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Rand Fishkin, Wizard of Moz | @randfish | rand@moz.com
The 8 Ways Startups SUCK at Marketing
Why so many founders & early teams fail to get acquire right customers, with
tactical tips to help solve these dilemmas.
Bit.ly/starketing
Too Many Startups Die Because They
Can’t Get Customers
CB Insightscompiledan
analysisfrom startup post-
mortems.
These 5 are mostly “couldn’t
find enough customers” or
“couldn’t affordably find
customers”
To stay focused on marketing, I’m going to
assume your startup has* a:
A)productpeoplewant&willpayfor
B)serviceablemarket
C)teamthatcanexecute,learn,&improve
*don’thavethese?Get‘emfirst,thencomebacktothemarketingprocess
A Terrible Name
#1
Problems:
Noonecouldsayournameuntil
theyheardit
Ona.org,sofolksassumedwe
werenonprofit
Took~$500Ktorebrandin2013
(“Moz”)
Problems:
Domainis“getskorch.com”
Normalpeoplewillhear&spell
“scorch”
Theydon’town“Skorch”onany
socialmediaplatform
Problems:
Pronunciationisunclear
Difficulttospell/findevenafter
youhearit
Problems:
Lunarisalreadyassociated
w/dozensofotherthings
(includingotherwatches)
Brandnamedirectly
conflictsw/product’sUVP
Problems:
Hustlehasnegativeconnotations
outsideSV(hustlers,getting“hustled”,
“HustlerMagazine,”etc)
Namesuggestsproductissomething
it’snot(acase)
7RulesforaSolidName:
Easytospell,say,hear,andremember
Hasnoexistingassociationsthatcouldconfuse
Eithersuggestswhatthecompanydoes(AirBnB,Lyft),orhasno
existing/problematicoverlap(Google,Atlassian)
The.comsiteandmajorsocialaccountsareownedbyyou
HasveryfewornoGooglesearchresults
Avoidstrademarkinfringement
Biasestobrandable>keywordrich/generic
Some Startups WhoNailedIt:
YouCANSucceed,EvenWithaCriteria-BreakingName….
It’sJustHarder.
Pssttt….
Solongasthenamematchesthecriteria,youdon’t
personallyhavetolikeit
Overvaluing 1st Exposure
#2
StartupMarketingMythology
Step1:BuildaGreatProduct
Step2:GetonProductHunt(orHN)
Step3:Customers!$$$!SeriesA!
This is a long process,
with many steps
Yay! You made it to the top of PH & received 15,000 visits
+ 500 email signups
But, only ~0.01% of people are looking for email
verification APIs that day 
Every day, a few dozen people search for this
(and don’t find you)
Loads of searches for your service,
but none of these people can find
you 
They visit this list (and
you’re not here)
They ask friends +
colleagues (who’ve never
heard of you)
They rely on existing
providers
They lean on social proof
from their networks
If you only play here (first
exposure)
Or here (decision
time)
You’re gonna have a bad time 
StartupMarketingReality
Step1:Getknown+trustedbyyouraudience
Step2:Growapresenceacrossthechannelstheyusetofind
solutionsyourproductsolves
Step3:Bevisiblethroughouttheirdiscovery,consideration,and
decisionprocesses
Audience
Problem
Market
Existing Solutions
Channels
Position
Message
Strategic startup marketing
encompasses all of these
The MVP way to do it:
Digital Marketer’s Framework
Chasing Growth Hacks
#3
Hack-Chasing Usually Leads to Death Before
Success
Via ProStart
Hack Hack Hack Hack Crap.
Don’t Fight the “Law of Shitty Clickthrough Rates”
Via
Andrew Chen
A lot of exploitable, short-term “growth
hacks” start here
And end here
Great Marketers Focus on Flywheels (systems that
scale w/ decreasing friction)
Moz’s
Flywheel
KW Research + Industry
Intuition
Publish
Content
Promote via Social
Channels
Push to email + RSS
subscribers
Earn Links +
Amplification
Grow social, email, RSS, &
WoM channels
Grow Domain
Authority
Earn Search &
Referral Traffic
Rank for More
Competitive KWs
KW Research + Industry
Intuition
Publish
Content
Promote via Social
Channels
Push to email + RSS
subscribers
Earn Links +
Amplification
Grow social, email, RSS, &
WoM channels
Grow Domain
Authority
Earn Search &
Referral Traffic
Rank for More
Competitive KWs
In 2006, I was lucky if new
content led to any links or
rankings at all
KW Research + Industry
Intuition
Publish
Content
Promote via Social
Channels
Push to email + RSS
subscribers
Earn Links +
Amplification
Grow social, email, RSS, &
WoM channels
Grow Domain
Authority
Earn Search &
Referral Traffic
Rank for More
Competitive KWs
But, by 2017, nearly every post
earns a handful of links, & some
earn a lot!
