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kongunadu college of Engg & Tech
Prepared By
Tamilnesan P
KNCET
Characteristics of
Instruments
 There are Two types of
characteristics of instruments:-
 1.Static characteristics of
instruments
 2.Dynamic Characteristics of
instruments.
KNCET
1.Static Characteristics
 The static characteristics
instrument are required
of an
to be
considered for the instruments which
measure unvarying process
conditions.
 The static characteristics are defined
for the instruments which measure
quantities which do not vary with
time.
KNCET
are :-
1. Accuracy
2. Sensitivity
3. Reproducibility
4. Drift
5. Static error
6. Dead zone
7. Precision
8. Threshold
9. Linearity
10. Stability
11. Range or Span
12. Bais
13. Tolerance
14. Hysteresis
The main static characteristics
KNCET
1. Accuracy
It is the degree of closeness with which an
instrument reading approaches the true value of
the quantity being measured.
The accuracy of a measurement indicates the
nearness to the actual/true value of the quantity.
KNCET
2.Sensitivity
 Sensitivity is the ratio of change in output of
an instrument to the change in input.
 The manufactures specify sensitivity as the
ratio of magnitude of the measured quantity
to the magnitude of the response.This ratio is
called as Inverse sensitivity or deflection
factor.
KNCET
KNCET
Sensitivity Meter:-
KNCET
3.Reproducibility
Reproducibility is defined as the degree of
closeness by which a given value can be
repeatedly measured.
The reproducibility is specified for a period of
time.
Perfect reproducibility signifies that the given
readings that are taken for an input, do not vary
with time..
KNCET
KNCET
4.Drift
The drift is defined as the gradual shift in the
indication over a period of time where in the
input variable does not change.
Drift may be caused because of environment
factors like stray electric fields, stray magnetic
fields, thermal e.m.fs, changes in temperature,
mechanical vibrations etc.
 Drift is classified into three categories:
1. Zero drift
2. Span drift or sensitivity drift
3. Zonal drift KNCET
5. Static error
It is the deviation from the true value of the
measured variable.
It involves the comparison of an unknown
quantity with an accepted standard quantity.
The degree to which an instrument approaches
to its excepted value is expressed terms of error
of measurement.
KNCET
6.Dead zone
It is the largest changes of input quantity for
which there is no output.
For e.g. the input that is applied to an
instrument may not be sufficient to overcome
friction. It will only respond when it overcomes
the friction forces.
KNCET
7.Precision
It is a measure of the reproducibility of the
measurement that is given a fixed value of
variable.
Precision is a measure of the degree to which
successive measurements differ from each
other.
For example consider an instrument on which
readings can be taken upto 1∕100th of unit.
The instrument has zero adjustment error. So,
when we take a readings, the instrument is
highly precise. However as the instrument has
a zero adjustment error the readings obtained
are precise, but they are not accurate.
Thus, when a set of readings show precision,
the results agree among themselves. However, it
is not essential that the results are accurate.KNCET
Precision Measuring instruments
KNCET
8.Threshsold
Threshold is the smallest measurable input,
below which no output change can be identified.
While specifying threshold, manufactures give
the first detectable output change.
KNCET
9.Linearity
Linearity is defined as the ability of an
instrument to reproduce its input linearly.
Linearity is simply a measure of the maximum
deviation of the calibration points from the ideal
straight line.
Linearity is defined as,
linearity=Maximum deviation of o/p from
idealized straight line ∕ Actual readings
KNCET
10.Stability
The ability of an instrument to retain its
performance throughout its specified storage life
and operating life is called as Stability.
Stability measurement instruments:-
KNCET
11.Range or Span
The minimum and maximum values of a
quantity for which an instrument is designed to
measure is called its range or span. Sometimes
the accuracy is specified interms of range or
span of an instrument.
KNCET
12.Bais
The constant error which exists over the full
range of measurement of an instrument is called
bias. Such a bais can be completely eliminated
by calibration. The zero error is an example of
bais which can be removed by calibration.
KNCET
13.Tolerance
It is the maximum allowable
specified in terms of certain
error that is
value while
measurement, it is called as tolerance.
It specifies the maximum allowable deviation of
a manufactured device from a mentioned value.
KNCET
14.Hysteresis
Hysteresis is a phenomenon which depicts
different output effects while loading and
unloading.
Hysteresis takes place due to the fact that all
the energy put into the stressed parts when
loading is not recoverable while unloading.
When the input of an instrument is varied from
zero to its full scale and then if the input is
decreased from its full scale value to zero, the
output varies. The output at the particular input
while increasing and decreasing varies because
of internal friction or hysteric damping.
