisting smoke extract ducts <br /> a) galvanized steel duct with additional<br /> protection<br /> b) fire resisting boards(eg . calcium silicate)<br /> c)proprietary fire resistant ductwork<br />eg: PROMATECT-H<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />31<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  32. 32. Protection of duct with fire resisting board<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />32<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  33. 33. Ductwork construction from fire resisting board<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />33<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  34. 34. Spreading of smoke<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />34<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  35. 35. Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />35<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  36. 36. Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />36<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  37. 37. Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />37<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  38. 38. Design guide for different building types<br />Multi-storey office and similar buildings<br />Warehouse<br />Underground car parks/basement<br />Atrium buildings<br />Shopping malls<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />38<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  39. 39. Multi storey office and similar buildings<br />Phased evacuation<br />Evacuation time will be varying<br />Smoke should not spread<br /> 1, smoke extraction<br /> 2, pressurisation<br />The recirculation of air in normal hvac system is prevented by dampers<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />39<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  40. 40. Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />40<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  41. 41. Important design considerations<br />The system is not for providing a smoke free layer<br />Both supply and extract ducts should be having fire resistance equal to that of the floors /walls<br />Exhaust fans should be able to run at the highest expected temperature<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />41<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  42. 42. The power supply to the system must be duplicated<br />The power and instrumentation cabling should be of fire resistant type<br />Smoke and fire dampers should be having suitable specification-UL555s<br /> class-I,II,III,IV<br /> in high storey buildings-wind pressure <br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />42<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  43. 43. Ware houses<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />43<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  44. 44. Underground car parks/basement<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />44<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  45. 45. ATRIUM CONSTRUCTIONS<br />Fully enclosed atrium<br />Partially opened atrium<br />Fully opened atrium<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />45<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  46. 46. Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />46<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  47. 47. Fully enclosed atrium<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />47<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  48. 48. Enclosures are 2 types<br /> 1- fire resisting enclosure-fire resisting glazing<br /> 2- enclosure of limited combustibility but not fire resisting<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />48<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  49. 49. Partially enclosed atrium<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />49<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  50. 50. Fully open atrium<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />50<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  51. 51. Shopping malls<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />51<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  52. 52. Extract from single shops<br />Smoke is prevented to enter to mall area<br />Very large fans are not required<br />But complex and costly<br />Shops must be sprinkled<br />Combined duct work is used to reduce cost<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />52<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  53. 53. Extract from mall<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />53<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  54. 54. Channeling screens<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />54<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  55. 55. Limitations<br />With high atriums there is a cut off point of mass flow rate of 150 to 250 kg/s-economically impractical.<br /> Temperature stratification<br />Cooling effect<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />55<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  56. 56. Fire,smoke and building code agencies<br />Industrial risk insurers (IRI)<br />Southern building code congress inc(SBCCI)<br />National fire protection association(NFPA)<br />Underwriters Laboratories(UL)<br />British standards(BS)<br />National Building Standards(NBS)<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />56<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  57. 57. CONCLUSION<br />By following discriminative approaches and methods needed for different types of buildings and constructions provided by the different approved agencies ,the threat from fire and smoke can be reduced to a considerable level.<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />57<br />
  58. 58. References<br />Promat International Ltd<br />National Fire protection Association,Guide for smoke and heat venting,NFPA-204 M<br />BS 5839: Fire Protection and alarm systems in buildings,Part1 2002<br />Underwriters Laboratories,Leakage rated dampers for use in smoke in control systems,UL555 S<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />58<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />
  59. 59. THANKING YOU ALL……..<br />Tuesday, June 07, 2011<br />59<br />Smoke Extraction In Buildings<br />

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