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Sub. :- Fundamental of
Nursing
Parekh Kishan
P.b.b.sc.
Topic :- Concept of Health
Concept of Health :-
•
Health :-
"State of complete physical , mental and social
well- being , not merely the absence of disease
infirmity."
- WHO (1947)
Rem.:- Infirmity - illness(Physically or mentally)
An understanding of health is the basis of all
the health care.
Changing concept of Health:-
•Despite the fact that number of messages,
slogans, and idioms are in vogue like
‘Health is Wealth’ etc, health is a neglected
entity. Other needs like wealth, power,
prestige, knowledge, security takes the upper
hand, last in the queue is health. Health is
often taken for granted and its value is not
fully understood until it is lost.
Conti...
•Nevertheless, there has been reawakening that health is
basic human right, essential to satisfy human needs and to
lead quality life. Health has to be attained by all. In 1977,
the 30th World Health Assembly decided that the main
social target of governments and WHO in the coming
decades should be the attainment, by all citizens of the
world by the year 2000, of a level of health that will permit
them to lead a socially and economically productive life,
for brevity, called ‘health for all’. With the adoption of
health as an integral part of socio-economic development
by the United Nations in 1979, health, while being an end
in itself, has become a major determinant of overall socio-
economic development and the creation of a new social
order.
Conti....
•
•
a.
b.
c.
d.
Health is not perceived the same way by all the
members of a community including various
professional groups ( like, biomedical scientist, social
scientists, health administrator, ecological ) giving
rise to confusion about the concept of health.
The various changing concept of the health follows,
Biomedical concept
Ecological concept
Psychological concept
Holistic concept
Biomedical concept:-
•
•
Biomedical Concept: Traditionally health was
considered as ‘absence of disease’. An individual was
considered healthy, if he is free from diseases. This
concept is referred to as biomedical concept.
Medically human body is equated to a machine, and
disease was looked as breakdown of machine while
doctor was considered as the repairer of the machine.
Thus, health became the ultimate goal of medicine.
Criticism: Biomedical concept has minimized the
role of other determinants of health namely social,
environmental, psychological and cultural. Thus, was
found inefficient in solving major health related
problems (drug abuse, accidents, malnutrition, etc.).
Ecological concept :-
•
•
Ecological Concept: Ecology is defined as the science of mutual
relationship between living organism and their environment. Human
ecology is a part of the science of ecology. Human eco-system
includes all dimensions of man-made environment- physical,
chemical, biological and psychological in addition to natural
environment.
According to the ecologists health is viewed as a dynamic equilibrium
between man and environment, and disease is viewed as an
imbalance between the two. Dubos defined health as ‘Health implies
relative absence of pain and discomfort and a continuous adaptation
and adjustment to the environment to ensure optimal function’.
Human ecological and cultural adaptations do determine not only the
occurrence of disease, but also food security and population
explosion. The ecological concept revolves around two issues: Man
and environment. Adaptation of man to natural environment can
result in prolonged life expectancies and better quality of life even in
the absence of modern health amenities.
•
•
•
•
•
Man has created new health problems by altering the
environment in terms of various activities like urbanization,
industrialization, deforestation, construction of dams and canals.
Growth of slums and deterioration of environment is the greatest
threat to human health in India. Changes in the human ecology
have resulted in revival / recrudescence of once controlled agents.
Bhopal gas tragedy in 1984 highlights the danger of locating
industries in urban area.
Nuclear disaster in Soviet Russia in 1986 is a reminder of
environmental pollution.
Construction of dams, irrigation system and artificial lakes has
created ecological niches favoring breeding of mosquitoes, snails
and spread of diseases
The geographical distribution of almost all diseases is the
ecological factors
Psychological concept:-
•Psychological Concept: Developments in
social sciences revealed the fact that health is
not only absence of disease but also is a social,
economic, psychological, cultural and political
entity. These factors should be considered
while measuring health.
Holistic Concept :-
•Holistic Concept: This concept encompasses all the
other concepts. The influence of social, economic,
political and environment on health has been well
identified. It has been described as unified or
multidimensional process of achieving well being of a
person in the context of environment. This concept
corresponds to the view of ancient population that
health implies sound mind in a sound body in a sound
family and in a sound environment. The holistic
approach indicates that all sectors of the society have
an influence on health particularly agriculture, animal
husbandry, food, industry, education, housing, public
works, communication and alike, with emphasis on
promotion and protection of health.
