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Topic: Types of Layout
Prepared By
Vishesh
What is Layout ?
● Layout planning is deciding on the best physical
arrangement of all resources that consume space
within a facility.
● Decisions about the arrangement of resources in a
business are not made only when a new facility is
being designed; they are made any time there is a
change in the arrangement of resources, such as a
new worker being added, a machine being moved,
or a change in procedure being implemented.
● Layout planning is performed any time there is an
expansion in the facility or a space reduction.
Product, Quantity, Routing, Support Services and
Timing Data
From-to-Charts
Activity
Relationships
Relationship Diagram
Space Relationship
Diagram
Tentative Plans
Plan Evaluation
Plan Selection
Space
Requirements
Organizational
Policies/Practices
Technological
Limitations
Space
Availability
External Factors
Safety
Considerations
● Process layouts are layouts that group resources
based on similar processes or functions. This type of
layout is seen in companies with intermittent
processing systems.
● For example, machines performing drilling operations
are arranged in the drilling department, machines
performing casting operations be grouped in the
casting department. Therefore the machines are
installed in the plants, according to various processes
in the factory layout.
● The work has to be allocated to each department in
such a way that no machines are chosen to do as
many different job as possible i.e. the emphasis is on
general purpose machine.
● The work, which has to be done, is allocated to the
machines according to loading schedules with the
object of ensuring that each machine is fully loaded.
Process or Functional Layout
Advantages & Disadvantages of Process Layout
1. Lower initial capital investment is required.
2. There is high degree of machine utilization, as a
machine is not blocked for a single product.
3. The overhead costs are relatively low.
4. Breakdown of one machine does not disturb the
production process.
5. Supervision can be more effective and specialized.
6. Greater flexibility of resources.
1. Material handling costs are high due to
backtracking.
2. More skilled labour is required resulting in higher
cost.
3. Work in progress inventory is high needing greater
storage space.
4. More frequent inspection is needed which results
in costly supervision.
Thus, the process layout or functional layout is suitable for factories / businesses which have job order
production; that is involving non-repetitive processes and customer specifications and non-standardized
products, e.g. tailoring, light and heavy engineering products, made to order furniture industries, jewelry etc.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
CONCLUSION
Product Layout
Turning
Operations
Miling
Machines
Drilling
Machine
Assembly Inspection
package
Dispatch
In an industrial set up, sometime, the machines and equipments
are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of
operations required for the product. The raw materials and
semi-finished materials move from one workstation to another
sequentially without any backtracking or deviation.
Under Product Layout, machines are grouped in one
sequence. Therefore materials are fed into the first machine
and finished goods travel automatically from machine to
machine, the output of one machine becoming input of the next,
e.g. in a paper mill, bamboos are fed into the machine at one
end and paper comes out at the other end.
The raw material moves very fast from one workstation to other
stations with a minimum work in progress storage and material
handling. The grouping of machines is done on following
general principles.
1. All the machine tools or other items of equipments must be
placed at the point demanded by the sequence of operations
2. There should no points where one line crossed another line.
3. Materials may be fed where they are required for assembly
but not necessarily at one point.
4. All the operations including assembly, testing packing must
be included in the line
Advantages & Disadvantages of Product Layout
1. The flow of product will be smooth and logical
in flow lines.
2. In-process inventory is less.
3. Throughput time is less.
4. Minimum material handling cost.
5. Simplified production, planning and control
systems are possible.
6. Less space is occupied by work transit and
for temporary storage.
7. Reduced material handling cost due to
mechanised handling systems and straight
flow.
8. Perfect line balancing which eliminates
bottlenecks and idle capacity.
9. Manufacturing cycle is short due to
uninterrupted flow of materials.
10. Small amount of work-in-process inventory.
11. Unskilled workers can learn and manage the
production.
ADVANTAGES
1. A breakdown of one machine in a product line
may cause stoppages of machines in the
downstream of the line.
2. A change in product design may require major
alterations in the layout.
3. The line output is decided by the bottleneck
machine.
4. Comparatively high investment in equipments is
required.
5. Lack of flexibility. A change in product may
require the facility modification.
DISADVANTAGES
Combination Layout
● A combination of process and product layouts
combines the advantages of both types of layouts.
● A combination layout is possible where an item is
being made in different types and sizes.
