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Teaching
Methodologies
Part 1
August 2018
-Aldy
Let’s observe a class in another part of the
globe
1. A class in Colombia
The class is a high-intermediate level English class at a university in
Colombia. There are 42 students in the class. Two-hour classes are
conducted three times a week.
2. A class in Italy
The class has 30 students who attend English class for one hour, three
times a week. The class we’ll observe is at the end of its first year of
English language instruction in a lower-secondary school.
Pair activity
• Read the class observation
• Share the gist to your partner
• Share what you think about the techniques used in the classes
Teaching Methodologies:
The Grammar-Translation & The Direct Method
A Class in Colombia: The Grammar-Translation Method
A Class in Colombia: The Grammar-Translation Method
A Class in Colombia: The Grammar-Translation Method
A Class in Colombia: The Grammar-Translation Method
A Class in Italy: The Direct Method
A Class in Italy: The Direct Method
A Class in Italy: The Direct Method
A Class in Italy: The Direct Method
The Grammar-Translation Vs The Direct Method
Teacher’s Goals
The Grammar-Translation Method
According to the teachers who use
the Grammar-Translation Method,
a fundamental purpose of learning a
language is to be able to read
literature written in the target
language. To do this, students need
to learn about the grammar rules
and vocabulary of the target
language.
The Direct Method
Teachers who use the Direct Method
intend that students learn how to
communicate in the target language.
In order to do this successfully,
students should learn to think in the
target language.
Teacher’s and Student’s Roles
The Grammar-Translation Method
The roles are very traditional. The
teacher is the authority in the
classroom. The students do as she
says so they can learn what she
knows.
The Direct Method
Although the teacher directs the
class activities, the student role is
less passive than in the Grammar-
Translation Method. The teacher
and the students are more like
partners in the teaching–learning
process.
Characteristics of the Teaching/Learning
Process
The Grammar-Translation Method
Students are taught to translate from one
language into another. Often what they
translate are readings in the target
language about some aspect of the culture
of the target language community. Students
study grammar deductively; that is, they
are given the grammar rules and examples,
are told to memorize them, and then are
asked to apply the rules to other examples.
They also learn grammatical paradigms
such as verb conjugations. They memorize
native language equivalents for target
language vocabulary words.
The Direct Method
Teachers who use the Direct Method believe students need
to associate meaning with the target language directly. In
order to do this, when the teacher introduces a new target
language word or phrase, he demonstrates its meaning
through the use of realia, pictures, or pantomime; he never
translates it into the students’ native language. Students
speak in the target language a great deal and communicate
as if they were in real situations. In fact, the syllabus used in
the Direct Method is based upon situations (for example,
one unit would consist of language that people would use at
a bank, another of the language that they use when going
shopping) or topics (such as geography, money, or the
weather). Grammar is taught inductively; that is, the
students are presented with examples and they figure out
the rule or generalization from the examples. An explicit
grammar rule may never be given. Students practice
vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences.
The Nature of Student–Teacher and Student–
Student Interaction
The Grammar-Translation Method
Most of the interaction in the
classroom is from the teacher to
the students. There is little
student initiation and little
student–student interaction.
The Direct Method
The initiation of the interaction
goes both ways, from teacher to
students and from students to
teacher, although the latter is
often teacher-directed. Students
converse with one another as
well.
How language and Culture is viewed
The Grammar-Translation Method
Literary language is considered
superior to spoken language and is
therefore the language the students
study. Culture is viewed as consisting
of literature and the fine arts.
The Direct Method
Language is primarily spoken, not
written. Therefore, students study
common, everyday speech in the
target language. They also study
culture consisting of the history of
the people who speak the target
language, the geography of the
country or countries where the
language is spoken, and information
about the daily lives of the speakers
of the language.
Areas of Language and Language Skills
Emphasized
The Grammar-Translation Method
Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized.
Reading and writing are the primary
skills that the students work on. There is
much less attention given to speaking and
listening. Pronunciation receives little, if
any, attention.
The Direct Method
Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar.
Although work on all four skills (reading,
writing, speaking, and listening) occurs from
the start, oral communication is seen
as basic. Thus the reading and writing
exercises are based upon what the students
practice orally first. Pronunciation also
receives attention right from the beginning
of a course.
The Role of the Students’ Native Language
The Grammar-Translation Method
The meaning of the target
language is made clear by
translating it into the students’
native language. The language
that is used in class is mostly the
students’ native language.
The Direct Method
The students’ native language
should not be used in the
classroom.
How Evaluation/Assessment is Accomplished
The Grammar-Translation Method
Written tests in which students are
asked to translate from their native
language into the target language or
vice versa are often used. Questions
about the target culture or questions
that ask students to apply grammar
rules are also common.
The Direct Method
students are asked to use the
language, not to demonstrate their
knowledge about the language. They
are asked to do so, using both oral
and written skills. For example, the
students might be interviewed orally
by the teacher or might be asked to
write a paragraph about something
they have studied.
How Teacher Responds to Student Errors
The Grammar-Translation Method
Having the students get the
correct answer is considered very
important. If students make errors
or do not know an answer, the
teacher supplies them with the
correct answer.
The Direct Method
The teacher, employing various
techniques, tries to get students
to self-correct whenever possible.
Reflection Time: the Take-aways
• Which method is best?
“We do not believe that there is a single best method.” (Prahbu, 1990).
“The choice among techniques and principles depends on learning outcomes.” (Larsen-
Freeman, 2011)
• Can 2 different methods employ the same technique or activity?
“…a technique might look very different and might lead students to very different
inferences about their learning, depending on the thoughts and beliefs of the teacher.”
(Larsen-Freeman, 2011)
“The techniques of one method can be used with another.”
• It is very important for us to become aware of the thoughts that guide our
actions in the classroom. With this awareness, we are able to examine why
we do what we do and perhaps choose to think about or do things
differently.
Thank you
Further reading:
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2010). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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teaching methodology part 1: grammar translation & direct method

  • 2. Let’s observe a class in another part of the globe 1. A class in Colombia The class is a high-intermediate level English class at a university in Colombia. There are 42 students in the class. Two-hour classes are conducted three times a week. 2. A class in Italy The class has 30 students who attend English class for one hour, three times a week. The class we’ll observe is at the end of its first year of English language instruction in a lower-secondary school.
  • 3. Pair activity • Read the class observation • Share the gist to your partner • Share what you think about the techniques used in the classes
  • 5. A Class in Colombia: The Grammar-Translation Method
  • 6. A Class in Colombia: The Grammar-Translation Method
  • 7. A Class in Colombia: The Grammar-Translation Method
  • 8. A Class in Colombia: The Grammar-Translation Method
  • 9. A Class in Italy: The Direct Method
  • 10. A Class in Italy: The Direct Method
  • 11. A Class in Italy: The Direct Method
  • 12. A Class in Italy: The Direct Method
  • 13. The Grammar-Translation Vs The Direct Method
  • 14. Teacher’s Goals The Grammar-Translation Method According to the teachers who use the Grammar-Translation Method, a fundamental purpose of learning a language is to be able to read literature written in the target language. To do this, students need to learn about the grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language. The Direct Method Teachers who use the Direct Method intend that students learn how to communicate in the target language. In order to do this successfully, students should learn to think in the target language.
  • 15. Teacher’s and Student’s Roles The Grammar-Translation Method The roles are very traditional. The teacher is the authority in the classroom. The students do as she says so they can learn what she knows. The Direct Method Although the teacher directs the class activities, the student role is less passive than in the Grammar- Translation Method. The teacher and the students are more like partners in the teaching–learning process.
  • 16. Characteristics of the Teaching/Learning Process The Grammar-Translation Method Students are taught to translate from one language into another. Often what they translate are readings in the target language about some aspect of the culture of the target language community. Students study grammar deductively; that is, they are given the grammar rules and examples, are told to memorize them, and then are asked to apply the rules to other examples. They also learn grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations. They memorize native language equivalents for target language vocabulary words. The Direct Method Teachers who use the Direct Method believe students need to associate meaning with the target language directly. In order to do this, when the teacher introduces a new target language word or phrase, he demonstrates its meaning through the use of realia, pictures, or pantomime; he never translates it into the students’ native language. Students speak in the target language a great deal and communicate as if they were in real situations. In fact, the syllabus used in the Direct Method is based upon situations (for example, one unit would consist of language that people would use at a bank, another of the language that they use when going shopping) or topics (such as geography, money, or the weather). Grammar is taught inductively; that is, the students are presented with examples and they figure out the rule or generalization from the examples. An explicit grammar rule may never be given. Students practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences.
  • 17. The Nature of Student–Teacher and Student– Student Interaction The Grammar-Translation Method Most of the interaction in the classroom is from the teacher to the students. There is little student initiation and little student–student interaction. The Direct Method The initiation of the interaction goes both ways, from teacher to students and from students to teacher, although the latter is often teacher-directed. Students converse with one another as well.
  • 18. How language and Culture is viewed The Grammar-Translation Method Literary language is considered superior to spoken language and is therefore the language the students study. Culture is viewed as consisting of literature and the fine arts. The Direct Method Language is primarily spoken, not written. Therefore, students study common, everyday speech in the target language. They also study culture consisting of the history of the people who speak the target language, the geography of the country or countries where the language is spoken, and information about the daily lives of the speakers of the language.
  • 19. Areas of Language and Language Skills Emphasized The Grammar-Translation Method Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized. Reading and writing are the primary skills that the students work on. There is much less attention given to speaking and listening. Pronunciation receives little, if any, attention. The Direct Method Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. Although work on all four skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) occurs from the start, oral communication is seen as basic. Thus the reading and writing exercises are based upon what the students practice orally first. Pronunciation also receives attention right from the beginning of a course.
  • 20. The Role of the Students’ Native Language The Grammar-Translation Method The meaning of the target language is made clear by translating it into the students’ native language. The language that is used in class is mostly the students’ native language. The Direct Method The students’ native language should not be used in the classroom.
  • 21. How Evaluation/Assessment is Accomplished The Grammar-Translation Method Written tests in which students are asked to translate from their native language into the target language or vice versa are often used. Questions about the target culture or questions that ask students to apply grammar rules are also common. The Direct Method students are asked to use the language, not to demonstrate their knowledge about the language. They are asked to do so, using both oral and written skills. For example, the students might be interviewed orally by the teacher or might be asked to write a paragraph about something they have studied.
  • 22. How Teacher Responds to Student Errors The Grammar-Translation Method Having the students get the correct answer is considered very important. If students make errors or do not know an answer, the teacher supplies them with the correct answer. The Direct Method The teacher, employing various techniques, tries to get students to self-correct whenever possible.
  • 23. Reflection Time: the Take-aways • Which method is best? “We do not believe that there is a single best method.” (Prahbu, 1990). “The choice among techniques and principles depends on learning outcomes.” (Larsen- Freeman, 2011) • Can 2 different methods employ the same technique or activity? “…a technique might look very different and might lead students to very different inferences about their learning, depending on the thoughts and beliefs of the teacher.” (Larsen-Freeman, 2011) “The techniques of one method can be used with another.” • It is very important for us to become aware of the thoughts that guide our actions in the classroom. With this awareness, we are able to examine why we do what we do and perhaps choose to think about or do things differently.
  • 24. Thank you Further reading: Larsen-Freeman, D. (2010). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.