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The Calamitous 14th
Century
Gregorian ChantMK 2016
The Calamitous 14thCentury
The Little Ice Age,
The Hundred Years’ War,
The Black Death,
The Great Schism
Little Ice Age (1250-1850)
► Climate change- growth
of the ice sheets
► Caused by volcanic
activity
► Results:
▪ Too much rain
▪ Some summers with snow
in every month
▪ Crops failed
▪ Animals died
▪ People weakened from
lack of food
►More susceptible to disease
The 100 Years’ War
► Actually…116 years (1337-1453)
► Between France and England
► Fought entirely in France
► What did it achieve?
▪ Changes the map of France
▪ Changes the powers of the kings of France and England
▪ Changes to military weapons
▪ The downfall of feudalism
Causes- who shall be the king of
France?????
Charles IV of France dies
with no heir.
►Option I- a French noble,
but who? Leads to a civil
war among them
►Option II- Edward III of
England- he was the Duke
of Gascony and Aquitaine
▪ This also made him a
vassal of the French king
Royal flag of
King Edward III
Notice his
French claim?
The 100 Years War
Round 1 – England reinforces her territory in France ( 1/3 of France )
Battle of Crecy 1346 – English victory
Use of longbow
INTERLUDE
The Black Death!!! (1346-1352) & The Great Schism! (1378-1415)
Why start fighting again?
Round 2 – England goes on the offensive
Battle of Agincourt 1415 – English victory
England controls 2/3 of France
Round 3 - Siege of Orleans – 1429 – French victory
Joan of Arc
France crowns a new king and pushes England back
Round 4 - Battle of Castillon, Bourdeaux (1453)- French victory
Use of cannons
France takes all but one costal city
England loses the war
Click for video of the Battle of Crecy
Major Battles
Round 3
Siege of Orleans, France 1429
French hero- Joan of Arc- young girl who had visions of saving France.
She obtained approval of French Dauphin to lead the French army.
The Cathedral of Orleans is where the kings of France must be
crowned, but the city was occupied by the English.
Once the city is liberated and the Dauphin crowned king, he wants
peace and orders the French army to stop fighting.
Joan refuses
She is later betrayed (by the new French king) to the
English who burn her alive for being a witch and a heretic.
What did it achieve?
Changes to map of France
France has 95% of it’s current size
Changes to the power of the kings
France
Kings become more powerful
- Power granted by the king to the
nobles (knights) diminishes.
- Power ascribed to the nobles by the
peasants declines.
(fewer knights offering less protection)
- the taille (king’s tax)
increases the power of the king.
- Rise of French nationalism
England
Kings become less powerful
- Power of the nobles increases
1341- it is put into law that
Parliament (council of nobles) has
to approve all taxes.
- Conflict between the king and
Parliament increases.
- Dissatisfaction with kings leads to
the War of the Roses, which
weakens England.
Weaponry and the downfall of
Feudalism
The English Longbow is used by peasants and can kill knights on horseback or
in armor from long distance.
Cannons advance in power and accuracy and can blow holes into castle and
city walls.
The purpose of knights (fighting/protecting) no longer exists.
The reason for building castles (safety) no longer exists.
= NO Feudalism
The Black Death (overview)
► 1346-1352
► Spread from Asia to
Europe
► Killed 1/3 to ½ of the
population (from 75 to 50
million)
► Up to 50% of some cities
and entire towns and
villages
► Profound economic effects
► Social changes from
economic changes
► Political changes- kings
gain power over nobles
and Church
► Serfdom ends
► Cities spared:
▪ Milan
▪ Rome
▪ Mostly through quarantines
Click here
Types of Plague
► Bubonic
▪ Spread by fleas
▪ Black pus- filled lymph nodes
▪ Mortality rate:60%
▪ Death in 3-4 days
► Pneumonic
▪ Spread by people coughing
▪ Drown in their own blood
▪ Mortality rate: 95-100%
► Septemic
▪ Also spread by fleas
▪ Extremities turn black and die
▪ Mortality rate: 100% within one
day
Click Video
Do you know this rhyme?
Ring around
the rosy
Pocket full
of posies
Ashes, ashes
We all fall
down!
A “rosy”
or a rosary
The wealthy had
pomandersWhen graveyards filled up,
bodies were burned in bonfires
“Plague pit”
Peasants
wore dried
flowers
A “plague Doctor”
Tracing its path
► Precisely followed
global trade routes
► From China along Silk
Road to Black Sea,
then by boat to Italy
then north to the rest
of Europe.
The Spread of the Plague
Effects of the Plague on the
Church
The Church had been the source of knowledge and controlled the people’s lives.
The Church’s only answer for “why?” was “God punishing the wicked”.
The Church was powerless to stop or prevent the plague.
The Church had been the source of hope and “salvation” for the people.
Churches closed, sacraments denied as priests isolated
themselves out of fear or died.
When the people needed the Church the most, they were denied and the gates to
Heaven were closed.
The power of the church declined.
Nobody listens
to me anymore
and people are
not tithing.
Economic Effects
Peasants:
Smaller labor supply
Number of farm workers
decreased so wages increased
Per capita income increases
because fewer people share
the same amount of money
Cost of food decreased because
demand decreased
Serfs left land to become artisans,
went to cities
Wages for skilled artisans soared
Nobles:
Land is worth less, so their
power drops
Supply of manufactured
goods decreased resulting
in an increase in price
Income drops
Prices increase
You cant
take it with
you
Political Effects
Peasants:
revolts in France, England, Spain and Holy Roman Empire as new laws
forced them to stay on the land and froze wages - laws failed
Nobles:
Nobles lost their power- forced to pay more for luxury goods and farm
labor
Decline of knights: military is now professional paid armies rather than
feudal system (see 100 Years’ War)
Cities:
Charters allow cities to govern themselves in return for loyalty to the king
City governments gave more voice to craft guilds as demand for their
goods increased
Anti-Semitism and the Plague
Jews had been both important to city life as
moneylenders and persecuted by Christian society.
Many Jews survived the plague itself because they were
forcibly isolated from Christians and kept better hygiene.
They were scapegoated as the source of the plague because
they were not getting sick.
Pogroms against them broke out in many cities, so many
moved to Poland and Lithuania.
Up to 200 were burned at the stake
in one day
The Great Schism (1378- 1417)
Began as an argument between the King of France and
the Pope- Who has more authority?
1305- old pope dies, new one is French, moves to
Avignon, France.
▪ Popes live there until 1377
1377- Pope Urban VI is elected in Rome but French
Cardinals refuse to recognize him so they Elect their
own Pope.
!!!! 2 Popes!!! (one in Rome, one in Avignon)
The Popes excommunicated each other and the people
who followed them. So, all Catholic Christians were
going to Hell.
1408 Kings call the Council of Pisa:
the Cardinals deposed both Popes and elected a new Pope. Both old
Popes refused to step down, resulting in three popes!!!!!
The Popes excommunicated each other and the people who followed
them. So, all Catholic Christians are still going to hell.
in 1417 the Council of Constance removed all three popes and selected
Pope Martin V.
Ends the Great Schism of the West.
The Pope would never again be able to successfully challenge the power
of the kings in Europe.
The Great Schism Continued
The End Result of the Calamitous
14th Century
► By the mid 15th century, plague and warfare
Western Europe had lost 1/3 of its population
► Rural economies were destroyed
► Cities recover more quickly and craftsmen emerge
poised to embark on the industrial revolution
► Kings emerge as the dominant political force with
the nobles and Church trying to find their footing.
▪ The seeds which will grow into the English
parliamentary system are rooted.
▪ The power and role of the Church is drastically changed.

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The Calamitous 14th Century

  • 2. The Calamitous 14thCentury The Little Ice Age, The Hundred Years’ War, The Black Death, The Great Schism
  • 3. Little Ice Age (1250-1850) ► Climate change- growth of the ice sheets ► Caused by volcanic activity ► Results: ▪ Too much rain ▪ Some summers with snow in every month ▪ Crops failed ▪ Animals died ▪ People weakened from lack of food ►More susceptible to disease
  • 4. The 100 Years’ War ► Actually…116 years (1337-1453) ► Between France and England ► Fought entirely in France ► What did it achieve? ▪ Changes the map of France ▪ Changes the powers of the kings of France and England ▪ Changes to military weapons ▪ The downfall of feudalism
  • 5. Causes- who shall be the king of France????? Charles IV of France dies with no heir. ►Option I- a French noble, but who? Leads to a civil war among them ►Option II- Edward III of England- he was the Duke of Gascony and Aquitaine ▪ This also made him a vassal of the French king Royal flag of King Edward III Notice his French claim?
  • 6. The 100 Years War Round 1 – England reinforces her territory in France ( 1/3 of France ) Battle of Crecy 1346 – English victory Use of longbow INTERLUDE The Black Death!!! (1346-1352) & The Great Schism! (1378-1415) Why start fighting again? Round 2 – England goes on the offensive Battle of Agincourt 1415 – English victory England controls 2/3 of France Round 3 - Siege of Orleans – 1429 – French victory Joan of Arc France crowns a new king and pushes England back Round 4 - Battle of Castillon, Bourdeaux (1453)- French victory Use of cannons France takes all but one costal city England loses the war
  • 7. Click for video of the Battle of Crecy
  • 8. Major Battles Round 3 Siege of Orleans, France 1429 French hero- Joan of Arc- young girl who had visions of saving France. She obtained approval of French Dauphin to lead the French army. The Cathedral of Orleans is where the kings of France must be crowned, but the city was occupied by the English. Once the city is liberated and the Dauphin crowned king, he wants peace and orders the French army to stop fighting. Joan refuses She is later betrayed (by the new French king) to the English who burn her alive for being a witch and a heretic.
  • 9. What did it achieve? Changes to map of France France has 95% of it’s current size
  • 10. Changes to the power of the kings France Kings become more powerful - Power granted by the king to the nobles (knights) diminishes. - Power ascribed to the nobles by the peasants declines. (fewer knights offering less protection) - the taille (king’s tax) increases the power of the king. - Rise of French nationalism England Kings become less powerful - Power of the nobles increases 1341- it is put into law that Parliament (council of nobles) has to approve all taxes. - Conflict between the king and Parliament increases. - Dissatisfaction with kings leads to the War of the Roses, which weakens England.
  • 11. Weaponry and the downfall of Feudalism The English Longbow is used by peasants and can kill knights on horseback or in armor from long distance. Cannons advance in power and accuracy and can blow holes into castle and city walls. The purpose of knights (fighting/protecting) no longer exists. The reason for building castles (safety) no longer exists. = NO Feudalism
  • 12.
  • 13. The Black Death (overview) ► 1346-1352 ► Spread from Asia to Europe ► Killed 1/3 to ½ of the population (from 75 to 50 million) ► Up to 50% of some cities and entire towns and villages ► Profound economic effects ► Social changes from economic changes ► Political changes- kings gain power over nobles and Church ► Serfdom ends ► Cities spared: ▪ Milan ▪ Rome ▪ Mostly through quarantines Click here
  • 14. Types of Plague ► Bubonic ▪ Spread by fleas ▪ Black pus- filled lymph nodes ▪ Mortality rate:60% ▪ Death in 3-4 days ► Pneumonic ▪ Spread by people coughing ▪ Drown in their own blood ▪ Mortality rate: 95-100% ► Septemic ▪ Also spread by fleas ▪ Extremities turn black and die ▪ Mortality rate: 100% within one day Click Video
  • 15. Do you know this rhyme? Ring around the rosy Pocket full of posies Ashes, ashes We all fall down! A “rosy” or a rosary The wealthy had pomandersWhen graveyards filled up, bodies were burned in bonfires “Plague pit” Peasants wore dried flowers A “plague Doctor”
  • 16. Tracing its path ► Precisely followed global trade routes ► From China along Silk Road to Black Sea, then by boat to Italy then north to the rest of Europe.
  • 17. The Spread of the Plague
  • 18. Effects of the Plague on the Church The Church had been the source of knowledge and controlled the people’s lives. The Church’s only answer for “why?” was “God punishing the wicked”. The Church was powerless to stop or prevent the plague. The Church had been the source of hope and “salvation” for the people. Churches closed, sacraments denied as priests isolated themselves out of fear or died. When the people needed the Church the most, they were denied and the gates to Heaven were closed. The power of the church declined. Nobody listens to me anymore and people are not tithing.
  • 19. Economic Effects Peasants: Smaller labor supply Number of farm workers decreased so wages increased Per capita income increases because fewer people share the same amount of money Cost of food decreased because demand decreased Serfs left land to become artisans, went to cities Wages for skilled artisans soared Nobles: Land is worth less, so their power drops Supply of manufactured goods decreased resulting in an increase in price Income drops Prices increase You cant take it with you
  • 20. Political Effects Peasants: revolts in France, England, Spain and Holy Roman Empire as new laws forced them to stay on the land and froze wages - laws failed Nobles: Nobles lost their power- forced to pay more for luxury goods and farm labor Decline of knights: military is now professional paid armies rather than feudal system (see 100 Years’ War) Cities: Charters allow cities to govern themselves in return for loyalty to the king City governments gave more voice to craft guilds as demand for their goods increased
  • 21. Anti-Semitism and the Plague Jews had been both important to city life as moneylenders and persecuted by Christian society. Many Jews survived the plague itself because they were forcibly isolated from Christians and kept better hygiene. They were scapegoated as the source of the plague because they were not getting sick. Pogroms against them broke out in many cities, so many moved to Poland and Lithuania. Up to 200 were burned at the stake in one day
  • 22. The Great Schism (1378- 1417) Began as an argument between the King of France and the Pope- Who has more authority? 1305- old pope dies, new one is French, moves to Avignon, France. ▪ Popes live there until 1377 1377- Pope Urban VI is elected in Rome but French Cardinals refuse to recognize him so they Elect their own Pope. !!!! 2 Popes!!! (one in Rome, one in Avignon) The Popes excommunicated each other and the people who followed them. So, all Catholic Christians were going to Hell.
  • 23. 1408 Kings call the Council of Pisa: the Cardinals deposed both Popes and elected a new Pope. Both old Popes refused to step down, resulting in three popes!!!!! The Popes excommunicated each other and the people who followed them. So, all Catholic Christians are still going to hell. in 1417 the Council of Constance removed all three popes and selected Pope Martin V. Ends the Great Schism of the West. The Pope would never again be able to successfully challenge the power of the kings in Europe. The Great Schism Continued
  • 24. The End Result of the Calamitous 14th Century ► By the mid 15th century, plague and warfare Western Europe had lost 1/3 of its population ► Rural economies were destroyed ► Cities recover more quickly and craftsmen emerge poised to embark on the industrial revolution ► Kings emerge as the dominant political force with the nobles and Church trying to find their footing. ▪ The seeds which will grow into the English parliamentary system are rooted. ▪ The power and role of the Church is drastically changed.