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OBSTETRICS AND GYNEACOLOGY
NURSING
Ques no:-5
IMP
QUESTIONS
PRESENTED BY
PAREKH KISHAN
POST BASIC B.Sc. NURSING
Covered topics:-
- Introduction
- Phases
Q.5) Short notes of THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE / THE
REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE. ( MARKS: 3/5)
 Introduction
 Definition:-
A menstrual cycle (also termed a female reproductive
cycle) can be defined as periodic uterine bleeding in response to cyclic
hormonal changes or a series of changes that occur on the ovary, uterus,
and cervix in response to hormonal change.
---) The average age at which menarche (the first menstrual
period) occurs at the average age of 12 years.
---) This may occur as early as age 9 or as late as age 17
years.
• The purpose of a menstrual cycle is to bring an ovum to maturity and
renew a uterine tissue bed that will be responsive to its growth should
it be fertilized.
• The average age of onset of menstrual cycles is 21 to 35 days.
• The accepted average length is 28 days.
• The length of the average menstrual flow is 1-9 days and the average
length is 5 days.
• Amount of flow is from spotting to 80 ml on average.
• Four body structures that are involved in the normal physiology of the
menstrual cycle are:
- The hypothalamus - The pituitary gland
- The ovaries - The uterus.
MITTELSCHMERZ may range from a
few sharp cramps to several hours of discomfort. It is
typically felt on either side of the abdomen (near an
ovary) and may be accompanied by scant vaginal
spotting. It is known as Mittelschmerz.
Remember :- Mittelschmerz
 PHASES OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE :-
The four main phases of the menstrual cycle are:
- menstruation - the follicular phase
- ovulation - the luteal phase.
 Menstruation
• Menstruation is the elimination of the thickened lining of the uterus
(endometrium) from the body through the vagina. Menstrual fluid
contains blood, cells from the lining of the uterus (endometrial cells)
and mucus. The average length of a period is between three days and
one week.
• Sanitary pads or tampons are used to absorb the menstrual flow. Both
pads and tampons need to be changed regularly (at least every four
hours). Using tampons has been associated with an increased risk of a
rare illness called toxic shock syndrome (TSS).
Follicular phase
• The follicular phase starts on the first day of menstruation and
ends with ovulation. Prompted by the hypothalamus, the pituitary
gland releases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone
stimulates the ovary to produce around five to 20 follicles (tiny
nodules or cysts), which bead on the surface.
• Each follicle houses an immature egg. Usually, only one follicle
will mature into an egg, while the others die. This can occur
around day 10 of a 28-day cycle. The growth of the follicles
stimulates the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for
possible pregnancy.
Ovulation
• Ovulation is the release of a mature egg from the surface of the ovary.
This usually occurs mid-cycle, around two weeks or so before
menstruation starts.
• During the follicular phase, the developing follicle causes a rise in the
level of oestrogen. The hypothalamus in the brain recognises these
rising levels and releases a chemical called gonadotrophin-releasing
hormone (GnRH). This hormone prompts the pituitary gland to
produce raised levels of luteinising hormone (LH) and FSH.
• Within two days, ovulation is triggered by the high levels of LH. The
egg is funnelled into the fallopian tube and toward the uterus by waves
of small, hair-like projections. The life span of the typical egg is only
around 24 hours. Unless it meets a sperm during this time, it will die.
Luteal phase :-
• During ovulation, the egg bursts from its follicle, but the ruptured
follicle stays on the surface of the ovary. For the next two weeks or so,
the follicle transforms into a structure known as the corpus luteum.
This structure starts releasing progesterone, along with small amounts
of oestrogen. This combination of hormones maintains the thickened
lining of the uterus, waiting for a fertilised egg to stick (implant).
• If a fertilised egg implants in the lining of the uterus, it
produces the hormones that are necessary to maintain the
corpus luteum. This includes human chorionic gonadotrophin
(HCG), the hormone that is detected in a urine test for
pregnancy. The corpus luteum keeps producing the raised levels
of progesterone that are needed to maintain the thickened lining
of the uterus.
• If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum withers and
dies, usually around day 22 in a 28-day cycle. The drop in
progesterone levels causes the lining of the uterus to fall away.
