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UX +
Your Team
=
Accessibility!
Angela M. Hooker,
@AccessForAll
Accessing Higher Ground
November 2015
Hey, hep cats!
Angela M. Hooker
Twitter: @AccessForAll
SlideShare: slideshare.net/AccessForAll
LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/angelahooker/en
ange@angelahooker.com
#UXandA11y | #AHG15
Happy New Year, 2015!
What we’re going to talk about
 We'll briefly review the basics of
accessible user experiences.
 We’ll discuss how disabilities or
conditions relate to what people need
for an accessible, usable experience,
and our responsibility to our users.
 Enjoy some boss ‘60s culture.
Poll: How many people here use
assistive technologies?
Anyone?
Vintage eyeglasses ad that says, “Eyeglasses! Mail, as low as $1.99…”
Poll: If you use a screen reader, like JAWS or
NVDA, to test for accessibility, will that tell
you if your digital project is accessible to
all users?
There’s no silver bullet…
“No tool exists that you can run against
your web site (or web page for that
matter) in order to assert that it is
accessible and/or complies with the
Section 508 provisions or the
Web Content Accessibility
Guidelines [WCAG], however much
you are willing to pay … (continued)
And furthermore…
“When a web site claims Section 508
Conformance or WCAG Conformance from
some tool or other (and many do it), the
most it can mean is that the site (or page)
passed all of the automatic Section 508 or
WCAG tests.”
– Jim Thatcher, Web Accessibility Testing
“Oh, one of us tested it with a
screen reader…”
But what have you done to
ensure your project is
accessible?
<Crickets>
Assistive technologies are not the
starting point for ensuring accessibility.
Mission: Good UX
Photographof the cast of “MissionImpossible”;says(inSpanish),“”eterGraves,MartinLandau,MisionImposible ContraEl Hampa”
Example: What do drivers need when
they're on the road?
Craft a wonderful, engaging,
accessible user experience:
Design for accessibility.
Include people
with
disabilities in
user research.
Write content in
plain language.
Use good
development
practices.
Choose accessible
platforms, frameworks,
and technologies.
Consider accessibility at the
beginning of your
project.
You'll do this by considering the
conditions and needs of your current and
prospective audience…and thinking of how will
this inform each team member’s work.
Ona, age 65
“Everyone says technology is easy
to use, but I find it frustrating.”
About her:
• Retired baker
• Not very tech savvy
• Uses e-mail and Skype to
talk with her grandkids
• New Facebook user
• Her daughter, Amelia (a
web developer), set up her
browser.
Accessibility consideration:
Tunnel vision (loss of peripheral
vision) due to glaucoma
Technology use:
Galaxy S5
AsusVivoBook
Accommodations or
assistive technologies used:
Using Stylish, a Firefox and
Chrome add-on, Amelia
created custom style sheets
to override font sizes that are
too large on websites (also
see UserStyles.org).
Needs for a good experience:
• Very small text (while neither intentional nor
a best practice, some sites almost meet her
needs because they use small text)
• Ability to resize text based on her personal
style sheets, or through her browser or
devices
How to test for Ona’s considerations
Tools and/or how to test:
• Ensure text is set in percentages (preferable) or ems.
• Use ems for container divs; set up some custom styles and see if they work
with your project; if they don't, you'll need to adjust your code to fix the
conflicts.
• Turn off styles and see if the content makes sense—make sure there's no
hidden content, that becomes visible with styles overriden or disabled,
and doesn't make sense when it's visible.
Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques:
• Distinguishable Content: Guideline 1.4
• Resize text: Success Criterion 1.4.4
• Contrast (Enhanced): Success Criterion 1.4.6
• Visual Presentation: Success Criterion 1.4.8
• Images ofText: Success Criterion 1.4.9
Myrna, age 51
“Can you hook me up to an
internet IV?”
About her:
• Teacher
• Mega sports fan and avid
video gamer
• Computer savvy: ran her
middle school's computer
lab
• Enjoys watching sports
videos on her laptop or on
her phone
Accessibility consideration:
She’s had photosensitive
epilepsy since age 5. Flashing
content can trigger seizures
(see London 2012 Olympics
Site Withdraws Film). She has
aging eyes, and needs larger
fonts.
Technology use:
Acer Chromebook 13; Dell
Inspiron 11; iPhone 5S
Accommodations or
assistive technologies used:
• None
Needs for a good experience:
• She can't use content that causes the screen
to flash more than three times within one
second.
• This includes videos, animations, and
Escher-style graphics that are optical
illusions or have strobe-like effects.
• She must be able to resize text.
How to test for Myrna’s considerations
Tools and/or how to test:
• UseTrace Center's PEAT (Photosensitive Epilepsy AnalysisTool).
• This is one area that is a bit beyond “access”—most people with epilepsy
will be able to access your content, and they won't necessarily know if
your content can induce a seizure; flashing content is potentially
dangerous.This does not test static graphics that can be dangerous.
• If you must post content that could cause a seizure, post it with a warning
and do not auto-play it or show it automatically.
• See OK.gov's information about graphics that can cause seizures and
WebAIM's guidance on seizures and neurological conditions.
• Ensure font sizes are in percentages (preferable) or ems so users can zoom
in browsers.
Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques:
• Seizures: Guideline 2.3
• ResizeText: Success Criterion 1.4.4
• Contrast (Minimum): Success Criterion 1.4.3
Glen, age 25
“I’ve got to take a pic of that …
and tweet it, Instagram it, and …”
About him:
• Thinks texting is an art
• Blogs about food
• Takes lots of pictures
• PowerYelp user
• Impulsive and will go
almost anywhere on the
spur of the moment
Accessibility consideration:
Has deuteranopia (color blind
with green deficiencies)
Technology use:
iPhone 6 Plus phone; HP
Slate 10Tablet
Accommodations or
assistive technologies used:
• The HueVue app helps Glen
to identify colors when he
needs them. It's not always
convenient to use.
Needs for a good experience:
• Content that doesn't rely on color to provide
meaning or content
• Buttons and controls that have clearly
indicated states (active or inactive)
• Uses maps a lot and finds them difficult to
understand when they're color coded
without further explanation of color
meanings
How to test for Glen’s considerations
Tools and/or how to test:
• Wickline Colorfilter
• Vischeck (the online page testing function is down, but you can run
images or download it)
Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques:
• Contrast (Enhanced): Success Criterion 1.4.6
Betty, age 16
“I love looking at vintage maps
and stamps.”
About her:
• Average kid, loves games,
hates homework
• Was in an accident at age
7; injuries resulted in brain
damage
• Wants to be a veterinarian
• Collects maps and stamps
Accessibility consideration:
Has a mild cognitive
(intellectual) disability; short-
term memory loss
Technology use:
Galaxy Note 4 phone
(Android), MacBook Pro
Accommodations or
assistive technologies used:
• Occasionally uses a screen
reader, particularly when
she's researching online for
homework assignments or
when she has a hard time
understanding things
(narration is easier to
understand than reading)
Needs for a good experience:
• Simple, clear layout; consistent navigation
• Headings and bullets
• Content written in plain language without
slang, irony, and sentence fragments
• Inline definitions for abbreviations,
acronyms, and jargon
• Iconography, drawings, animations
• Captions and transcripts for videos
How to test for Betty’s considerations
Tools and/or how to test:
• Check the fonts you’ve used to ensure that lower and uppercase letters
(especially “i” and “L”) are clearly distinguishable from other letters.
• Test your content with users.
• Do a hallway test: Set up in a coffee shop close to a high school and ask
people what your content means; ask them to complete a task (or how
they'd complete a task) based on instructions you provide.
• Review the wireframes and initial design against WebAIM's Accessibility
for Designers reference.
Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques:
• Adaptable: Guideline 1.3
• Visual Presentation: Success Criterion 1.4.8
• Reading Level: Success Criterion 3.1.5
George, age 37 “I need to find a job—fast!”
About him:
• Unemployed—was a
general contractor and
house flipper in Florida;
was hit hard in the
housing market crash
• Lives with his parents until
his situation improves
• Works odd jobs to pay
back his outstanding loans
Accessibility consideration:
Uses outdated technology
because he can't afford to
replace his devices
Technology use:
iPhone 3GS; Dell Latitude
D630. He gets frustrated
using both devices because
content loads slowly
(content weight is heavy).
Accommodations or
assistive technologies used:
• None
Needs for a good experience:
• High contrast since his phone doesn't adjust
for lighting conditions
• Well-formed code that isn't bloated or too
heavy from multiple processes, that will load
as quickly as possible
How to test for George’s considerations
Tools and/or how to test:
• Check contrast of all foreground and background color combinations: In
this mobile first age, make sure color contrast is at least 7:1; if mobile is a
priority, make it happen; it's not difficult.
• Use Paciello Group's Color Contrast Analyser orWebAIM's Color Contrast
Checker.
Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques:
• Distinguishable: Guideline 1.4
• Contrast (Enhanced): Success Criterion 1.4.6
• Parsing: Success Criterion 4.1.1
What didn't I mention?
• People who are blind
• People who are deaf or
hard-of-hearing
• People who have autism or
Asperger Syndrome, or who
are on the autism spectrum
• People who have cerebral
palsy
• People who have chronic
pain
• People who have low-
language proficiency
• People who have migraines
• People who have dyslexia
• People who are DeafBlind
• What about multiple
disabilities?
• More mobile situations
• So much more …
Now: How will you and each of your team
members apply these concepts to
your work?
Have you done user research with
people with disabilities?
Only you can prevent barriers to
content.
Photograph of “Smokey Bear” character holding a sign that says, “Remember – Only you can prevent forest fires!”
We are problem solvers
+ + + =
hard work!
design development content
project
management
What's your role?
Use the Accessibility ResponsibilityTool to break
down theWCAG 2.0 guidelines by team roles
and responsibilities (see the resources
section).
Wrap-up/recap
• Provide a good user
experience—that’s when
everyone can access our
information.
• Use the six points for
creating an accessible,
engaging user experience.
• Prevent any barriers to
access—it’s in your hands.
• Accessibility isn't a feature.
• Don't get into a rut with
Agile—minimum viable
product must work for your
entire audience.
• People are watching digital
media hard and they’re fed
up with inaccessibility!
• User research is the key to
good experiences—know
your audience’s needs and
involve them in your testing.
