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States, Nation and
Globalization
Objective
•Define nation and state
•Differentiate Nation from State
Concept of State
• From the Latin word stare (to stand)
• Is a community of persons more or less occupying a
definite territory possessing an organize government
and enjoying independence or external control.The
elements of which are sovereignty, people, territory
and government.
• Self governing political entity.
• Can be used interchangeably with country.
Elements of State
•People
•Territory
•Sovereignty
•Government
People
It is the entire body of those citizens
of a state who are invested with
political or for political purposes.
Territory
• It is the geographical area under the
jurisdiction of another country or
sovereign power of a state. It must be a
fixed territory with inhabitants occupy.
• Refers to the portion of the earth which
composed of aerial (above), fluvial (waters
around and connecting the islands of the
archipelago) and terrestrial (land mass)
domains.
Modes of AcquiringTerritory
•By discovering or occupation.
•By Prescription.
•By Cession.
•By Subjugation and Annexation.
•By Accretion.
By discovering or occupation
•A state may acquire territory by discovering a
continent, an island or land with no inhabitants or
occupied by uncivilized inhabitants and there after
occupying it under its political administration.
• Uninhabited lands
• Land inhabited by uncivilized persons
• Land discovered but failed to occupy it for unreasonable
length of time
By Prescription
It is the mode of acquiring territory through
continuous and undisputed exercise of
sovereignty over it during such period as is
necessary to create under the present
condition of things is in conformity with
international order.
By Cession
It is the assignment transfer or yielding up
of territory by one state or government to
another.
By Subjugation and Annexation
It is a mode of acquiring territory belonging to a
state by occupation and conquest made by
another state in the course of war and by
annexation of the end of a war.
By Accretion
Another mode of acquiring territory by
addition of portion of soil, either artificial or
natural.
Maritime terms
• Territorial Sea – Coastal state have sovereignty, including exclusive
fishing rights (12 nautical miles).
• Contiguous Zone – Coastal state can enforce its customs,
immigration. And sanitation laws and exercise “hot pursuit” out of its
territorial waters ( 24 nautical miles)
• Exclusive Economic Zone – state has recognized rights to explore,
eploit, conserve, and manage the natural resources (200 nautical
miles)
• Continental Shelf – countries have exclusive rights to natural
resources up to 350 nautical miles.
• High Seas - beyond EEZ “common heritage of humankind.”
Government
•As an element of state, it is the totality of authorities
which rule a society by prescribing and carrying out
the fundamental rules which regulate the freedom of
each member. It is derived from “Gubernaculum”
meaning “rudder.”
•Refers to the institution or agency or
instrumentalities through which the state maintains
social order, provide public services, and enforces
binding decisions.
Two kinds of Government
De Jure (Legitimate) Government
It is one established in accordance to the constitution of the
nation and lawfully entitled to recognition and supremacy and
administration of the nation but which is actually cut off from
power or control.
De facto (Illegitimate) Government
It is one that maintains itself by display of force against the will
of the rightful legal government and is successful at least
temporarily in overturning the institution of the rightful legal
government by setting its own in lieu thereof.
Forms of Government
As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers:
Monarchy - The sovereign power is vested in a single
person.
Absolute Monarchy - One in which the ruler rules by
divine right.
Limited Monarchy - One in which the ruler rules in
accordance with constitution.
Forms of Government
As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers:
Aristocracy - The political power is exercised by few
privileged class.
Democracy - One in which the political power eased by a
majority of the people.
Types of Democracy
Direct or pure democracy - One in which the will of the
state is formulated or expressed directly and immediately
though the people in the mass meeting or primary
assembly rather than through the medium of delegates
or representatives chosen to act for them.
Types of Democracy
Indirect, representative or republican democracy - One which
the will of the state is formulated and expressed through the
agency of a relatively small and select body of persons chosen
by the people to act as their representatives.
Forms of Government
As to extent of powers exercised by the central or
national government
Unitary government - One in which the control of
national and local affairs is exercised by the central of
national government.
Federal government - One in which the power of the
government are divided between two sets of organ, one
for national affairs and the other for local affairs.
Forms of Government
As to relationship between the executive and legislative
branches of the government
Parliamentary government - The state confers upon the
legislature the power to terminate the tenure of office of
the real executive.
Presidential – is a form of government in which executive
branch exist separately from the legislature.The President
is constitutionally independent of the legislature because
they are elected directly by the people.
Sovereignty
•Refers to supreme and absolute power
within its territorial boundaries.