● Here machinery is arranged in a process layout but
the process grouping is then arranged in a
sequence to manufacture various types and sizes
of products.
● It is to be noted that the sequence of operations
remains same with the variety of products and
sizes.
● This type of a layout is a combination of process
and product layout and hence combination
advantages of both types of layouts.
Combination layout for making different types
and sizes of gears
F - Forging hammer H - Hobbing Machine
HT - Heat Treatment Furnace GF - Gear Finishing Machine
Fixed Position Layout
This is also called the project type of layout.
In this type of layout, the material, or major
components remain in a fixed location and
tools, machinery, men and other materials are
brought to this location. This type of layout is
suitable when one or a few pieces of identical
heavy products are to be manufactured and
when the assembly consists of large number
of heavy parts, the cost of transportation of
these parts is very high.
1. Helps in job enlargement and upgrades the
skills of the operators.
2. The workers identify themselves with a
product in which they take interest and pride
in doing the job.
3. Greater flexibility with this type of layout.
4. Layout capital investment is lower.
Ship Building yard
Finished
Products (ship)
Material
Labour
Equipment
ADVANTAGES
Group Technology Layout
● Group technology (GT) is the analysis and comparisons of items to group them into families with
similar characteristics.
● GT can be used to develop a hybrid between pure process layout and pure flow line (product) layout.
● This technique is very useful for companies that produce variety of parts in small batches to enable
them to take advantage and economics of flow line layout.
● It is a combination of the product layout and process layout. It combines the advantages of both
layout systems. If there are M - machines and N - components, in a group layout
(Group-Technology Layout), the M - machines and N - components will be divided into number of
machine-component cells (group) such that all the components assigned to a cell are almost processed
within that cell itself. Here, the objective is to minimize the inter cell movements.
Receiving
L M
L G
D
M
L D
M
L G G
A A
Shipping
This type of layout may not be feasible for all
situations. If the product mix is completely dissimilar, then
we may not have meaningful cell formation.
Group Technology layout can increase the
1. Component standardization and
rationalization.
2. Reliability of estimates.
3. Effective machine operation and
productivity.
4. Customer service.
It can decrease the
1. Paperwork and overall production time.
2. Work-in-progress and work movement.
3. Overall cost.
Advantages & Disadvantages of Group Technology Layout
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
Types of Layout.pptx

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Types of Layout.pptx

  • 1. Topic: Types of Layout Prepared By Vishesh
  • 2. What is Layout ? ● Layout planning is deciding on the best physical arrangement of all resources that consume space within a facility. ● Decisions about the arrangement of resources in a business are not made only when a new facility is being designed; they are made any time there is a change in the arrangement of resources, such as a new worker being added, a machine being moved, or a change in procedure being implemented. ● Layout planning is performed any time there is an expansion in the facility or a space reduction. Product, Quantity, Routing, Support Services and Timing Data From-to-Charts Activity Relationships Relationship Diagram Space Relationship Diagram Tentative Plans Plan Evaluation Plan Selection Space Requirements Organizational Policies/Practices Technological Limitations Space Availability External Factors Safety Considerations
  • 3. ● Process layouts are layouts that group resources based on similar processes or functions. This type of layout is seen in companies with intermittent processing systems. ● For example, machines performing drilling operations are arranged in the drilling department, machines performing casting operations be grouped in the casting department. Therefore the machines are installed in the plants, according to various processes in the factory layout. ● The work has to be allocated to each department in such a way that no machines are chosen to do as many different job as possible i.e. the emphasis is on general purpose machine. ● The work, which has to be done, is allocated to the machines according to loading schedules with the object of ensuring that each machine is fully loaded. Process or Functional Layout
  • 4. Advantages & Disadvantages of Process Layout 1. Lower initial capital investment is required. 2. There is high degree of machine utilization, as a machine is not blocked for a single product. 3. The overhead costs are relatively low. 4. Breakdown of one machine does not disturb the production process. 5. Supervision can be more effective and specialized. 6. Greater flexibility of resources. 1. Material handling costs are high due to backtracking. 2. More skilled labour is required resulting in higher cost. 3. Work in progress inventory is high needing greater storage space. 4. More frequent inspection is needed which results in costly supervision. Thus, the process layout or functional layout is suitable for factories / businesses which have job order production; that is involving non-repetitive processes and customer specifications and non-standardized products, e.g. tailoring, light and heavy engineering products, made to order furniture industries, jewelry etc. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES CONCLUSION