Remember …
“For people without disabilities, technology
makes things easier. For people with
disabilities, technology makes things
possible.”
– IBM training manual, 1991
Bonus persona!
Jason Becker, age 45
(real life example)
What would he do without
accessible technology?
About him:
• Jason Becker is a highly
respected guitarist who
played with David Lee
Roth’s band when he was
diagnosed with ALS.
• He still writes music and
has released several
albums after he lost the
use of his hands and arms.
Accessibility consideration:
He's paralyzed, except for his
eyes, facial muscles, and lips.
He uses a custom eye chart to
communicate, and he only uses
his head and eyes to control his
computer system.
Technology use:
Speculatively, a MacBook
Accommodations or
assistive technologies used:
• Custom eye chart
• Eye tracking software
• Writes music using his head
and eyes
Needs for a good experience:
• Support for non-mouse/alternate keyboard
devices
• Well-designed pages, without many links
• While using his eyes as a keyboard, he can
tire easily from exertion before he gets to
any info he needs and the task he needs to
complete.
How to test for Jason’s considerations
Tools and/or how to test:
• Ensure keyboard/device independence—unplug your mouse and test with
a keyboard!
• SeeW3C's keyboard navigation schemes for widgets.
• Keep abreast ofW3C's Indie UI Events spec to see what effect it will have
eventually.
• Use device independent event handlers in scripts.
Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques:
• Keyboard Accessible: Guideline 2.1
Groovy resources
WCAG 2.0 and general *a11y
• Constructing a POURWebsite,WebAIM
• BBC’s Future Media Standards and Guidelines
• A11y Buzz
• Accessibility ResponsibilityTool, WETToolkit
* accessibility
Mobile
• MobileAccessibilityGuidelines, BBC
• MobileAccessibilityTests, Henny Swan
• iOS Accessibility – A Useful Guide ForTesting, Rosie
Sherry
• Setting Up iOS and Android for AccessibilityTesting,
KathyWahlbin
• Why MobileAccessibility Matters: Best Practices to
MakeYour Mobile SiteAccessible, mobiForge
Project management
• Integrating Accessibility in the Organization’sWeb
Development Life Cycle, Denis Boudreau
• Accessibility for Project Managers, Henny Swan
• Managing AccessibilityCompliance in the Enterprise,
Karl Groves
• Plan for Accessibility, Option Keys
• PlanningAccessibility,Government of Canada
• Just Ask: Integrating AccessibilityThroughout Design,
Shawn Lawton Henry
Design
• Web Accessibility for Designers,WebAIM
• Just Ask: Integrating AccessibilityThroughout Design,
Shawn Lawton Henry
• Design Considerations,WebAIM
• Color Contrast Checker,WebAIM
• AccessibilityColor Wheel
• Trace Photosensitive Epilepsy AnalysisTool (PEAT)
Development resources 1
• Web Accessibility for Developers (videos), BBC
• Build a code library or find one on Github!
• Use code generators (seeAccessify’s tools).
• Web DeveloperToolbar, Chris Pederick
• Firebug, Mozilla
• WCAG 2.0 Checklist,WebAIM
• Web AccessibilityGoneWild,WebAIM
Development resources 2
• W3C MobileWeb Best Practices
• Juicy Studio AccessibilityToolbar —for ARIA, data
tables, color contrast
• aChecker, Inclusive Design Institute at OCAD University
• WAVEToolbar,WebAIM
• Favelets for CheckingWeb Accessibility, JimThatcher
Writing content
• Accessibility forWebWriters, by 4 Syllables
• Content and Usability:WebWriting,Web Credible
• Make it Plain:Accessibility and UsabilityThrough Plain
Language,Angela Hooker (hey!)
• Plain Language:Accessibility for Information,Whitney
Quesenbery
• Plain LanguageChecklist, PlainLanguage.gov
Quality assurance 1
• Template forAccessibility Evaluation Reports,W3C-WAI
• Accessibility Evaluation Resources,W3C-Web
Accessibility Initiative
• Evaluation,Testing, andTools, WebAIM
• WCAG 2.0 Checklist,WebAIM
• Wickline Color BlindWeb Page Filter
• Web DeveloperToolbar, Chris Pederick
Quality assurance 2
• Firebug, Mozilla
• Favelets for CheckingWeb Accessibility, JimThatcher
• Trace Photosensitive Epilepsy AnalysisTool (PEAT) –
tests flashing content
• WAVE,WebAIM
• Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI), EvaluatingWebsites
for Accessibility
Quality assurance 3
• Central Office of Information (COI), Delivering Inclusive
Websites
• Establishing a Screen ReaderTest Plan, Henny Swan
• How to Use NVDA and Firefox toTest for Accessibility,
Marco Zehe
• Web AccessibilityGoneWild,WebAIM
Usability
• UsabilityTesting and Conducting UsabilityTesting, Just
Ask: Integrating AccessibilityThroughout Design, Shawn
Lawton-Henry
• UsabilityTesting for People with Disabilities, Kathy
Wahlbin and Mary Hunter Utt
• Steve Krug, Rocket Surgery Made Easy
Thanks, guys and dolls!
