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The European Guideline on
Management of Major
Bleeding and Coagulopathy
Following Trauma:
Fourth Edition
Rossaint et al. Critical Care (2016) 20:100
DOI 10.1186/s13054-016-1265-x
Grade of
recommendation
Clarity of
risk/benefit
Quality of supporting
evidence
Implications
1A Strong
recommendation,
high-quality
evidence
Benefits clearly
outweigh risk and
burdens, or vice versa
RCTs without important limitations
or overwhelming evidence from
observational studies
Strong recommendation, can
apply to most patients in most
circumstances without reservation
1B Strong
recommendation,
moderate-quality
evidence
Benefits clearly
outweigh risk and
burdens, or vice versa
RCTs with important limitations
(inconsistent results,
methodological flaws, indirect or
imprecise) or exceptionally strong
evidence from observational studies
Strong recommendation, can apply
to most patients in most
circumstances without reservation
1C Strong
recommendation,
low-quality or
very low-quality
evidence
Benefits clearly
outweigh risk and
burdens, or vice versa
Observational studies or case
series
Strong recommendation but may
change when higher quality
evidence becomes available
2A Weak
recommendation,
high-quality
evidence
Benefits closely
balanced with
risks and burden
RCTs without important limitations
or overwhelming evidence from
observational studies
Weak recommendation, best action
may differ depending on
circumstances or patients’ or
societal values
2B Weak
recommendation,
moderate-quality
evidence
Benefits closely
balanced with
risks and burden
RCTs with important limitations
(inconsistent results,
methodological flaws, indirect or
imprecise) or exceptionally strong
evidence from observational studies
Weak recommendation, best action
may differ depending on
circumstances or patients’ or
societal values
2C Weak
recommendation,
low-quality or
very low-quality
evidence
Uncertainty in the
estimates of benefits,
risks, and burden;
benefits, risk and
burden may be closely
balanced
Observational studies or case
series
Very weak recommendation; other
alternatives may be equally
reasonable
I. Initial Resuscitation
and Prevention of
Further Bleeding
Minimal Elapsed Time
Severely injured patients should be
transported directly to an appropriate
trauma facility. (Grade 1B)
The time elapsed between injury and
bleeding control should be minimised.
(Grade 1A)
Tourniquet Use
A tourniquet should be employed as an
adjunct to stop life-threatening bleeding
from open extremity injuries in the pre-
surgical setting. (Grade 1B)
Ventilation
Hypoxemia should be avoided (Grade 1A)
and normo-ventilation (Grade 1B) applied.
Hyperventilation may be applied in the
presence of imminent cerebral herniation.
(Grade 2C)
Initial Assessment
The extent of traumatic hemorrhage
should be assessed using a combination
of patient physiology, anatomical injury
pattern, mechanism of injury and response
to initial resuscitation. (Grade 1C)
II. Diagnosis and
Monitoring of Bleeding
Immediate Intervention
Patients presenting with hemorrhagic
shock and an identified source of bleeding
should undergo an immediate bleeding
control procedure unless initial
resuscitation measures are successful.
(Grade 1B)
Further Investigation
Patients presenting with hemorrhagic
shock and an unidentified source of
bleeding should undergo immediate
further investigation. (Grade 1B)
Imaging
Early imaging (ultrasonography or
contrast-enhanced CT) should be
employed to detect free fluid in patients
with suspected torso trauma. (Grade 1B)
Intervention
Patients with significant intra-thoracic,
intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal bleeding
and hemodynamic instability should
undergo urgent intervention. (Grade 1A)
Further Assessment
Hemodynamically stable patients should
undergo further assessment using CT.
(Grade 1B)
Hemoglobin
Low initial Hb values should be considered
an indicator for severe bleeding. (Grade
1B)
Repeated Hb measurements should be
employed. (Grade 1B)
Serum Lactate & Base Deficit
Serum lactate and/or base deficit
measurements should be employed to
estimate and monitor the extent of
bleeding and shock. (Grade 1B)
Coagulation Monitoring
Early, repeated coagulation monitoring
including laboratory measurements (PT,
APTT, platelets, fibrinogen) and/or
viscoelastic methods should be used in
routine practice. (Grade 1C)
III. Tissue Oxygenation, Type of Fluid
and Temperature Management
Tissue Oxygenation
A target SBP of 80-90 mmHg should be
employed until major bleeding has been
stopped in the initial phase following
trauma without brain injury. (Grade 1C)
A MAP ≥80 mmHg should be maintained
in patients with severe
TBI (GCS ≤8). (Grade 1C)
Restricted Volume Replacement
A restricted volume replacement strategy
should be used to achieve target blood
pressure until bleeding can be controlled.
(Grade 1B)
In addition to fluids, vasopressors should
be administered to maintain target blood
pressure in the presence of life-
threatening hypotension. (Grade 1C)
An inotropic agent should be infused in the
presence of myocardial
dysfunction. (Grade 1C)
Vasopressors and Inotropic Agents
Type of Fluid
Use of isotonic crystalloid solutions should
be initiated in the hypotensive bleeding
trauma patient. (Grade 1A)
Hypotonic solutions such as Ringer’s
lactate should be avoided in patients with
severe head trauma. (Grade 1C)
Excessive use of 0.9% NaCl solution
might be avoided and use of
colloids might be restricted. (Grade 2C)
Erythrocytes
Treatment should aim to achieve a target
Hb of 7-9 g/dl. (Grade 1C)
Temperature Management
Early application of measures to reduce
heat loss and warm the hypothermic
patient should be employed to achieve
and maintain normo-thermia. (Grade 1C)
IV. Rapid control of
bleeding
Damage Control Surgery
Damage control surgery should be employed in
the severely injured patient presenting with deep
hemorrhagic shock, signs of ongoing bleeding and
coagulopathy. (Grade 1B)
Severe coagulopathy, hypothermia, acidosis,
inaccessible major anatomic injury, a need for
time-consuming procedures or concomitant major
injury outside the abdomen should also trigger a
damage control approach. (Grade 1C)
Primary definitive surgical management should be
employed in the hemodynamically stable patient in
the absence of any of these factors. (Grade 1C)
Pelvic Ring Closure and Stabilization
Patients with pelvic ring disruption in
hemorrhagic shock should undergo
immediate pelvic ring closure and
stabilization. (Grade 1B)
Packing, Embolization & Surgery
Patients with ongoing hemodynamic
instability despite adequate pelvic ring
stabilization should undergo early pre-
peritoneal packing, angiographic
embolization and/or surgical bleeding
control. (Grade 1B)
Local Hemostatic Measures
Topical hemostatic agents should be
employed in combination with other
surgical measures or with packing for
venous or moderate arterial bleeding
associated with parenchymal injuries.
(Grade 1B)
V. Initial management
of bleeding and
coagulopathy
Coagulation Support
Monitoring and measures to support
coagulation should be initiated
immediately upon hospital admission.
(Grade 1B)
Initial Resuscitation
Initial management of patients with
expected massive hemorrhage should
include either plasma (FFP or pathogen-
inactivated plasma) in a plasma-RBC
ratio of at least 1:2 as needed (Grade 1B)
or fibrinogen concentrate and RBC
according to Hb level (Grade 1C) .
Antifibrinolytic Agents
Tranexamic acid (TXA) should be administered
as early as possible to the trauma patient who is
bleeding or at risk of significant hemorrhage at a
loading dose of 1 g infused over 10 min,
followed by an i.v. infusion of 1 g over 8 h.
(Grade 1A)
TXA should be administered to the bleeding
trauma patient within 3 h after injury. (Grade 1B)
Protocols for the management of bleeding
patients might consider administration of the first
dose of TXA en route to the hospital. (Grade 2C)
VI. Further Resuscitation
Goal-Directed Therapy
Resuscitation measures should be
continued using a goal-directed strategy
guided by standard laboratory coagulation
values and/or viscoelastic tests. (Grade 1C)
Plasma
In a plasma-based coagulation strategy
plasma (FFP or pathogen-inactivated
plasma) should be administered to
maintain PT and APTT<1.5 times the
normal control. (Grade 1C)
Plasma transfusion should be avoided in
patients without substantial bleeding.
(Grade 1B)
Fibrinogen & Cryoprecipitate
If a concentrate-based strategy is used, fibrinogen
concentrate or cryoprecipitate should be
administered if significant bleeding is accompanied
by viscoelastic signs of a functional fibrinogen
deficit or a plasma fibrinogen level of less than
1.5-2.0 g/l. (Grade 1C)
An initial fibrinogen supplementation of 3-4 g,
equivalent to 15-20 single donor units of
cryoprecipitate or 3-4 g fibrinogen concentrate may
be administered. Repeat doses must be guided by
viscoelastic monitoring and laboratory assessment
of fibrinogen levels. (Grade 2C)
Platelets
Platelets should be administered to
maintain a platelet count >50 109/l.
(Grade 1C)
A platelet count >100 109/l in patients
with ongoing bleeding and/or TBI may
be maintained. (Grade 2C)
If administered, an initial dose of 4-8
single platelet units or one aphaeresis
pack may be used. (Grade 2C)
Calcium
Ionised calcium levels should be
monitored and maintained within the
normal range during massive transfusion.
(Grade 1C)
Antiplatelet Agents
Platelets may be administered in patients
with substantial bleeding or ICH who have
been treated with APA. (Grade 2C)
Platelet function may be measured in patients
treated or suspected of being treated with
APA. (Grade 2C)
Platelet concentrates may be used if platelet
dysfunction is documented in a patient with
continued microvascular bleeding. (Grade 2C)
Desmopressin
Desmopressin (0.3 μg/kg) may be
administered in patients treated with
platelet-inhibiting drugs or with von
Willebrand disease. (Grade 2C)
Desmopressin may not be administered
routinely in the bleeding trauma patient.
(Grade 2C)
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate
PCC should be used early for the emergency
reversal of vitamin K-dependent oral
anticoagulants. (Grade 1A)
PCC may be administered to mitigate life-
threatening post-traumatic bleeding patients
treated with novel anticoagulants. (Grade 2C)
If fibrinogen levels are normal, PCC or
plasma may be administered in the bleeding
patient based on evidence of delayed
coagulation initiation using viscoelastic
monitoring. (Grade 2C)
Direct Oral Anticoagulants –
FXa Inhibitors
Plasma levels of oral anti-factor Xa agents
such as rivaroxaban, apixaban or edoxaban
may be measured in patients treated or
suspected of being treated with one of these
agents. (Grade 2C)
If measurements are not possible or available
advice from an expert hematologist may be
sought. (Grade 2C)
Life-threatening bleeding may be treated with
i.v. TXA 15 mg/kg (or 1 g) and high-dose
(25-50 U/kg) PCC/aPCC until specific
antidotes are available. (Grade 2C)
Direct Oral Anticoagulants –
Thrombin Inhibitors
Dabigatran plasma levels may be measured
in patients treated or suspected of being
treated with dabigatran. (Grade 2C)
If measurements are not possible or available
thrombin time and APTT may be measured to
allow a qualitative estimation of the presence
of dabigatran. (Grade 2C)
Life-threatening bleeding should be treated
with idarucizumab (5 g i.v.) or if unavailable it
may be treated with high-dose (25-50 U/kg)
PCC / aPCC, in both cases combined with
TXA 15 mg/kg (or 1 g) i.v. (Grade 2C)
Recombinant Activated
Coagulation Factor VII
Off-label use of rFVIIa may be considered
only if major bleeding and traumatic
coagulopathy persist despite standard
attempts to control bleeding and best
practice use of conventional hemostatic
measures. (Grade 2C)
Suggested Management
Bundles
Pre-Hospital Bundle
Pre-hospital time minimised
Tourniquet employed in case of life-
threatening bleeding from extremities
Damage control resuscitation concept
applied
Trauma patient transferred directly to an
adequate trauma specialty centre
Intra-Hospital Bundle
CBC, PT, fibrinogen, calcium, viscoelastic testing, lactate, BE
and pH assessed within the first 15 min
Immediate intervention applied in patients with hemorrhagic
shock and an identified source of bleeding unless initial
resuscitation measures are successful
Immediate further investigation undertaken using FAST, CT or
immediate surgery if massive intra-abdominal bleeding is
present in patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock and an