Moz is a Business Built on Content
Dollar Shave Club
was Built on a Press
& Media Flywheel
Via NYTimes
Dribbble was Built on a UGC/Community
Flywheel
But… Almost Every Flywheel Finds
a Point (or Points) of Friction
Publish
Content
Promote via Social
Channels
Push to email + RSS
subscribers
Crap… We’re not reaching anyone who will
link/amplify us 
Growth Hacks
Can Accelerate a Flywheel
Hacks aren’t necessarily evil, spammy, or
without value.
They can be useful when applied to a sound
marketing strategy.
Find a Balance Between Long-Term Investments &
Short-Term Hacks
High upfront costs Pay (in time/$$) as you go
Long-Term Investments
Slow to show ROI
Earn customers while you sleep
Low Risk (PR/legal/etc)
Can Show Fast ROI
Effort In = Links Out
Often High Risk
Short-Term Hacks
The Formula for Marketing that Will Work for Years to
Come:
Strategic
Roadmap
Scalable
Flywheel
Long-Term
Investments
Hacks to
Remove
Friction
+ + +
Saving Marketing
Until Launch
#4
Via ASmartBear
TheFirstTimeSomeoneHearsAboutYou…
You want my
credit card &
email???
Via ProductHunt
Which One(s) ShouldYou Do?
Createablog?
Participateinforumdiscussions?
Buildacommunityonyourownsite?
Becomeaguestcontributortoothercommunities?
Participateinevents&conferences?
Growrelationships/awarenessviasocialmedia?
InvestinvideoonaYouTubechannel?
Invest in 2-3 tactics long before you launch a
product.
So that when you do, there’s a pre-existing
community that wants to support & amplify
you.
Relying on Paid Ads
#5
Via Wordstream
This happens when your CTR &
engagement are high
Via Wordstream
This happens when you have an unknown brand or target a
new/unexposed audience
Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, & display ads all
work the same way
Via Resolution Media
HowtoWinatDigitalAdvertising
Step1:Earnbrandexposurew/yourtargetaudience
Step2:Get>1organicvisit(orsocialengagement)
Step3:Advertisetothosewhoalreadyknow+likeyou
Not Prioritizing an
Easy-to-Reach Audience
#6
“Ourtargetaudienceisoff-the-
gridtypeswhohate
advertisingandmostlyread
bookswrittenbefore1950.”
“Wehaveaguerillamarketing
planwebelievecanreachthis
eclecticgroup(andweonly
need$3mminseedfundingto
execute”
easiertoreach
hardertoreach
Knowyoupersonally(&wouldhappilymeetforcoffee)
Knowofyou,likeyou,&followyourworkclosely
Arealreadyconnectedtoyouviaemail
Alreadyfollowyouonsocialmediachannels
Havevisitedyourwebsiteatleastonce
Haveheardofyourcompany(andcanrecallit)
AreinyourtargetaudienceandreachableviaFB/GGads
INSANITY is…
easiertoreach
hardertoreach
Knowyoupersonally(&wouldhappilymeetforcoffee)
Knowofyou,likeyou,&followyourworkclosely
Arealreadyconnectedtoyouviaemail
Alreadyfollowyouonsocialmediachannels
Havevisitedyourwebsiteatleastonce
Haveheardofyourcompany(andcanrecallit)
AreinyourtargetaudienceandreachableviaFB/GGads
1) Lacking any strategy to increase the size
of these groups
easiertoreach
hardertoreach
Knowyoupersonally(&wouldhappilymeetforcoffee)
Knowofyou,likeyou,&followyourworkclosely
Arealreadyconnectedtoyouviaemail
Alreadyfollowyouonsocialmediachannels
Havevisitedyourwebsiteatleastonce
Haveheardofyourcompany(andcanrecallit)
AreinyourtargetaudienceandreachableviaFB/GGads
2) Not targeting these
people first
easiertoreach
hardertoreach
Knowyoupersonally(&wouldhappilymeetforcoffee)
Knowofyou,likeyou,&followyourworkclosely
Arealreadyconnectedtoyouviaemail
Alreadyfollowyouonsocialmediachannels
Havevisitedyourwebsiteatleastonce
Haveheardofyourcompany(andcanrecallit)
AreinyourtargetaudienceandreachableviaFB&GG
3) Aiming 100% of your tactics at only
these groups
But Rand…
Mark didn’tstartFacebookwith…
Ohdang…He totallydid.