Angela M. Hooker
@AccessForAll
SlideShare
LinkedIn
ange@angelahooker.com
Photo credits 1
• “Youth Culture – Mods and Rockers…” PaulTownsend
https://www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/5130733677/
• Veterans of the FSM
https://www.flickr.com/photos/quinnanya/15230011727
• “1964 Ad,Advance Spectacle Co.,” Classic Film
https://www.flickr.com/photos/29069717@N02/14208321625/
• “Silver bullet,” Ed Schipul
https://www.flickr.com/photos/eschipul/4160817135
• “DECVT05Terminal,” Matthew Ratzloff
https://www.flickr.com/photos/mratzloff/9171586772/
• “Starry Night into the Light,” Bo Insogna,TheLightningMan.com
https://www.flickr.com/photos/thelightningman/12056816983
• “JHS Cheerleaders…” Beth Scupham
https://www.flickr.com/photos/bethscupham/5919260366/
Photo credits 2
• Don Sniegowski,They're Off
https://www.flickr.com/photos/sniegowski/8671556299
• "Mission: Impossible…“ MidCentArc
https://www.flickr.com/photos/midcentarc/8189306568/
• ZombiesAhead, BC Ministry ofTransportation and Infrastructure
https://www.flickr.com/photos/tranbc/10578481755
• “Street Painter,” Pedro Ribeiro Simoes
https://www.flickr.com/photos/pedrosimoes7/190673196/
• Daftastic Data atWoodstock, Suzi Duke
https://www.flickr.com/photos/suzijan
• “TV ShowsWe Used toWatch,” PaulTownsend
https://www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4933754453/
Photo credits 3
• “Engineering Department Employees, 1962,” Seattle Municipal
Archives
https://www.flickr.com/photos/seattlemunicipalarchives/4818952324
• “Smokey Bear” http://cbldf.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/gov-
comics024-1024x928.jpg
• “Family Heirloom,” Ken
https://www.flickr.com/photos/skistz/398429879
• “Duluoz Cats,” Groovy
https://www.flickr.com/photos/duluoz_cats/249672451/
• “Huh…?!?” Cheryl
https://www.flickr.com/photos/eraphernalia_vintage/2691558545
• “Martin Luther King, Jr. I Have a Dream Speech,” David Erickson
https://www.flickr.com/photos/e-strategycom/1054179588/
Photo credits 4
• Register toVote, Kheel Center
https://www.flickr.com/photos/kheelcenter/5278846477
• "New Shoes," Suedehead
https://www.flickr.com/photos/suedehead/6306822304
• "Royal PortableTypewriter,"Alexkerhead
https://www.flickr.com/photos/alexkerhead/3495304775
• “American Adulthood,” A. Davey
https://www.flickr.com/photos/adavey/15215010126/
• "BrotherTed andT'Chaka..."Virgo200745
https://www.flickr.com/photos/brodeuse/2242880390
• "1964 Human Interest Piece …" Classic Film
https://www.flickr.com/photos/29069717@N02/16762991150/
• Happy NewYear 2015! http://itsmyfun.net/happy-new-year-2015/
Photo credits 5
• “SteveWatson,” Graham Lees
https://www.flickr.com/photos/tram_painter/4181430550/
• "ConstructionWorker 3,” Johnny Mitchell
https://www.flickr.com/photos/johnny_mitchell/15961202/
• "Meaghan," Hillary Boles
https://www.flickr.com/photos/hillaryraindeer/6209841403
• "The Mummy,"Tom
https://www.flickr.com/photos/tom1231/5069205181
• "Louis Stulberg looks on as Hubert H. Humphrey gives a speech
during his November 15, 1968 presidential campaign," Kheel
Center https://www.flickr.com/photos/kheelcenter/5278459275
• “1960s ComputerTerminal,” John Drake
https://www.flickr.com/photos/johndrake45/8999339647/

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UX + Your Team = Accessibility

  • 1. UX + Your Team = Accessibility! Angela M. Hooker, @AccessForAll Accessing Higher Ground November 2015
  • 2. Hey, hep cats! Angela M. Hooker Twitter: @AccessForAll SlideShare: slideshare.net/AccessForAll LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/angelahooker/en ange@angelahooker.com #UXandA11y | #AHG15
  • 4. What we’re going to talk about  We'll briefly review the basics of accessible user experiences.  We’ll discuss how disabilities or conditions relate to what people need for an accessible, usable experience, and our responsibility to our users.  Enjoy some boss ‘60s culture.
  • 5. Poll: How many people here use assistive technologies?
  • 6. Anyone? Vintage eyeglasses ad that says, “Eyeglasses! Mail, as low as $1.99…”
  • 7. Poll: If you use a screen reader, like JAWS or NVDA, to test for accessibility, will that tell you if your digital project is accessible to all users?
  • 8. There’s no silver bullet… “No tool exists that you can run against your web site (or web page for that matter) in order to assert that it is accessible and/or complies with the Section 508 provisions or the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines [WCAG], however much you are willing to pay … (continued)
  • 9. And furthermore… “When a web site claims Section 508 Conformance or WCAG Conformance from some tool or other (and many do it), the most it can mean is that the site (or page) passed all of the automatic Section 508 or WCAG tests.” – Jim Thatcher, Web Accessibility Testing
  • 10. “Oh, one of us tested it with a screen reader…” But what have you done to ensure your project is accessible?