unidentified source of bleeding
Damage control surgery concept applied if shock or
coagulopathy are present
Damage control resuscitation concept continued until the
bleeding source is identified and controlled
Restrictive erythrocyte transfusion strategy (Hb 7–9 g/dl) applied
Coagulation Bundle
TXA administered as early as possible
Acidosis, hypothermia and hypocalcaemia
treated
Fibrinogen maintained at 1.5–2 g/l
Platelets maintained at >100 × 109/l
PCC administered in patients pre-treated
with warfarin or direct-acting oral
coagulants (until antidotes are available)

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The European Guideline on Management of Major Bleeding and Coagulopathy Following Trauma

  • 1. The European Guideline on Management of Major Bleeding and Coagulopathy Following Trauma: Fourth Edition Rossaint et al. Critical Care (2016) 20:100 DOI 10.1186/s13054-016-1265-x
  • 2. Grade of recommendation Clarity of risk/benefit Quality of supporting evidence Implications 1A Strong recommendation, high-quality evidence Benefits clearly outweigh risk and burdens, or vice versa RCTs without important limitations or overwhelming evidence from observational studies Strong recommendation, can apply to most patients in most circumstances without reservation 1B Strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence Benefits clearly outweigh risk and burdens, or vice versa RCTs with important limitations (inconsistent results, methodological flaws, indirect or imprecise) or exceptionally strong evidence from observational studies Strong recommendation, can apply to most patients in most circumstances without reservation 1C Strong recommendation, low-quality or very low-quality evidence Benefits clearly outweigh risk and burdens, or vice versa Observational studies or case series Strong recommendation but may change when higher quality evidence becomes available 2A Weak recommendation, high-quality evidence Benefits closely balanced with risks and burden RCTs without important limitations or overwhelming evidence from observational studies Weak recommendation, best action may differ depending on circumstances or patients’ or societal values 2B Weak recommendation, moderate-quality evidence Benefits closely balanced with risks and burden RCTs with important limitations (inconsistent results, methodological flaws, indirect or imprecise) or exceptionally strong evidence from observational studies Weak recommendation, best action may differ depending on circumstances or patients’ or societal values 2C Weak recommendation, low-quality or very low-quality evidence Uncertainty in the estimates of benefits, risks, and burden; benefits, risk and burden may be closely balanced Observational studies or case series Very weak recommendation; other alternatives may be equally reasonable
  • 3. I. Initial Resuscitation and Prevention of Further Bleeding
  • 4. Minimal Elapsed Time Severely injured patients should be transported directly to an appropriate trauma facility. (Grade 1B) The time elapsed between injury and bleeding control should be minimised. (Grade 1A)
  • 5. Tourniquet Use A tourniquet should be employed as an adjunct to stop life-threatening bleeding from open extremity injuries in the pre- surgical setting. (Grade 1B)
  • 6. Ventilation Hypoxemia should be avoided (Grade 1A) and normo-ventilation (Grade 1B) applied. Hyperventilation may be applied in the presence of imminent cerebral herniation. (Grade 2C)
  • 7. Initial Assessment The extent of traumatic hemorrhage should be assessed using a combination of patient physiology, anatomical injury pattern, mechanism of injury and response to initial resuscitation. (Grade 1C)
  • 9. Immediate Intervention Patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock and an identified source of bleeding should undergo an immediate bleeding control procedure unless initial resuscitation measures are successful. (Grade 1B)
  • 10. Further Investigation Patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock and an unidentified source of bleeding should undergo immediate further investigation. (Grade 1B)
