Popular during World War II
Also known as “The Army Method”
Charles C. Fries
“First used in National Defense Language College, USA.1”
The goals of teachers?
The usage of the target language
AUTOMATICALLY –without stopping to think-
Form new habits in the TG and overcome the old habits of
their native language.
The role of the teacher?
Directing and controlling the
language behavior of the
A good model for imitation.
The role of the students?
Imitators of the teacher’s model.
Follow the teacher’s directions
and respond as rapidly as possible!
The role of the students’ native language?
It shouldn’t be used since it interferes with the students’
attemps to master the target language.
Some characteristics of the
New vocabulary and structural
patterns are presented through
Dialogs learned through imitation
Drills and positive
reinforcements are used.
Grammar is introduced from the
examples, NOT explicitly.
The nature of student-teacher and
Most interaction is between teacher and students.
Roles in dialogs.
But still teacher-directed…
How are the feelings of the students
There are NOT any principles of the method that relate
to this area…
How is the language and the culture viewed?
Every language is seen as having its own unique system.
Culture consists of the everyday behavior and lifestyle of the
target language speakers.
How is the evaluation accomplished?
The answer is NOT obvious, no formal test.
Distinguish between words in a minimal pair or supply an
appropriate verb form in a sentence??
How does the teacher respond to
Error Formation of bad habits.
They must be avoided!!!
Contains key items of phonology
morphology(word structure) and syntax (language
structure and phrasal hierarchies)
For basic vocabulary itemsa
First teach how to say orally
Not a native speaker??
No creativity. Only focuses on imitation and repetition.
Students’ intellectual capacity?
Is not meaningful
All the learners are the same???