This is known as menstruation. The cycle then repeats.
The menstrual cycle

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The menstrual cycle

  • 1. OBSTETRICS AND GYNEACOLOGY NURSING Ques no:-5 IMP QUESTIONS PRESENTED BY PAREKH KISHAN POST BASIC B.Sc. NURSING
  • 2. Covered topics:- - Introduction - Phases Q.5) Short notes of THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE / THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE. ( MARKS: 3/5)
  • 3.  Introduction  Definition:- A menstrual cycle (also termed a female reproductive cycle) can be defined as periodic uterine bleeding in response to cyclic hormonal changes or a series of changes that occur on the ovary, uterus, and cervix in response to hormonal change. ---) The average age at which menarche (the first menstrual period) occurs at the average age of 12 years. ---) This may occur as early as age 9 or as late as age 17 years.
  • 4. • The purpose of a menstrual cycle is to bring an ovum to maturity and renew a uterine tissue bed that will be responsive to its growth should it be fertilized. • The average age of onset of menstrual cycles is 21 to 35 days. • The accepted average length is 28 days. • The length of the average menstrual flow is 1-9 days and the average length is 5 days. • Amount of flow is from spotting to 80 ml on average. • Four body structures that are involved in the normal physiology of the menstrual cycle are: - The hypothalamus - The pituitary gland - The ovaries - The uterus.
  • 5. MITTELSCHMERZ may range from a few sharp cramps to several hours of discomfort. It is typically felt on either side of the abdomen (near an ovary) and may be accompanied by scant vaginal spotting. It is known as Mittelschmerz. Remember :- Mittelschmerz
  • 6.
  • 7.  PHASES OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE :- The four main phases of the menstrual cycle are: - menstruation - the follicular phase - ovulation - the luteal phase.  Menstruation • Menstruation is the elimination of the thickened lining of the uterus (endometrium) from the body through the vagina. Menstrual fluid contains blood, cells from the lining of the uterus (endometrial cells) and mucus. The average length of a period is between three days and one week. • Sanitary pads or tampons are used to absorb the menstrual flow. Both pads and tampons need to be changed regularly (at least every four hours). Using tampons has been associated with an increased risk of a rare illness called toxic shock syndrome (TSS).
  • 8. Follicular phase • The follicular phase starts on the first day of menstruation and ends with ovulation. Prompted by the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone stimulates the ovary to produce around five to 20 follicles (tiny nodules or cysts), which bead on the surface. • Each follicle houses an immature egg. Usually, only one follicle will mature into an egg, while the others die. This can occur around day 10 of a 28-day cycle. The growth of the follicles stimulates the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for possible pregnancy.
  • 9. Ovulation • Ovulation is the release of a mature egg from the surface of the ovary. This usually occurs mid-cycle, around two weeks or so before menstruation starts. • During the follicular phase, the developing follicle causes a rise in the level of oestrogen. The hypothalamus in the brain recognises these rising levels and releases a chemical called gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This hormone prompts the pituitary gland to produce raised levels of luteinising hormone (LH) and FSH. • Within two days, ovulation is triggered by the high levels of LH. The egg is funnelled into the fallopian tube and toward the uterus by waves of small, hair-like projections. The life span of the typical egg is only around 24 hours. Unless it meets a sperm during this time, it will die.
  • 10. Luteal phase :- • During ovulation, the egg bursts from its follicle, but the ruptured follicle stays on the surface of the ovary. For the next two weeks or so, the follicle transforms into a structure known as the corpus luteum. This structure starts releasing progesterone, along with small amounts of oestrogen. This combination of hormones maintains the thickened lining of the uterus, waiting for a fertilised egg to stick (implant).
  • 11. • If a fertilised egg implants in the lining of the uterus, it produces the hormones that are necessary to maintain the corpus luteum. This includes human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), the hormone that is detected in a urine test for pregnancy. The corpus luteum keeps producing the raised levels of progesterone that are needed to maintain the thickened lining of the uterus. • If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum withers and dies, usually around day 22 in a 28-day cycle. The drop in progesterone levels causes the lining of the uterus to fall away. This is known as menstruation. The cycle then repeats.