Brian& Joe didn’tstartAirBnBwith…
Ohdang…Theytotallydid.
Jeremydidn’tstartYelpwith…
Ohdang…He totallydid.
Danielledidn’tstartMattermarkwith
Ohdang…She totallydid.
easiertoreach
hardertoreach
Knowyoupersonally(&wouldhappilymeetforcoffee)
Knowofyou,likeyou,&followyourworkclosely
Arealreadyconnectedtoyouviaemail
Alreadyfollowyouonsocialmediachannels
Havevisitedyourwebsiteatleastonce
Haveheardofyourcompany(andcanrecallit)
AreinyourtargetaudienceandreachableviaFB/GGads
Pro Tip: Having a lot of target customers in your
personal network makes EVERYTHING about starting
up easier.
Failing at Funnel
Fundamentals
#7
Most Marketers and
Sites Focus
on Optimizing for
Conversion
Get More and More
People Through
These Steps
And Get
Paid
$$But startups usually lack this “right
audience” at the top of their funnel
Most Marketers and
Sites Focus
on Optimizing for
Conversion
Get More and More
People Through
These Steps
And Get
Paid
$$
And often lack the data &
tools to move people through
this funnel, too.
Searching
Google
Browsing
Social
ReadingNews
Engagingin
Discussions
FollowingInfluencers
If you get to know your audience well enough, you’ll know what they do
before they ever reach your funnel
Research
If You Don’t Know…
Via GrowingYourAudiencew/ RandomAffinities Via Use Customer Surveysto DefineYour Content
Marketing Efforts
Ask
Once you have real
people signing up for
your product, you can
learn more about them
Now we just need to
find out where people
like this guy hang out
Have a community &
can find/recruit folks
excited about your
product?
Do that!
Then you can
survey this
audience to
identify their
clones 
IdeallyYouWantto:
A:Identifyrightcustomers
B:Findwhat/whoinfluencesthem
C:Clone,expand,&repeat
I’ve found it incredibly helpful
to visualize our funnel
I want to see sources
And how each
contributes to
various levels
I also use this to ID areas
(and channels) where my
visitors aren’t turning into
customers
Then I can identify the traits that separate right
prospects (who’ll use & love our product) from
wrong (those who won’t).
My Favorite
Process:
From Conversion Rate Experts’ case study
Boom.
And Shakalaka.
Didn’t try the product Tried, but didn’t love it Tried & loved the
product
What do you think the product
does?
What made you try it? What made you try it?
What would make you more
likely to try it?
What are your biggest
objections to signup?
What objections did you have
and how did you overcome
them?
What caused you to stop using
the product?
What would have made you
stay a customer?
What objections did you have
and how did you overcome
them?
What’s been most valuable to
you?
If you’ve loved it, can we
share your story?
Ignoring Brand
#8
Brandis…
Apromise.
i.e.whenyousee“BrandX”itmeans“YAttributes”
Amemory trigger.
i.e.whenyouexperienceproblemZ,youthinkof“BrandX”asthe
potentialsolution
BrandMarketingis…
Acodedmessage.
Remindingyouofthebrand’sexistence
Reinforcingthebrand’scolors,shapes,sounds,experiences,&
feelings
Nudgingyoutousethebrandattherighttime
Whatdoyouthinkofwhenyou
seethisbrand?
Brandmarketingreinforcesthat:
Whatdoyouthinkofwhenyou
seethisbrand?
Brandmarketingreinforcesthat:
Beforeyoucanbrand,youneeda
BrandPromise
We
provide…
We evoke
feelings…
We remind you
of…
We share the
values of…
product/
service that
solves a
problem you
have
that make our
customers most
anxious about
whether our solution is
right for them
Memories that our
target demographics &
psychographics will
have ++ associations
with
People who are
statistically most likely
to be our best
customers
How can Penzey’s call 22% of Americans “racist” and maintain a
consumer business?
Online sales up 59.9%. Customer
cancellations up 3%.
EverythingShould(Subtly)ReinforcetheMessage
SEO Snippets
PPC Ads
Big
Content
CommentsTweets
Photos
Landing
Pages
UI & UX
Brand Name
Facebook
Posts
Emails
Product
Names
Videos
Visual
Branding
Outreach
Onboarding
Press & PR
The Brand
Promise
Rand Fishkin, Wizard of Moz | @randfish | rand@moz.com
Bit.ly/starketing

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