  • 12. Assistive technologies are not the starting point for ensuring accessibility.
  • 13. Mission: Good UX Photographof the cast of “MissionImpossible”;says(inSpanish),“”eterGraves,MartinLandau,MisionImposible ContraEl Hampa”
  • 14. Example: What do drivers need when they're on the road?
  • 15. Craft a wonderful, engaging, accessible user experience: Design for accessibility. Include people with disabilities in user research. Write content in plain language. Use good development practices. Choose accessible platforms, frameworks, and technologies. Consider accessibility at the beginning of your project.
  • 16. You'll do this by considering the conditions and needs of your current and prospective audience…and thinking of how will this inform each team member’s work.
  • 17. Ona, age 65 “Everyone says technology is easy to use, but I find it frustrating.” About her: • Retired baker • Not very tech savvy • Uses e-mail and Skype to talk with her grandkids • New Facebook user • Her daughter, Amelia (a web developer), set up her browser. Accessibility consideration: Tunnel vision (loss of peripheral vision) due to glaucoma Technology use: Galaxy S5 AsusVivoBook Accommodations or assistive technologies used: Using Stylish, a Firefox and Chrome add-on, Amelia created custom style sheets to override font sizes that are too large on websites (also see UserStyles.org). Needs for a good experience: • Very small text (while neither intentional nor a best practice, some sites almost meet her needs because they use small text) • Ability to resize text based on her personal style sheets, or through her browser or devices
  • 18. How to test for Ona’s considerations Tools and/or how to test: • Ensure text is set in percentages (preferable) or ems. • Use ems for container divs; set up some custom styles and see if they work with your project; if they don't, you'll need to adjust your code to fix the conflicts. • Turn off styles and see if the content makes sense—make sure there's no hidden content, that becomes visible with styles overriden or disabled, and doesn't make sense when it's visible. Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques: • Distinguishable Content: Guideline 1.4 • Resize text: Success Criterion 1.4.4 • Contrast (Enhanced): Success Criterion 1.4.6 • Visual Presentation: Success Criterion 1.4.8 • Images ofText: Success Criterion 1.4.9
  • 19. Myrna, age 51 “Can you hook me up to an internet IV?” About her: • Teacher • Mega sports fan and avid video gamer • Computer savvy: ran her middle school's computer lab • Enjoys watching sports videos on her laptop or on her phone Accessibility consideration: She’s had photosensitive epilepsy since age 5. Flashing content can trigger seizures (see London 2012 Olympics Site Withdraws Film). She has aging eyes, and needs larger fonts. Technology use: Acer Chromebook 13; Dell Inspiron 11; iPhone 5S Accommodations or assistive technologies used: • None Needs for a good experience: • She can't use content that causes the screen to flash more than three times within one second. • This includes videos, animations, and Escher-style graphics that are optical illusions or have strobe-like effects. • She must be able to resize text.
  • 20. How to test for Myrna’s considerations Tools and/or how to test: • UseTrace Center's PEAT (Photosensitive Epilepsy AnalysisTool). • This is one area that is a bit beyond “access”—most people with epilepsy will be able to access your content, and they won't necessarily know if your content can induce a seizure; flashing content is potentially dangerous.This does not test static graphics that can be dangerous. • If you must post content that could cause a seizure, post it with a warning and do not auto-play it or show it automatically. • See OK.gov's information about graphics that can cause seizures and WebAIM's guidance on seizures and neurological conditions. • Ensure font sizes are in percentages (preferable) or ems so users can zoom in browsers. Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques: • Seizures: Guideline 2.3 • ResizeText: Success Criterion 1.4.4 • Contrast (Minimum): Success Criterion 1.4.3
  • 21. Glen, age 25 “I’ve got to take a pic of that … and tweet it, Instagram it, and …” About him: • Thinks texting is an art • Blogs about food • Takes lots of pictures • PowerYelp user • Impulsive and will go almost anywhere on the spur of the moment Accessibility consideration: Has deuteranopia (color blind with green deficiencies) Technology use: iPhone 6 Plus phone; HP Slate 10Tablet Accommodations or assistive technologies used: • The HueVue app helps Glen to identify colors when he needs them. It's not always convenient to use. Needs for a good experience: • Content that doesn't rely on color to provide meaning or content • Buttons and controls that have clearly indicated states (active or inactive) • Uses maps a lot and finds them difficult to understand when they're color coded without further explanation of color meanings
  • 22. How to test for Glen’s considerations Tools and/or how to test: • Wickline Colorfilter • Vischeck (the online page testing function is down, but you can run images or download it) Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques: • Contrast (Enhanced): Success Criterion 1.4.6