  • 5. Product Layout Turning Operations Miling Machines Drilling Machine Assembly Inspection package Dispatch In an industrial set up, sometime, the machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the product. The raw materials and semi-finished materials move from one workstation to another sequentially without any backtracking or deviation. Under Product Layout, machines are grouped in one sequence. Therefore materials are fed into the first machine and finished goods travel automatically from machine to machine, the output of one machine becoming input of the next, e.g. in a paper mill, bamboos are fed into the machine at one end and paper comes out at the other end. The raw material moves very fast from one workstation to other stations with a minimum work in progress storage and material handling. The grouping of machines is done on following general principles. 1. All the machine tools or other items of equipments must be placed at the point demanded by the sequence of operations 2. There should no points where one line crossed another line. 3. Materials may be fed where they are required for assembly but not necessarily at one point. 4. All the operations including assembly, testing packing must be included in the line
  • 6. Advantages & Disadvantages of Product Layout 1. The flow of product will be smooth and logical in flow lines. 2. In-process inventory is less. 3. Throughput time is less. 4. Minimum material handling cost. 5. Simplified production, planning and control systems are possible. 6. Less space is occupied by work transit and for temporary storage. 7. Reduced material handling cost due to mechanised handling systems and straight flow. 8. Perfect line balancing which eliminates bottlenecks and idle capacity. 9. Manufacturing cycle is short due to uninterrupted flow of materials. 10. Small amount of work-in-process inventory. 11. Unskilled workers can learn and manage the production. ADVANTAGES 1. A breakdown of one machine in a product line may cause stoppages of machines in the downstream of the line. 2. A change in product design may require major alterations in the layout. 3. The line output is decided by the bottleneck machine. 4. Comparatively high investment in equipments is required. 5. Lack of flexibility. A change in product may require the facility modification. DISADVANTAGES
  • 7. Combination Layout ● A combination of process and product layouts combines the advantages of both types of layouts. ● A combination layout is possible where an item is being made in different types and sizes. ● Here machinery is arranged in a process layout but the process grouping is then arranged in a sequence to manufacture various types and sizes of products. ● It is to be noted that the sequence of operations remains same with the variety of products and sizes. ● This type of a layout is a combination of process and product layout and hence combination advantages of both types of layouts. Combination layout for making different types and sizes of gears F - Forging hammer H - Hobbing Machine HT - Heat Treatment Furnace GF - Gear Finishing Machine
  • 8. Fixed Position Layout This is also called the project type of layout. In this type of layout, the material, or major components remain in a fixed location and tools, machinery, men and other materials are brought to this location. This type of layout is suitable when one or a few pieces of identical heavy products are to be manufactured and when the assembly consists of large number of heavy parts, the cost of transportation of these parts is very high. 1. Helps in job enlargement and upgrades the skills of the operators. 2. The workers identify themselves with a product in which they take interest and pride in doing the job. 3. Greater flexibility with this type of layout. 4. Layout capital investment is lower. Ship Building yard Finished Products (ship) Material Labour Equipment ADVANTAGES
  • 9. Group Technology Layout ● Group technology (GT) is the analysis and comparisons of items to group them into families with similar characteristics. ● GT can be used to develop a hybrid between pure process layout and pure flow line (product) layout. ● This technique is very useful for companies that produce variety of parts in small batches to enable them to take advantage and economics of flow line layout. ● It is a combination of the product layout and process layout. It combines the advantages of both layout systems. If there are M - machines and N - components, in a group layout (Group-Technology Layout), the M - machines and N - components will be divided into number of machine-component cells (group) such that all the components assigned to a cell are almost processed within that cell itself. Here, the objective is to minimize the inter cell movements. Receiving L M L G D M L D M L G G A A Shipping
  • 10. This type of layout may not be feasible for all situations. If the product mix is completely dissimilar, then we may not have meaningful cell formation. Group Technology layout can increase the 1. Component standardization and rationalization. 2. Reliability of estimates. 3. Effective machine operation and productivity. 4. Customer service. It can decrease the 1. Paperwork and overall production time. 2. Work-in-progress and work movement. 3. Overall cost. Advantages & Disadvantages of Group Technology Layout ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES