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2030 SDG- 12 ENSURE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION
AND PRODUCTION PATTERNS
Farhana.K
EP/330
SPA Delhi
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
Biodiversity is a cross-cutting issue
and relevant for achieving all the
SDGs
Substantial gains in human well-being
and economic development over the
last century
• At the expense of ecosystem
degradation
At least 4 of nine planetary
boundaries have now been exceeded:
• climate change
• loss of biosphere
• land-system change
• altered biogeochemical cycles
(phosphorus and nitrogen)
Species extinction now at an
accelerating speed
Source: J. Lokrantz/Azote, in Rockström & Sukhdev (2016) and Folke et al. (2016)
Declines in:
• Crop and livestock genetic diversity
• Traditional knowledge and practices
associated with biodiversity and
ecosystem services
Humans increasingly depend on fewer
crops = more vulnerability and less
resilience to changes
Causes of biodiversity loss include:
• Lack of policy coherence
• Pollution
• Overexploitation through overfishing
and unsustainable agriculture, forestry
and fishery practices
Source: J. Lokrantz/Azote for Schultz et al. (2016)
A HIGH DEGREE OF RELEVANCY
Introduction
• The importance of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) has long been recognised
in global discourse, yet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) did not address this key
objective of achieving SCP patterns. The High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-
2015 Development Agenda specifically noted the omission.
• Many governments in the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
recognised that this objective should be embedded in the SDGs, either as a stand-alone goal,
or cutting across other goals on food, health, economic growth, industrialisation, cities and
ecosystems.
GOAL 12: ENSURE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION
AND PRODUCTION PATTERNS
1992:Chapter 4 of
Agenda 21,
endorsed by UNCED
identified
unsustainable CP
patterns, as the
major
cause behind the
continued
deterioration of the
global environment.
2002:The concept of
SCP was also
recognised in the
Johannesburg Plan
of
Implementation
adopted at the
World Summit
on Sustainable
Development
(WSSD).
2003:
Marrakesh
Process was
initiated to
develop a 10-
year
framework of
SCP
programmes.
2012: The United Nations
Conference on
Sustainable Development
(Rio+20) reaffirmed that
fundamental changes in
the way societies
consume and produce
are indispensable
for achieving global
sustainable development.
• Sustainable consumption and production has been defined as “the use of services and
related products which respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life, while
minimising the use of natural resources and toxic materials as well as the emission of waste
and pollutants over the life cycle of the service or product so as not to jeopardise the
needs of future generations” (ISSD 1994).
• Sustainable consumption and production (SCP) promotes social and economic
development within the carrying capacity of ecosystems, raises efficiency and ensures
sustainability in the use of resources and production processes, reducing resource
degradation, pollution and waste.
• The focus is on achieving more resource efficient and cleaner production, which aims at
reducing the risks to humans and the environment. Producing sustainably refers to
optimising the use of natural resources such as raw materials, energy, and water at all
stages of the production cycle, thus reducing the ecological footprint of products.
GOAL 12: ENSURE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION
AND PRODUCTION PATTERNS
1. Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and
production.
2. By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
3. By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce
food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
4. By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes
throughout their life cycle.
5. By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling
and reuse
6. Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable
practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle
7. Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national
policies and priorities
8. By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for
sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature
9. Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to
move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production
10. Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable
tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products.
11. Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption.
TARGETS
• SCP, by its cross cutting nature, addresses inter-linkages and adopts a holistic approach,
taking into account the economic, social and environmental aspects of sustainable
development in a balanced and integrated manner.
• Consumption and production activities are the basis of the global economy, but current
patterns are fast depleting natural capital, degrading ecosystem services and undermining
the capacity of countries to meet their needs in a sustained way. The shift to SCP patterns
implies increasing efficiency and productivity throughout the supply chain and the life cycle
of the products, now and over the long-term.
• Consumption and production are at the core of the global economy. Yet current
unsustainable production and consumption patterns lead to deforestation, water scarcity,
food waste, and high carbon emissions, and cause the degradation of key ecosystems.
Accomplishment of the SCP goal will create synergies and support attainment of other goals
on food, water and energy, while also contributing to climate change mitigation.
SCP and Ecosystem services
Examples
• In Peru, the SDG Fund is contributing to establish an inclusive value chain in the production
of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increased demand in the international
market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable
producers.
• In Fiji, the SDG Fund is promoting organic agriculture, a production system that sustains the
health of soils, ecosystems and people. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation
and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good
quality of life for all involved. The programme is working with the tourism industry to ensure
that organic production satisfies a growing demand in the industry.
• In Bolivia, the SDG Fund joint programme is supporting four municipalities to establish
sustainable agricultural production systems which will increase the incomes of the poorest
families and improve the nutritional state of boys, girls and mothers.
Reference
• Ford, L. (2015). Sustainable development goals: all you need to know. [online] the
Guardian.
• Sachs, J. (2012). From Millennium Development Goals to Sustainable Development
Goals. The Lancet, 379(9832), pp.2206-2211.
• Norwegian Ministry of Environment, Oslo Symposium on Sustainable Consumption
and Production (SCP), 1994; this has become the widely accepted definition of
sustainable consumption and production.