  • 23. Betty, age 16 “I love looking at vintage maps and stamps.” About her: • Average kid, loves games, hates homework • Was in an accident at age 7; injuries resulted in brain damage • Wants to be a veterinarian • Collects maps and stamps Accessibility consideration: Has a mild cognitive (intellectual) disability; short- term memory loss Technology use: Galaxy Note 4 phone (Android), MacBook Pro Accommodations or assistive technologies used: • Occasionally uses a screen reader, particularly when she's researching online for homework assignments or when she has a hard time understanding things (narration is easier to understand than reading) Needs for a good experience: • Simple, clear layout; consistent navigation • Headings and bullets • Content written in plain language without slang, irony, and sentence fragments • Inline definitions for abbreviations, acronyms, and jargon • Iconography, drawings, animations • Captions and transcripts for videos
  • 24. How to test for Betty’s considerations Tools and/or how to test: • Check the fonts you’ve used to ensure that lower and uppercase letters (especially “i” and “L”) are clearly distinguishable from other letters. • Test your content with users. • Do a hallway test: Set up in a coffee shop close to a high school and ask people what your content means; ask them to complete a task (or how they'd complete a task) based on instructions you provide. • Review the wireframes and initial design against WebAIM's Accessibility for Designers reference. Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques: • Adaptable: Guideline 1.3 • Visual Presentation: Success Criterion 1.4.8 • Reading Level: Success Criterion 3.1.5
  • 25. George, age 37 “I need to find a job—fast!” About him: • Unemployed—was a general contractor and house flipper in Florida; was hit hard in the housing market crash • Lives with his parents until his situation improves • Works odd jobs to pay back his outstanding loans Accessibility consideration: Uses outdated technology because he can't afford to replace his devices Technology use: iPhone 3GS; Dell Latitude D630. He gets frustrated using both devices because content loads slowly (content weight is heavy). Accommodations or assistive technologies used: • None Needs for a good experience: • High contrast since his phone doesn't adjust for lighting conditions • Well-formed code that isn't bloated or too heavy from multiple processes, that will load as quickly as possible
  • 26. How to test for George’s considerations Tools and/or how to test: • Check contrast of all foreground and background color combinations: In this mobile first age, make sure color contrast is at least 7:1; if mobile is a priority, make it happen; it's not difficult. • Use Paciello Group's Color Contrast Analyser orWebAIM's Color Contrast Checker. Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques: • Distinguishable: Guideline 1.4 • Contrast (Enhanced): Success Criterion 1.4.6 • Parsing: Success Criterion 4.1.1
  • 27. What didn't I mention? • People who are blind • People who are deaf or hard-of-hearing • People who have autism or Asperger Syndrome, or who are on the autism spectrum • People who have cerebral palsy • People who have chronic pain • People who have low- language proficiency • People who have migraines • People who have dyslexia • People who are DeafBlind • What about multiple disabilities? • More mobile situations • So much more …
  • 28. Now: How will you and each of your team members apply these concepts to your work?
  • 29. Have you done user research with people with disabilities?
  • 30. Only you can prevent barriers to content. Photograph of “Smokey Bear” character holding a sign that says, “Remember – Only you can prevent forest fires!”
  • 31. We are problem solvers + + + = hard work! design development content project management
  • 32. What's your role? Use the Accessibility ResponsibilityTool to break down theWCAG 2.0 guidelines by team roles and responsibilities (see the resources section).
  • 33. Wrap-up/recap • Provide a good user experience—that’s when everyone can access our information. • Use the six points for creating an accessible, engaging user experience. • Prevent any barriers to access—it’s in your hands. • Accessibility isn't a feature. • Don't get into a rut with Agile—minimum viable product must work for your entire audience. • People are watching digital media hard and they’re fed up with inaccessibility! • User research is the key to good experiences—know your audience’s needs and involve them in your testing.
  • 34. Remember … “For people without disabilities, technology makes things easier. For people with disabilities, technology makes things possible.” – IBM training manual, 1991
  • 36. Jason Becker, age 45 (real life example) What would he do without accessible technology? About him: • Jason Becker is a highly respected guitarist who played with David Lee Roth’s band when he was diagnosed with ALS. • He still writes music and has released several albums after he lost the use of his hands and arms. Accessibility consideration: He's paralyzed, except for his eyes, facial muscles, and lips. He uses a custom eye chart to communicate, and he only uses his head and eyes to control his computer system. Technology use: Speculatively, a MacBook Accommodations or assistive technologies used: • Custom eye chart • Eye tracking software • Writes music using his head and eyes Needs for a good experience: • Support for non-mouse/alternate keyboard devices • Well-designed pages, without many links • While using his eyes as a keyboard, he can tire easily from exertion before he gets to any info he needs and the task he needs to complete.
