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VENTILATORS
A ventilator is a machine which is designed to mechanically
move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide the
mechanism of breathing for a patient who is physically not able
to breathe sufficiently.
VENTILATION
It is a method of controlling the environment with the air , and
can be defined as the movement of air between the
environment and lungs via inhalation and exhalation.
 Pulmonary ventilation
 Alveolar ventilation
 Mechanical ventilation is a positive or negative pressure artificial breathing
device that can maintain ventilation and oxygen delivery for prolonged
periods.
 It is indicated when the patient is unable to maintain safe levels of oxygen
or CO2 by spontaneous breathing even with the assistance of other oxygen
delivery devices.
FREQUENCY/RESPIRATION RATE: Breaths per unit time. At rest
12/min.
VENTILATION RATE: Total volume inspired or expired per unit time,
sometimes called as Minute Volume (MV) when measured per minute, to
avoid ambiguity usually measured as volume expired, VE.
Ventilator delivers gas to lungs using
positive pressure at certain rate.
The amount of gas delivered can be
limited by time pressure and volume.
The duration can be cycled by time
pressure and flow.
1. Power source or Input power:
a). Electrically powered ventilators.
b). Pneumatically powered ventilators.
c). Combined powered ventilators.
2. Positive or negative pressure generator
3. Control system and circuits.
a.) Open and closed loop systems to control ventilator function.
b.) Control panel (user interference)
c.) Pneumatic circuit
4. Power transmission and conversion system.
5. Output (pressure, volume and flow waveform)
TRANSPORT VENTILATOR
These are small and more
rugged, and can be powered
pneumatically or via AC or DC
power source.
 These are larger and usually run on AC
power(though virtually all contain a
battery to facilitate intra-facility
transport and as a back-up in the event
of a power failure).
 It provides greater control of a wide
variety of parameters.
 Many ICU ventilators also provide
visual feedback of each breathe through
graphics.
 These are designed with the preterm
neonate in mind.
 These are a specialized subset of ICU
ventilators that are designed to deliver the
smaller, more precise volumes and pressures
required to ventilate such patients
INDICATION FOR NEONATAL
VENTILATORS
1. Respiratory distress syndrome
2. Sepsis
3. Birth asphyxia
4. Meningitis
5. Pneumonia
 These are specifically designed for non-invasive ventilator, and can also be
used at home, e.g., for treating sleep apnea or COPD.
 It works by increasing the patient’s airway pressure through an
endotracheal or tracheostomy tube.
 The positive pressure allows the air to flow into the airway until the
ventilator breathe is terminated.
 Then the pressure drops to ‘0’ and the elastic recoil of the lungs and chest
wall push the tidal volume- breathe out through passive exhalation.
 Here the air is withdrawn mechanically to produce a vacuum inside the
tank, thus creating negative pressure which in turn leads to expansion of
the chest.
 It leads to decrease in intra-pulmonary pressure, and increases flow of
ambient air into the lungs.
 As the vacuum is released, the pressure inside the tank equalizes the
ambient air pressure.
 The elastic coil of the chest and lungs thus leads to passive exhalation.
 Frequency is from 60/min upto even 3000/min.
 It is of two types:
a). Jets – It uses natural elastic recoil of the lungs, where expiration occurs
passively. It consists of a applying high pressure jet to the airways via a
cannula or endotracheal tube.
b). Oscillators – It uses a reciprocating piston which aid expiration on its
return stroke. Here expiration is active.
When a person has bilateral lung pathology, then this type of
ventilation is used.
Here two synchronized ventilators are used simultaneously.
It prevents ventilation -to- perfusion mismatch.
Treatment cost is expensive as two ventilators are required in
one set-up.
 It can be used as a short-term measure, for e.g., during an operation or
critical illness.
 Long-term ventilatory assistance are required in chronic illness, and may
be used at home, or in a nursing or rehabilitation center.
 In positive pressure ventilator, additional measures can be required to
secure airway. The common employed method is intubation which provides
clear route for the air.
 In negative pressure or non-invasive ventilator, there is no need to use any
adjunct.
 It mainly depends upon the clinical condition of the patient on
presentation, diagnosis, patient’s respiratory drive, the compliance
of lungs and the chest wall, and the degree of synchronization.
 Other factors can be familiarity of the staff with the equipment and
the availability of the equipment.
Vital Signs.
Oxygen Saturation in the blood.
Consciousness of the Patient.
Checks alarm function of the ventilator.
Secretions should be removed periodically.