• World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, Global Monitoring Report 2013:
Rural-Urban Dynamics and the Millennium Development Goals(Washington, D.C.,
2013), p. xi, 22, 25.
Thank you!

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Sustainable development goal 12

  • 1. 2030 SDG- 12 ENSURE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION PATTERNS Farhana.K EP/330 SPA Delhi
  • 2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS Biodiversity is a cross-cutting issue and relevant for achieving all the SDGs Substantial gains in human well-being and economic development over the last century • At the expense of ecosystem degradation At least 4 of nine planetary boundaries have now been exceeded: • climate change • loss of biosphere • land-system change • altered biogeochemical cycles (phosphorus and nitrogen) Species extinction now at an accelerating speed Source: J. Lokrantz/Azote, in Rockström & Sukhdev (2016) and Folke et al. (2016)
  • 3. Declines in: • Crop and livestock genetic diversity • Traditional knowledge and practices associated with biodiversity and ecosystem services Humans increasingly depend on fewer crops = more vulnerability and less resilience to changes Causes of biodiversity loss include: • Lack of policy coherence • Pollution • Overexploitation through overfishing and unsustainable agriculture, forestry and fishery practices Source: J. Lokrantz/Azote for Schultz et al. (2016) A HIGH DEGREE OF RELEVANCY
  • 4. Introduction • The importance of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) has long been recognised in global discourse, yet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) did not address this key objective of achieving SCP patterns. The High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post- 2015 Development Agenda specifically noted the omission. • Many governments in the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognised that this objective should be embedded in the SDGs, either as a stand-alone goal, or cutting across other goals on food, health, economic growth, industrialisation, cities and ecosystems. GOAL 12: ENSURE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION PATTERNS 1992:Chapter 4 of Agenda 21, endorsed by UNCED identified unsustainable CP patterns, as the major cause behind the continued deterioration of the global environment. 2002:The concept of SCP was also recognised in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). 2003: Marrakesh Process was initiated to develop a 10- year framework of SCP programmes. 2012: The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) reaffirmed that fundamental changes in the way societies consume and produce are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development.
  • 5. • Sustainable consumption and production has been defined as “the use of services and related products which respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life, while minimising the use of natural resources and toxic materials as well as the emission of waste and pollutants over the life cycle of the service or product so as not to jeopardise the needs of future generations” (ISSD 1994). • Sustainable consumption and production (SCP) promotes social and economic development within the carrying capacity of ecosystems, raises efficiency and ensures sustainability in the use of resources and production processes, reducing resource degradation, pollution and waste. • The focus is on achieving more resource efficient and cleaner production, which aims at reducing the risks to humans and the environment. Producing sustainably refers to optimising the use of natural resources such as raw materials, energy, and water at all stages of the production cycle, thus reducing the ecological footprint of products. GOAL 12: ENSURE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION PATTERNS
  • 6. 1. Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production. 2. By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources 3. By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses 4. By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle. 5. By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse 6. Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle 7. Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities 8. By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature 9. Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production 10. Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products. 11. Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption. TARGETS
  • 7. • SCP, by its cross cutting nature, addresses inter-linkages and adopts a holistic approach, taking into account the economic, social and environmental aspects of sustainable development in a balanced and integrated manner. • Consumption and production activities are the basis of the global economy, but current patterns are fast depleting natural capital, degrading ecosystem services and undermining the capacity of countries to meet their needs in a sustained way. The shift to SCP patterns implies increasing efficiency and productivity throughout the supply chain and the life cycle of the products, now and over the long-term. • Consumption and production are at the core of the global economy. Yet current unsustainable production and consumption patterns lead to deforestation, water scarcity, food waste, and high carbon emissions, and cause the degradation of key ecosystems. Accomplishment of the SCP goal will create synergies and support attainment of other goals on food, water and energy, while also contributing to climate change mitigation. SCP and Ecosystem services
  • 8. Examples • In Peru, the SDG Fund is contributing to establish an inclusive value chain in the production of quinoa and other Andean grains, so that the increased demand in the international market can convert into economic and social improvements of currently vulnerable producers. • In Fiji, the SDG Fund is promoting organic agriculture, a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. The programme is working with the tourism industry to ensure that organic production satisfies a growing demand in the industry. • In Bolivia, the SDG Fund joint programme is supporting four municipalities to establish sustainable agricultural production systems which will increase the incomes of the poorest families and improve the nutritional state of boys, girls and mothers.
  • 9. Reference • Ford, L. (2015). Sustainable development goals: all you need to know. [online] the Guardian. • Sachs, J. (2012). From Millennium Development Goals to Sustainable Development Goals. The Lancet, 379(9832), pp.2206-2211. • Norwegian Ministry of Environment, Oslo Symposium on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP), 1994; this has become the widely accepted definition of sustainable consumption and production. • World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, Global Monitoring Report 2013: Rural-Urban Dynamics and the Millennium Development Goals(Washington, D.C., 2013), p. xi, 22, 25.

Editor's Notes

  1. The paper has supported considerations on this topic in Sweden and in the EU.
  2. Substantial gains in human well-being and economic development have taken place in the last century, but at the expense of ecosystem degradation. Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth system have reached a scale where the risks of abrupt global environmental change can no longer be discounted. The planetary boundaries framework for global sustainability identifies nine Earth system boundaries that together delineate a safe operating space for humanity, helping to secure the future for human well-being and development: climate change; changes in biosphere integrity (biodiversity loss and extinctions); altered biogeochemical flows (interference with the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles); stratospheric ozone depletion; ocean acidification; freshwater use; land-system change; introduction of novel entities (human-made new substances); and atmospheric aerosol loading.   At least four of nine planetary boundaries have now been crossed as a result of human activity: climate change, loss of biosphere integrity, land-system change, and altered biogeochemical cycles (phosphorus and nitrogen). Two of these, climate change and biosphere integrity, are what the scientists call "core boundaries". Significantly altering either of these would "drive the Earth System into a new state.",   The extinction of species is taking place at an accelerating speed. Nearly a quarter of the planet’s plant species are threatened with extinction while global populations of fish, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles declined by 58% between 1970 and 2012 and this could increase to 66% by 2020. One recent study under the Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) shows that 40% of pollinator species, such as bees and butterflies, face a risk of extinction, with potential devastating consequences for food and livelihoods since 75% of our food crops are dependent on pollinators.
  3. Biodiversity and ecosystem services are relevant for all SDGs Biodiversity is a cross-cutting issue and relevant for the achievement of all the SDGs. Paragraph 33 of the 2030 Agenda document focuses entirely on biodiversity, ecosystems and related matters, and biodiversity and ecosystems feature prominently throughout the 2030 Agenda. Four biosphere-based Goals are the fundamental non-negotiable safe operating space for humanity. SDG15 life on land, SDG14 life below water, SDG6 clean water and sanitation, and SDG13 climate action. Crop and livestock genetic diversity continues to decline, as well as traditional knowledge and practices associated with biodiversity and ecosystem services. Humans increasingly depend on fewer crops to cater for their survival, creating a system that is more vulnerable and less resilient to changes.   Causes of biodiversity loss include a lack of policy coherence, pollution, overexploitation such as overfishing, and other unsustainable practices in agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Agriculture accounts for 70% of the projected loss of terrestrial biodiversity, and a growing world population will put further pressure on food production systems through rapidly raising food demand. Addressing trends in food production and consumption is therefore crucial, especially when striving to eradicate hunger.
  4. When apparently incompatible goals and targets are identified, guidance should be offered on how to resolve the conflict, e.g. through stated priorities. There is also a need to identify new and emerging issues that are not covered in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets nor the SDGs, building on the results of e.g. the IPBES Global Assessment and the fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO5), and possibly to formulate goals and targets regarding such issues in the new Strategic Plan. For targets that have been met, it should be considered whether there is simply a need for a revised target year, perhaps with an increased level of ambition, or to consider an entirely new target within the same subject area, if needed. For targets that have not been met, a thorough analysis of the reasons for not achieving the expected results must be undertaken, which should guide the formulation of a new target. The level of ambition should not be lowered.
  5. When apparently incompatible goals and targets are identified, guidance should be offered on how to resolve the conflict, e.g. through stated priorities. There is also a need to identify new and emerging issues that are not covered in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets nor the SDGs, building on the results of e.g. the IPBES Global Assessment and the fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO5), and possibly to formulate goals and targets regarding such issues in the new Strategic Plan. For targets that have been met, it should be considered whether there is simply a need for a revised target year, perhaps with an increased level of ambition, or to consider an entirely new target within the same subject area, if needed. For targets that have not been met, a thorough analysis of the reasons for not achieving the expected results must be undertaken, which should guide the formulation of a new target. The level of ambition should not be lowered.
  6. When apparently incompatible goals and targets are identified, guidance should be offered on how to resolve the conflict, e.g. through stated priorities. There is also a need to identify new and emerging issues that are not covered in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets nor the SDGs, building on the results of e.g. the IPBES Global Assessment and the fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO5), and possibly to formulate goals and targets regarding such issues in the new Strategic Plan. For targets that have been met, it should be considered whether there is simply a need for a revised target year, perhaps with an increased level of ambition, or to consider an entirely new target within the same subject area, if needed. For targets that have not been met, a thorough analysis of the reasons for not achieving the expected results must be undertaken, which should guide the formulation of a new target. The level of ambition should not be lowered.
  7. When apparently incompatible goals and targets are identified, guidance should be offered on how to resolve the conflict, e.g. through stated priorities. There is also a need to identify new and emerging issues that are not covered in the Aichi Biodiversity Targets nor the SDGs, building on the results of e.g. the IPBES Global Assessment and the fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO5), and possibly to formulate goals and targets regarding such issues in the new Strategic Plan. For targets that have been met, it should be considered whether there is simply a need for a revised target year, perhaps with an increased level of ambition, or to consider an entirely new target within the same subject area, if needed. For targets that have not been met, a thorough analysis of the reasons for not achieving the expected results must be undertaken, which should guide the formulation of a new target. The level of ambition should not be lowered.