  • 37. How to test for Jason’s considerations Tools and/or how to test: • Ensure keyboard/device independence—unplug your mouse and test with a keyboard! • SeeW3C's keyboard navigation schemes for widgets. • Keep abreast ofW3C's Indie UI Events spec to see what effect it will have eventually. • Use device independent event handlers in scripts. Applicable WCAG 2.0 standards and verification techniques: • Keyboard Accessible: Guideline 2.1
  • 39. WCAG 2.0 and general *a11y • Constructing a POURWebsite,WebAIM • BBC’s Future Media Standards and Guidelines • A11y Buzz • Accessibility ResponsibilityTool, WETToolkit * accessibility
  • 40. Mobile • MobileAccessibilityGuidelines, BBC • MobileAccessibilityTests, Henny Swan • iOS Accessibility – A Useful Guide ForTesting, Rosie Sherry • Setting Up iOS and Android for AccessibilityTesting, KathyWahlbin • Why MobileAccessibility Matters: Best Practices to MakeYour Mobile SiteAccessible, mobiForge
  • 41. Project management • Integrating Accessibility in the Organization’sWeb Development Life Cycle, Denis Boudreau • Accessibility for Project Managers, Henny Swan • Managing AccessibilityCompliance in the Enterprise, Karl Groves • Plan for Accessibility, Option Keys • PlanningAccessibility,Government of Canada • Just Ask: Integrating AccessibilityThroughout Design, Shawn Lawton Henry
  • 42. Design • Web Accessibility for Designers,WebAIM • Just Ask: Integrating AccessibilityThroughout Design, Shawn Lawton Henry • Design Considerations,WebAIM • Color Contrast Checker,WebAIM • AccessibilityColor Wheel • Trace Photosensitive Epilepsy AnalysisTool (PEAT)
  • 43. Development resources 1 • Web Accessibility for Developers (videos), BBC • Build a code library or find one on Github! • Use code generators (seeAccessify’s tools). • Web DeveloperToolbar, Chris Pederick • Firebug, Mozilla • WCAG 2.0 Checklist,WebAIM • Web AccessibilityGoneWild,WebAIM
  • 44. Development resources 2 • W3C MobileWeb Best Practices • Juicy Studio AccessibilityToolbar —for ARIA, data tables, color contrast • aChecker, Inclusive Design Institute at OCAD University • WAVEToolbar,WebAIM • Favelets for CheckingWeb Accessibility, JimThatcher
  • 45. Writing content • Accessibility forWebWriters, by 4 Syllables • Content and Usability:WebWriting,Web Credible • Make it Plain:Accessibility and UsabilityThrough Plain Language,Angela Hooker (hey!) • Plain Language:Accessibility for Information,Whitney Quesenbery • Plain LanguageChecklist, PlainLanguage.gov
  • 46. Quality assurance 1 • Template forAccessibility Evaluation Reports,W3C-WAI • Accessibility Evaluation Resources,W3C-Web Accessibility Initiative • Evaluation,Testing, andTools, WebAIM • WCAG 2.0 Checklist,WebAIM • Wickline Color BlindWeb Page Filter • Web DeveloperToolbar, Chris Pederick
  • 47. Quality assurance 2 • Firebug, Mozilla • Favelets for CheckingWeb Accessibility, JimThatcher • Trace Photosensitive Epilepsy AnalysisTool (PEAT) – tests flashing content • WAVE,WebAIM • Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI), EvaluatingWebsites for Accessibility
  • 48. Quality assurance 3 • Central Office of Information (COI), Delivering Inclusive Websites • Establishing a Screen ReaderTest Plan, Henny Swan • How to Use NVDA and Firefox toTest for Accessibility, Marco Zehe • Web AccessibilityGoneWild,WebAIM
  • 49. Usability • UsabilityTesting and Conducting UsabilityTesting, Just Ask: Integrating AccessibilityThroughout Design, Shawn Lawton-Henry • UsabilityTesting for People with Disabilities, Kathy Wahlbin and Mary Hunter Utt • Steve Krug, Rocket Surgery Made Easy
  • 50. Thanks, guys and dolls! Angela M. Hooker @AccessForAll SlideShare LinkedIn ange@angelahooker.com
  • 51. Photo credits 1 • “Youth Culture – Mods and Rockers…” PaulTownsend https://www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/5130733677/ • Veterans of the FSM https://www.flickr.com/photos/quinnanya/15230011727 • “1964 Ad,Advance Spectacle Co.,” Classic Film https://www.flickr.com/photos/29069717@N02/14208321625/ • “Silver bullet,” Ed Schipul https://www.flickr.com/photos/eschipul/4160817135 • “DECVT05Terminal,” Matthew Ratzloff https://www.flickr.com/photos/mratzloff/9171586772/ • “Starry Night into the Light,” Bo Insogna,TheLightningMan.com https://www.flickr.com/photos/thelightningman/12056816983 • “JHS Cheerleaders…” Beth Scupham https://www.flickr.com/photos/bethscupham/5919260366/
  • 52. Photo credits 2 • Don Sniegowski,They're Off https://www.flickr.com/photos/sniegowski/8671556299 • "Mission: Impossible…“ MidCentArc https://www.flickr.com/photos/midcentarc/8189306568/ • ZombiesAhead, BC Ministry ofTransportation and Infrastructure https://www.flickr.com/photos/tranbc/10578481755 • “Street Painter,” Pedro Ribeiro Simoes https://www.flickr.com/photos/pedrosimoes7/190673196/ • Daftastic Data atWoodstock, Suzi Duke https://www.flickr.com/photos/suzijan • “TV ShowsWe Used toWatch,” PaulTownsend https://www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4933754453/
  • 53. Photo credits 3 • “Engineering Department Employees, 1962,” Seattle Municipal Archives https://www.flickr.com/photos/seattlemunicipalarchives/4818952324 • “Smokey Bear” http://cbldf.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/gov- comics024-1024x928.jpg • “Family Heirloom,” Ken https://www.flickr.com/photos/skistz/398429879 • “Duluoz Cats,” Groovy https://www.flickr.com/photos/duluoz_cats/249672451/ • “Huh…?!?” Cheryl https://www.flickr.com/photos/eraphernalia_vintage/2691558545 • “Martin Luther King, Jr. I Have a Dream Speech,” David Erickson https://www.flickr.com/photos/e-strategycom/1054179588/