•It is the supreme absolute and
uncontrollable power by which an
independent state is governed
Kinds of Sovereignty
Internal Sovereignty
• It is the power to control and direct the internal affairs
of the country.We have the right to enact, execute
and apply laws.
External sovereignty
• It is the power of an independent state to control and
direct its external affairs. We have the authority to
enter into treaties with other countries, to wage war
and to receive and send diplomatic missions.
Inherent Power of State
1. Police Power – Power of the state to
regulate freedoms and property rights of
individuals for the protection of public safety,
health, and morals or the promotion of the
public convenience and general prosperity.
Inherent Power of State
2. Eminent Domain – power of the state to
take private property for public use upon
payment of just compensation.
It is exercised through national and local
government and private persons or
corporation authorized to exercise function
of public character.
Inherent Power of State
3.Taxation – power to impose tax on individuals and
properties to support the government.
Tax – Life blood of government
Uniform taxation – persons or things belonging to the
same class shall be tax at the same rate.
Equitable taxation – tax burden must be imposed
according to the taxpayers capacity to pay.
Progressive taxation – as the resources of the taxpayer
becomes higher his rate likewise increase
Nation
It is defined as people or aggregation of men existing in
the form of an organize society usually inhabiting a
distinct portion of the earth, speaking the same language,
using the same customs, possessing historic continuity
and disguised from other like group by their racial origin
and characteristic and generally but not necessarily living
under the same government and sovereignty.
Nation
A complex phenomenon shaped by a collection of
cultural, political, and psychological factors
Is the social construction of a collective identity.
A group of people who share same history, geography,
language, customs, and sometimes religion.
State vs. Nation
State Nation
It is legal political / Juridical
Concept
It is racial cultural / Ethnical
Concept
People organized for a law
within a definite territory.
People psychologically joined
together with common will to
live together.
A state must be sovereign People continue as a nation
even if they do not remain
sovereign.
It is formal It is informal
There can be a state with
several nations
There can be a nation without
a state.
Globalization
•Refers to processes whereby many social relations
become relatively delinked from territorial geography, so
that human lives are increasingly played out in the world
as a single place
•is a force that changed the way nation-states deal with
one another, particularly in the area of international
commerce.
Globalization FavorsWesternization
•Other nation-states are at a disadvantage when
dealing with the Americas and Europe.
•nation-states are forced to examine their economic
policies in light of the many challenges and
opportunities that multinational corporations and
other entities of international commerce present.

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statesnationandglobalization-221003125523-f89049a4.pdf

  • 2. Objective •Define nation and state •Differentiate Nation from State
  • 3. Concept of State • From the Latin word stare (to stand) • Is a community of persons more or less occupying a definite territory possessing an organize government and enjoying independence or external control.The elements of which are sovereignty, people, territory and government. • Self governing political entity. • Can be used interchangeably with country.
  • 5. People It is the entire body of those citizens of a state who are invested with political or for political purposes.
  • 6. Territory • It is the geographical area under the jurisdiction of another country or sovereign power of a state. It must be a fixed territory with inhabitants occupy. • Refers to the portion of the earth which composed of aerial (above), fluvial (waters around and connecting the islands of the archipelago) and terrestrial (land mass) domains.
  • 7. Modes of AcquiringTerritory •By discovering or occupation. •By Prescription. •By Cession. •By Subjugation and Annexation. •By Accretion.
  • 8. By discovering or occupation •A state may acquire territory by discovering a continent, an island or land with no inhabitants or occupied by uncivilized inhabitants and there after occupying it under its political administration. • Uninhabited lands • Land inhabited by uncivilized persons • Land discovered but failed to occupy it for unreasonable length of time
  • 9. By Prescription It is the mode of acquiring territory through continuous and undisputed exercise of sovereignty over it during such period as is necessary to create under the present condition of things is in conformity with international order.
  • 10. By Cession It is the assignment transfer or yielding up of territory by one state or government to another.
  • 11. By Subjugation and Annexation It is a mode of acquiring territory belonging to a state by occupation and conquest made by another state in the course of war and by annexation of the end of a war.
  • 12. By Accretion Another mode of acquiring territory by addition of portion of soil, either artificial or natural.
  • 13. Maritime terms • Territorial Sea – Coastal state have sovereignty, including exclusive fishing rights (12 nautical miles). • Contiguous Zone – Coastal state can enforce its customs, immigration. And sanitation laws and exercise “hot pursuit” out of its territorial waters ( 24 nautical miles) • Exclusive Economic Zone – state has recognized rights to explore, eploit, conserve, and manage the natural resources (200 nautical miles) • Continental Shelf – countries have exclusive rights to natural resources up to 350 nautical miles. • High Seas - beyond EEZ “common heritage of humankind.”