KNCET
KNCET
2.Dynamic Characteristics
Instruments rarely respond to the
instantaneous changes in the measured
variables.Their response is slow or sluggish due
to mass, thermal capacitance, electrical
capacitance, inductance etc. sometimes, even
the instrument has to wait for some time till, the
response occurs.
These type of instruments are normally used
for the measurement of quantities that fluctuate
with time.
The behaviour of such a system, where as the
input varies from instant to instant, the output
also varies from instant to instant is called as
dynamic response of the system.
Hence, the dynamic behaviour of the system is
also important as the static behaviour.
KNCET
The dynamic inputs are of two types:
1. Transient
2. Steady state periodic.
 Transient response is defined as that part of
the response which goes to zero as the time
becomes large.
 The steady state response is the response
that has a definite periodic cycle.
KNCET
The variations in the input, that are used
practically to achieve dynamic behaviour are:
I. Step input:-The input is subjected to a finite
and instantaneous change. E.g.: closing of
switch.
II. Ramp input:- The input linearly changes with
respect to time.
III. Parabolic
square of
input:- The input varies to the
time. This represents constant
input:- The input
acceleration.
IV. Sinusoidal
accordance with a sinusoidal
changes in
function of
constant amplitude.
KNCET
The dynamic characteristics of a measurement
system are:
1) Speed of response
2) Fidelity
3) Lag
4) Dynamic error
KNCET
1) Speed of Response
instrument, responds to the changes in
It is defined as the rapidity with which an
the
measured quantity.
It shows how active and fast the system is.
Speed measuring instruments:-
KNCET
2) Fidelity
It is defined as the degree to which a
measurement system is capable of faithfully
reproducing the changes in input, without any
dynamic error.
KNCET
3)Lag
Every system requires its own time to respond to
the changes in input. This time is called as lag.
It is defined as the retardation or delay, in the
response of a system to the changes in the input.
The lags are of two types:
1. Retardation lag:
As soon as there is a changes in the
measured quantity, the measurement system
begins to respond.
2. Time delay:
The response of the measurement system
starts after a dead time, once the input is
applied.They cause dynamic error.
KNCET
4)Dynamic error
It is the difference between the true value of
the quantity that is to be measured, changing
with time and the measured value, if no static
error is assumed.
KNCET

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Unit 1 static and dynamic

  • 1. kongunadu college of Engg & Tech Prepared By Tamilnesan P KNCET
  • 2. Characteristics of Instruments  There are Two types of characteristics of instruments:-  1.Static characteristics of instruments  2.Dynamic Characteristics of instruments. KNCET
  • 3. 1.Static Characteristics  The static characteristics instrument are required of an to be considered for the instruments which measure unvarying process conditions.  The static characteristics are defined for the instruments which measure quantities which do not vary with time. KNCET
  • 4. are :- 1. Accuracy 2. Sensitivity 3. Reproducibility 4. Drift 5. Static error 6. Dead zone 7. Precision 8. Threshold 9. Linearity 10. Stability 11. Range or Span 12. Bais 13. Tolerance 14. Hysteresis The main static characteristics KNCET
  • 5. 1. Accuracy It is the degree of closeness with which an instrument reading approaches the true value of the quantity being measured. The accuracy of a measurement indicates the nearness to the actual/true value of the quantity. KNCET
  • 6. 2.Sensitivity  Sensitivity is the ratio of change in output of an instrument to the change in input.  The manufactures specify sensitivity as the ratio of magnitude of the measured quantity to the magnitude of the response.This ratio is called as Inverse sensitivity or deflection factor. KNCET
  • 9. 3.Reproducibility Reproducibility is defined as the degree of closeness by which a given value can be repeatedly measured. The reproducibility is specified for a period of time. Perfect reproducibility signifies that the given readings that are taken for an input, do not vary with time.. KNCET
  • 10. KNCET
  • 11. 4.Drift The drift is defined as the gradual shift in the indication over a period of time where in the input variable does not change. Drift may be caused because of environment factors like stray electric fields, stray magnetic fields, thermal e.m.fs, changes in temperature, mechanical vibrations etc.  Drift is classified into three categories: 1. Zero drift 2. Span drift or sensitivity drift 3. Zonal drift KNCET
  • 12. 5. Static error It is the deviation from the true value of the measured variable. It involves the comparison of an unknown quantity with an accepted standard quantity. The degree to which an instrument approaches to its excepted value is expressed terms of error of measurement. KNCET
  • 13. 6.Dead zone It is the largest changes of input quantity for which there is no output. For e.g. the input that is applied to an instrument may not be sufficient to overcome friction. It will only respond when it overcomes the friction forces. KNCET