  • 11. Imaging Early imaging (ultrasonography or contrast-enhanced CT) should be employed to detect free fluid in patients with suspected torso trauma. (Grade 1B)
  • 12. Intervention Patients with significant intra-thoracic, intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal bleeding and hemodynamic instability should undergo urgent intervention. (Grade 1A)
  • 13. Further Assessment Hemodynamically stable patients should undergo further assessment using CT. (Grade 1B)
  • 14. Hemoglobin Low initial Hb values should be considered an indicator for severe bleeding. (Grade 1B) Repeated Hb measurements should be employed. (Grade 1B)
  • 15. Serum Lactate & Base Deficit Serum lactate and/or base deficit measurements should be employed to estimate and monitor the extent of bleeding and shock. (Grade 1B)
  • 16. Coagulation Monitoring Early, repeated coagulation monitoring including laboratory measurements (PT, APTT, platelets, fibrinogen) and/or viscoelastic methods should be used in routine practice. (Grade 1C)
  • 17. III. Tissue Oxygenation, Type of Fluid and Temperature Management
  • 18. Tissue Oxygenation A target SBP of 80-90 mmHg should be employed until major bleeding has been stopped in the initial phase following trauma without brain injury. (Grade 1C) A MAP ≥80 mmHg should be maintained in patients with severe TBI (GCS ≤8). (Grade 1C)
  • 19. Restricted Volume Replacement A restricted volume replacement strategy should be used to achieve target blood pressure until bleeding can be controlled. (Grade 1B)
  • 20. In addition to fluids, vasopressors should be administered to maintain target blood pressure in the presence of life- threatening hypotension. (Grade 1C) An inotropic agent should be infused in the presence of myocardial dysfunction. (Grade 1C) Vasopressors and Inotropic Agents
  • 21. Type of Fluid Use of isotonic crystalloid solutions should be initiated in the hypotensive bleeding trauma patient. (Grade 1A) Hypotonic solutions such as Ringer’s lactate should be avoided in patients with severe head trauma. (Grade 1C) Excessive use of 0.9% NaCl solution might be avoided and use of colloids might be restricted. (Grade 2C)
  • 22. Erythrocytes Treatment should aim to achieve a target Hb of 7-9 g/dl. (Grade 1C)
  • 23. Temperature Management Early application of measures to reduce heat loss and warm the hypothermic patient should be employed to achieve and maintain normo-thermia. (Grade 1C)
  • 24. IV. Rapid control of bleeding
  • 25. Damage Control Surgery Damage control surgery should be employed in the severely injured patient presenting with deep hemorrhagic shock, signs of ongoing bleeding and coagulopathy. (Grade 1B) Severe coagulopathy, hypothermia, acidosis, inaccessible major anatomic injury, a need for time-consuming procedures or concomitant major injury outside the abdomen should also trigger a damage control approach. (Grade 1C) Primary definitive surgical management should be employed in the hemodynamically stable patient in the absence of any of these factors. (Grade 1C)
  • 26. Pelvic Ring Closure and Stabilization Patients with pelvic ring disruption in hemorrhagic shock should undergo immediate pelvic ring closure and stabilization. (Grade 1B)
  • 27. Packing, Embolization & Surgery Patients with ongoing hemodynamic instability despite adequate pelvic ring stabilization should undergo early pre- peritoneal packing, angiographic embolization and/or surgical bleeding control. (Grade 1B)
  • 28. Local Hemostatic Measures Topical hemostatic agents should be employed in combination with other surgical measures or with packing for venous or moderate arterial bleeding associated with parenchymal injuries. (Grade 1B)
  • 29. V. Initial management of bleeding and coagulopathy
  • 30. Coagulation Support Monitoring and measures to support coagulation should be initiated immediately upon hospital admission. (Grade 1B)
  • 31. Initial Resuscitation Initial management of patients with expected massive hemorrhage should include either plasma (FFP or pathogen- inactivated plasma) in a plasma-RBC ratio of at least 1:2 as needed (Grade 1B) or fibrinogen concentrate and RBC according to Hb level (Grade 1C) .