  • 54. Photo credits 4 • Register toVote, Kheel Center https://www.flickr.com/photos/kheelcenter/5278846477 • "New Shoes," Suedehead https://www.flickr.com/photos/suedehead/6306822304 • "Royal PortableTypewriter,"Alexkerhead https://www.flickr.com/photos/alexkerhead/3495304775 • “American Adulthood,” A. Davey https://www.flickr.com/photos/adavey/15215010126/ • "BrotherTed andT'Chaka..."Virgo200745 https://www.flickr.com/photos/brodeuse/2242880390 • "1964 Human Interest Piece …" Classic Film https://www.flickr.com/photos/29069717@N02/16762991150/ • Happy NewYear 2015! http://itsmyfun.net/happy-new-year-2015/
  • 55. Photo credits 5 • “SteveWatson,” Graham Lees https://www.flickr.com/photos/tram_painter/4181430550/ • "ConstructionWorker 3,” Johnny Mitchell https://www.flickr.com/photos/johnny_mitchell/15961202/ • "Meaghan," Hillary Boles https://www.flickr.com/photos/hillaryraindeer/6209841403 • "The Mummy,"Tom https://www.flickr.com/photos/tom1231/5069205181 • "Louis Stulberg looks on as Hubert H. Humphrey gives a speech during his November 15, 1968 presidential campaign," Kheel Center https://www.flickr.com/photos/kheelcenter/5278459275 • “1960s ComputerTerminal,” John Drake https://www.flickr.com/photos/johndrake45/8999339647/

Editor's Notes

  1. Look at your team! Aren’t they spiffy?
  2. Surprise! It's 2015, and we're still struggling to make our web and digital media projects accessible—despite our laws and requirements, and organizations receiving negative press and lawsuits stemming from inaccessibility. Why? Let’s go back in time—to the ‘60s, and in black and white—for a bit of help…
  3. Does anyone here wear glasses? Yes, they’re an assistive device! Why am I asking you about assistive technologies? Empathy for your users; relate to them; see yourself in their shoes
  4. When I ask people if they've considered accessibility, usually the first thing they say is, "Oh, we tested it with a screen reader!" I ask what else they've done to ensure their project is accessible, and I all I hear is <crickets>.
  5. As a person who is visually impaired and an occasional screen reader user, I want to scream some days because people think that testing with a single tool ensures accessibility for all people who have disabilities. Our needs are different.
  6. Sometimes people are shocked when they hear that assistive technologies aren't the starting point for ensuring accessibility, or sometimes people don't understand how to make digital media accessible in other situations when people don't use assistive technologies.
  7. Good UX is the goal: Your goal is to give a good experience to all your users—that includes people with disabilities. Get into the habit of thinking of accessibility as part of the UX process. Sometimes accessibility principles will address situations where different abilities aren't the issue.
  8. Think about it like this—what do drivers need on the road? Signs with text large enough to be read quickly and without straining Good contrast (green/white; yellow/black; white/black; etc.) Lights that direct our path Rules that govern driving, for a safe experience A place to pull over during emergencies Help for when you run into problems (call box)
  9. Six major points to craft an accessible user experience. So, you see that it's not only people who serve in a UX role that are responsible for crafting a good user experience.
  10. Sometimes we get into a rut and put accessibility in a box when we think about how to solve accessibility problems. Let's look at who your audience members could be and what they need to have an accessible experience—persona style. We’re anticipating their needs. These personas cover user needs, accessibility considerations, how to test, and WCAG 2.0 requirements (main points—not necessarily all requirements).
  11. So, as you can see, we really can't lump people into one box when it comes to understanding disabilities, how people cope with them, and the assistive technologies and adaptive tools they may use.
  12. For example: If you know your audience includes people who have low-language proficiency, how will you write your content? If your audience has people who use a head wand to navigate, how will you design the layout with them in mind? What about information architecture for people who have cognitive impairments? Etc.
  13. You should test with assistive technologies (AT); however, unless you’re very experienced at it, you’re probably not using AT the way your users do. You won't know if your users will encounter a bug. You can file a bug with the AT maker. Have a solution for the problematic component ahead of time, so you won't have to scramble at the last minute to help your users. Always be prepared. Know that you should have users test before you launch; if you're new to accessibility, testing with AT isn't necessarily easy. You probably won't use AT the way real users do. Though there are resources out there that will lessen the learning curve, it's not quite the same. Build in slots in your usability testing phase for people with disabilities and know that people with different abilities may use AT differently than you think.
  14. If users encounter barriers that prevent them from accessing our content, then we've created them by not considering our users needs.
  15. You can't say, "This is an excellent design!" if it doesn't work for all or most of your users. In that case, it's just unfinished work, and you're introducing barriers, which is always unnecessary. Developers: "It works!" No, it doesn't, because there's a group of people who can't use it. If you’re an agile shop, I don’t want to hear that accessibility is a feature that can be added later; your minimum viable product isn’t viable if your users can’t use it. Build accessibility into your user stories.
  16. I believe in role-based accessibility—it helps us incorporate accessibility in our work so we’re not left at the end of a project wondering how we’re going to make it accessible.
  17. Also remember, if you plan to get older, you’re probably going to need accessibility one day.