Thank You

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Ventilators - Biomedical Instrumentation

  • 2. A ventilator is a machine which is designed to mechanically move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide the mechanism of breathing for a patient who is physically not able to breathe sufficiently. VENTILATION It is a method of controlling the environment with the air , and can be defined as the movement of air between the environment and lungs via inhalation and exhalation.  Pulmonary ventilation  Alveolar ventilation
  • 3.
  • 4.  Mechanical ventilation is a positive or negative pressure artificial breathing device that can maintain ventilation and oxygen delivery for prolonged periods.  It is indicated when the patient is unable to maintain safe levels of oxygen or CO2 by spontaneous breathing even with the assistance of other oxygen delivery devices. FREQUENCY/RESPIRATION RATE: Breaths per unit time. At rest 12/min. VENTILATION RATE: Total volume inspired or expired per unit time, sometimes called as Minute Volume (MV) when measured per minute, to avoid ambiguity usually measured as volume expired, VE.
  • 5. Ventilator delivers gas to lungs using positive pressure at certain rate. The amount of gas delivered can be limited by time pressure and volume. The duration can be cycled by time pressure and flow.
  • 6. 1. Power source or Input power: a). Electrically powered ventilators. b). Pneumatically powered ventilators. c). Combined powered ventilators. 2. Positive or negative pressure generator 3. Control system and circuits. a.) Open and closed loop systems to control ventilator function. b.) Control panel (user interference) c.) Pneumatic circuit 4. Power transmission and conversion system. 5. Output (pressure, volume and flow waveform)
  • 7. TRANSPORT VENTILATOR These are small and more rugged, and can be powered pneumatically or via AC or DC power source.
  • 8.  These are larger and usually run on AC power(though virtually all contain a battery to facilitate intra-facility transport and as a back-up in the event of a power failure).  It provides greater control of a wide variety of parameters.  Many ICU ventilators also provide visual feedback of each breathe through graphics.
  • 9.  These are designed with the preterm neonate in mind.  These are a specialized subset of ICU ventilators that are designed to deliver the smaller, more precise volumes and pressures required to ventilate such patients INDICATION FOR NEONATAL VENTILATORS 1. Respiratory distress syndrome 2. Sepsis 3. Birth asphyxia 4. Meningitis 5. Pneumonia
  • 10.  These are specifically designed for non-invasive ventilator, and can also be used at home, e.g., for treating sleep apnea or COPD.  It works by increasing the patient’s airway pressure through an endotracheal or tracheostomy tube.  The positive pressure allows the air to flow into the airway until the ventilator breathe is terminated.  Then the pressure drops to ‘0’ and the elastic recoil of the lungs and chest wall push the tidal volume- breathe out through passive exhalation.
  • 11.  Here the air is withdrawn mechanically to produce a vacuum inside the tank, thus creating negative pressure which in turn leads to expansion of the chest.  It leads to decrease in intra-pulmonary pressure, and increases flow of ambient air into the lungs.  As the vacuum is released, the pressure inside the tank equalizes the ambient air pressure.  The elastic coil of the chest and lungs thus leads to passive exhalation.
  • 12.
  • 13.  Frequency is from 60/min upto even 3000/min.  It is of two types: a). Jets – It uses natural elastic recoil of the lungs, where expiration occurs passively. It consists of a applying high pressure jet to the airways via a cannula or endotracheal tube. b). Oscillators – It uses a reciprocating piston which aid expiration on its return stroke. Here expiration is active.
  • 14. When a person has bilateral lung pathology, then this type of ventilation is used. Here two synchronized ventilators are used simultaneously. It prevents ventilation -to- perfusion mismatch. Treatment cost is expensive as two ventilators are required in one set-up.
  • 15.  It can be used as a short-term measure, for e.g., during an operation or critical illness.  Long-term ventilatory assistance are required in chronic illness, and may be used at home, or in a nursing or rehabilitation center.  In positive pressure ventilator, additional measures can be required to secure airway. The common employed method is intubation which provides clear route for the air.  In negative pressure or non-invasive ventilator, there is no need to use any adjunct.
  • 16.  It mainly depends upon the clinical condition of the patient on presentation, diagnosis, patient’s respiratory drive, the compliance of lungs and the chest wall, and the degree of synchronization.  Other factors can be familiarity of the staff with the equipment and the availability of the equipment.
  • 17. Vital Signs. Oxygen Saturation in the blood. Consciousness of the Patient. Checks alarm function of the ventilator. Secretions should be removed periodically.