  • 32. Antifibrinolytic Agents Tranexamic acid (TXA) should be administered as early as possible to the trauma patient who is bleeding or at risk of significant hemorrhage at a loading dose of 1 g infused over 10 min, followed by an i.v. infusion of 1 g over 8 h. (Grade 1A) TXA should be administered to the bleeding trauma patient within 3 h after injury. (Grade 1B) Protocols for the management of bleeding patients might consider administration of the first dose of TXA en route to the hospital. (Grade 2C)
  • 34. Goal-Directed Therapy Resuscitation measures should be continued using a goal-directed strategy guided by standard laboratory coagulation values and/or viscoelastic tests. (Grade 1C)
  • 35. Plasma In a plasma-based coagulation strategy plasma (FFP or pathogen-inactivated plasma) should be administered to maintain PT and APTT<1.5 times the normal control. (Grade 1C) Plasma transfusion should be avoided in patients without substantial bleeding. (Grade 1B)
  • 36. Fibrinogen & Cryoprecipitate If a concentrate-based strategy is used, fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate should be administered if significant bleeding is accompanied by viscoelastic signs of a functional fibrinogen deficit or a plasma fibrinogen level of less than 1.5-2.0 g/l. (Grade 1C) An initial fibrinogen supplementation of 3-4 g, equivalent to 15-20 single donor units of cryoprecipitate or 3-4 g fibrinogen concentrate may be administered. Repeat doses must be guided by viscoelastic monitoring and laboratory assessment of fibrinogen levels. (Grade 2C)
  • 37. Platelets Platelets should be administered to maintain a platelet count >50 109/l. (Grade 1C) A platelet count >100 109/l in patients with ongoing bleeding and/or TBI may be maintained. (Grade 2C) If administered, an initial dose of 4-8 single platelet units or one aphaeresis pack may be used. (Grade 2C)
  • 38. Calcium Ionised calcium levels should be monitored and maintained within the normal range during massive transfusion. (Grade 1C)
  • 39. Antiplatelet Agents Platelets may be administered in patients with substantial bleeding or ICH who have been treated with APA. (Grade 2C) Platelet function may be measured in patients treated or suspected of being treated with APA. (Grade 2C) Platelet concentrates may be used if platelet dysfunction is documented in a patient with continued microvascular bleeding. (Grade 2C)
  • 40. Desmopressin Desmopressin (0.3 μg/kg) may be administered in patients treated with platelet-inhibiting drugs or with von Willebrand disease. (Grade 2C) Desmopressin may not be administered routinely in the bleeding trauma patient. (Grade 2C)
  • 41. Prothrombin Complex Concentrate PCC should be used early for the emergency reversal of vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants. (Grade 1A) PCC may be administered to mitigate life- threatening post-traumatic bleeding patients treated with novel anticoagulants. (Grade 2C) If fibrinogen levels are normal, PCC or plasma may be administered in the bleeding patient based on evidence of delayed coagulation initiation using viscoelastic monitoring. (Grade 2C)
  • 42. Direct Oral Anticoagulants – FXa Inhibitors Plasma levels of oral anti-factor Xa agents such as rivaroxaban, apixaban or edoxaban may be measured in patients treated or suspected of being treated with one of these agents. (Grade 2C) If measurements are not possible or available advice from an expert hematologist may be sought. (Grade 2C) Life-threatening bleeding may be treated with i.v. TXA 15 mg/kg (or 1 g) and high-dose (25-50 U/kg) PCC/aPCC until specific antidotes are available. (Grade 2C)
  • 43. Direct Oral Anticoagulants – Thrombin Inhibitors Dabigatran plasma levels may be measured in patients treated or suspected of being treated with dabigatran. (Grade 2C) If measurements are not possible or available thrombin time and APTT may be measured to allow a qualitative estimation of the presence of dabigatran. (Grade 2C) Life-threatening bleeding should be treated with idarucizumab (5 g i.v.) or if unavailable it may be treated with high-dose (25-50 U/kg) PCC / aPCC, in both cases combined with TXA 15 mg/kg (or 1 g) i.v. (Grade 2C)
  • 44. Recombinant Activated Coagulation Factor VII Off-label use of rFVIIa may be considered only if major bleeding and traumatic coagulopathy persist despite standard attempts to control bleeding and best practice use of conventional hemostatic measures. (Grade 2C)
  • 46. Pre-Hospital Bundle Pre-hospital time minimised Tourniquet employed in case of life- threatening bleeding from extremities Damage control resuscitation concept applied Trauma patient transferred directly to an adequate trauma specialty centre
  • 47. Intra-Hospital Bundle CBC, PT, fibrinogen, calcium, viscoelastic testing, lactate, BE and pH assessed within the first 15 min Immediate intervention applied in patients with hemorrhagic shock and an identified source of bleeding unless initial resuscitation measures are successful Immediate further investigation undertaken using FAST, CT or immediate surgery if massive intra-abdominal bleeding is present in patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock and an unidentified source of bleeding Damage control surgery concept applied if shock or coagulopathy are present Damage control resuscitation concept continued until the bleeding source is identified and controlled Restrictive erythrocyte transfusion strategy (Hb 7–9 g/dl) applied
  • 48. Coagulation Bundle TXA administered as early as possible Acidosis, hypothermia and hypocalcaemia treated Fibrinogen maintained at 1.5–2 g/l Platelets maintained at >100 × 109/l PCC administered in patients pre-treated with warfarin or direct-acting oral coagulants (until antidotes are available)