"Good public health
is basically good
health"

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Kishan parekh

  • 1. Sub. :- Fundamental of Nursing Parekh Kishan P.b.b.sc. Topic :- Concept of Health
  • 2. Concept of Health :- • Health :- "State of complete physical , mental and social well- being , not merely the absence of disease infirmity." - WHO (1947) Rem.:- Infirmity - illness(Physically or mentally) An understanding of health is the basis of all the health care.
  • 3. Changing concept of Health:- •Despite the fact that number of messages, slogans, and idioms are in vogue like ‘Health is Wealth’ etc, health is a neglected entity. Other needs like wealth, power, prestige, knowledge, security takes the upper hand, last in the queue is health. Health is often taken for granted and its value is not fully understood until it is lost.
  • 4. Conti... •Nevertheless, there has been reawakening that health is basic human right, essential to satisfy human needs and to lead quality life. Health has to be attained by all. In 1977, the 30th World Health Assembly decided that the main social target of governments and WHO in the coming decades should be the attainment, by all citizens of the world by the year 2000, of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life, for brevity, called ‘health for all’. With the adoption of health as an integral part of socio-economic development by the United Nations in 1979, health, while being an end in itself, has become a major determinant of overall socio- economic development and the creation of a new social order.
  • 5. Conti.... • • a. b. c. d. Health is not perceived the same way by all the members of a community including various professional groups ( like, biomedical scientist, social scientists, health administrator, ecological ) giving rise to confusion about the concept of health. The various changing concept of the health follows, Biomedical concept Ecological concept Psychological concept Holistic concept
  • 6. Biomedical concept:- • • Biomedical Concept: Traditionally health was considered as ‘absence of disease’. An individual was considered healthy, if he is free from diseases. This concept is referred to as biomedical concept. Medically human body is equated to a machine, and disease was looked as breakdown of machine while doctor was considered as the repairer of the machine. Thus, health became the ultimate goal of medicine. Criticism: Biomedical concept has minimized the role of other determinants of health namely social, environmental, psychological and cultural. Thus, was found inefficient in solving major health related problems (drug abuse, accidents, malnutrition, etc.).
  • 7. Ecological concept :- • • Ecological Concept: Ecology is defined as the science of mutual relationship between living organism and their environment. Human ecology is a part of the science of ecology. Human eco-system includes all dimensions of man-made environment- physical, chemical, biological and psychological in addition to natural environment. According to the ecologists health is viewed as a dynamic equilibrium between man and environment, and disease is viewed as an imbalance between the two. Dubos defined health as ‘Health implies relative absence of pain and discomfort and a continuous adaptation and adjustment to the environment to ensure optimal function’. Human ecological and cultural adaptations do determine not only the occurrence of disease, but also food security and population explosion. The ecological concept revolves around two issues: Man and environment. Adaptation of man to natural environment can result in prolonged life expectancies and better quality of life even in the absence of modern health amenities.
  • 8. • • • • • Man has created new health problems by altering the environment in terms of various activities like urbanization, industrialization, deforestation, construction of dams and canals. Growth of slums and deterioration of environment is the greatest threat to human health in India. Changes in the human ecology have resulted in revival / recrudescence of once controlled agents. Bhopal gas tragedy in 1984 highlights the danger of locating industries in urban area. Nuclear disaster in Soviet Russia in 1986 is a reminder of environmental pollution. Construction of dams, irrigation system and artificial lakes has created ecological niches favoring breeding of mosquitoes, snails and spread of diseases The geographical distribution of almost all diseases is the ecological factors
  • 9. Psychological concept:- •Psychological Concept: Developments in social sciences revealed the fact that health is not only absence of disease but also is a social, economic, psychological, cultural and political entity. These factors should be considered while measuring health.
  • 10. Holistic Concept :- •Holistic Concept: This concept encompasses all the other concepts. The influence of social, economic, political and environment on health has been well identified. It has been described as unified or multidimensional process of achieving well being of a person in the context of environment. This concept corresponds to the view of ancient population that health implies sound mind in a sound body in a sound family and in a sound environment. The holistic approach indicates that all sectors of the society have an influence on health particularly agriculture, animal husbandry, food, industry, education, housing, public works, communication and alike, with emphasis on promotion and protection of health.
  • 11. "Good public health is basically good health"