  • 14. 7.Precision It is a measure of the reproducibility of the measurement that is given a fixed value of variable. Precision is a measure of the degree to which successive measurements differ from each other. For example consider an instrument on which readings can be taken upto 1∕100th of unit. The instrument has zero adjustment error. So, when we take a readings, the instrument is highly precise. However as the instrument has a zero adjustment error the readings obtained are precise, but they are not accurate. Thus, when a set of readings show precision, the results agree among themselves. However, it is not essential that the results are accurate.KNCET
  • 16. 8.Threshsold Threshold is the smallest measurable input, below which no output change can be identified. While specifying threshold, manufactures give the first detectable output change. KNCET
  • 17. 9.Linearity Linearity is defined as the ability of an instrument to reproduce its input linearly. Linearity is simply a measure of the maximum deviation of the calibration points from the ideal straight line. Linearity is defined as, linearity=Maximum deviation of o/p from idealized straight line ∕ Actual readings KNCET
  • 18. 10.Stability The ability of an instrument to retain its performance throughout its specified storage life and operating life is called as Stability. Stability measurement instruments:- KNCET
  • 19. 11.Range or Span The minimum and maximum values of a quantity for which an instrument is designed to measure is called its range or span. Sometimes the accuracy is specified interms of range or span of an instrument. KNCET
  • 20. 12.Bais The constant error which exists over the full range of measurement of an instrument is called bias. Such a bais can be completely eliminated by calibration. The zero error is an example of bais which can be removed by calibration. KNCET
  • 21. 13.Tolerance It is the maximum allowable specified in terms of certain error that is value while measurement, it is called as tolerance. It specifies the maximum allowable deviation of a manufactured device from a mentioned value. KNCET
  • 22. 14.Hysteresis Hysteresis is a phenomenon which depicts different output effects while loading and unloading. Hysteresis takes place due to the fact that all the energy put into the stressed parts when loading is not recoverable while unloading. When the input of an instrument is varied from zero to its full scale and then if the input is decreased from its full scale value to zero, the output varies. The output at the particular input while increasing and decreasing varies because of internal friction or hysteric damping. KNCET
  • 23. KNCET
  • 24. 2.Dynamic Characteristics Instruments rarely respond to the instantaneous changes in the measured variables.Their response is slow or sluggish due to mass, thermal capacitance, electrical capacitance, inductance etc. sometimes, even the instrument has to wait for some time till, the response occurs. These type of instruments are normally used for the measurement of quantities that fluctuate with time. The behaviour of such a system, where as the input varies from instant to instant, the output also varies from instant to instant is called as dynamic response of the system. Hence, the dynamic behaviour of the system is also important as the static behaviour. KNCET
  • 25. The dynamic inputs are of two types: 1. Transient 2. Steady state periodic.  Transient response is defined as that part of the response which goes to zero as the time becomes large.  The steady state response is the response that has a definite periodic cycle. KNCET
  • 26. The variations in the input, that are used practically to achieve dynamic behaviour are: I. Step input:-The input is subjected to a finite and instantaneous change. E.g.: closing of switch. II. Ramp input:- The input linearly changes with respect to time. III. Parabolic square of input:- The input varies to the time. This represents constant input:- The input acceleration. IV. Sinusoidal accordance with a sinusoidal changes in function of constant amplitude. KNCET
  • 27. The dynamic characteristics of a measurement system are: 1) Speed of response 2) Fidelity 3) Lag 4) Dynamic error KNCET
  • 28. 1) Speed of Response instrument, responds to the changes in It is defined as the rapidity with which an the measured quantity. It shows how active and fast the system is. Speed measuring instruments:- KNCET
  • 29. 2) Fidelity It is defined as the degree to which a measurement system is capable of faithfully reproducing the changes in input, without any dynamic error. KNCET
  • 30. 3)Lag Every system requires its own time to respond to the changes in input. This time is called as lag. It is defined as the retardation or delay, in the response of a system to the changes in the input. The lags are of two types: 1. Retardation lag: As soon as there is a changes in the measured quantity, the measurement system begins to respond. 2. Time delay: The response of the measurement system starts after a dead time, once the input is applied.They cause dynamic error. KNCET
  • 31. 4)Dynamic error It is the difference between the true value of the quantity that is to be measured, changing with time and the measured value, if no static error is assumed. KNCET