  • 14. Government •As an element of state, it is the totality of authorities which rule a society by prescribing and carrying out the fundamental rules which regulate the freedom of each member. It is derived from “Gubernaculum” meaning “rudder.” •Refers to the institution or agency or instrumentalities through which the state maintains social order, provide public services, and enforces binding decisions.
  • 15. Two kinds of Government De Jure (Legitimate) Government It is one established in accordance to the constitution of the nation and lawfully entitled to recognition and supremacy and administration of the nation but which is actually cut off from power or control. De facto (Illegitimate) Government It is one that maintains itself by display of force against the will of the rightful legal government and is successful at least temporarily in overturning the institution of the rightful legal government by setting its own in lieu thereof.
  • 16. Forms of Government As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers: Monarchy - The sovereign power is vested in a single person. Absolute Monarchy - One in which the ruler rules by divine right. Limited Monarchy - One in which the ruler rules in accordance with constitution.
  • 17. Forms of Government As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers: Aristocracy - The political power is exercised by few privileged class. Democracy - One in which the political power eased by a majority of the people.
  • 18. Types of Democracy Direct or pure democracy - One in which the will of the state is formulated or expressed directly and immediately though the people in the mass meeting or primary assembly rather than through the medium of delegates or representatives chosen to act for them.
  • 19. Types of Democracy Indirect, representative or republican democracy - One which the will of the state is formulated and expressed through the agency of a relatively small and select body of persons chosen by the people to act as their representatives.
  • 20. Forms of Government As to extent of powers exercised by the central or national government Unitary government - One in which the control of national and local affairs is exercised by the central of national government. Federal government - One in which the power of the government are divided between two sets of organ, one for national affairs and the other for local affairs.
  • 21. Forms of Government As to relationship between the executive and legislative branches of the government Parliamentary government - The state confers upon the legislature the power to terminate the tenure of office of the real executive. Presidential – is a form of government in which executive branch exist separately from the legislature.The President is constitutionally independent of the legislature because they are elected directly by the people.
  • 22. Sovereignty •Refers to supreme and absolute power within its territorial boundaries. •It is the supreme absolute and uncontrollable power by which an independent state is governed
  • 23. Kinds of Sovereignty Internal Sovereignty • It is the power to control and direct the internal affairs of the country.We have the right to enact, execute and apply laws. External sovereignty • It is the power of an independent state to control and direct its external affairs. We have the authority to enter into treaties with other countries, to wage war and to receive and send diplomatic missions.
  • 24. Inherent Power of State 1. Police Power – Power of the state to regulate freedoms and property rights of individuals for the protection of public safety, health, and morals or the promotion of the public convenience and general prosperity.
  • 25. Inherent Power of State 2. Eminent Domain – power of the state to take private property for public use upon payment of just compensation. It is exercised through national and local government and private persons or corporation authorized to exercise function of public character.
  • 26. Inherent Power of State 3.Taxation – power to impose tax on individuals and properties to support the government. Tax – Life blood of government Uniform taxation – persons or things belonging to the same class shall be tax at the same rate. Equitable taxation – tax burden must be imposed according to the taxpayers capacity to pay. Progressive taxation – as the resources of the taxpayer becomes higher his rate likewise increase
  • 27. Nation It is defined as people or aggregation of men existing in the form of an organize society usually inhabiting a distinct portion of the earth, speaking the same language, using the same customs, possessing historic continuity and disguised from other like group by their racial origin and characteristic and generally but not necessarily living under the same government and sovereignty.
  • 28. Nation A complex phenomenon shaped by a collection of cultural, political, and psychological factors Is the social construction of a collective identity. A group of people who share same history, geography, language, customs, and sometimes religion.
  • 29. State vs. Nation State Nation It is legal political / Juridical Concept It is racial cultural / Ethnical Concept People organized for a law within a definite territory. People psychologically joined together with common will to live together. A state must be sovereign People continue as a nation even if they do not remain sovereign. It is formal It is informal There can be a state with several nations There can be a nation without a state.
  • 30. Globalization •Refers to processes whereby many social relations become relatively delinked from territorial geography, so that human lives are increasingly played out in the world as a single place •is a force that changed the way nation-states deal with one another, particularly in the area of international commerce.
  • 31. Globalization FavorsWesternization •Other nation-states are at a disadvantage when dealing with the Americas and Europe. •nation-states are forced to examine their economic policies in light of the many challenges and opportunities that multinational corporations and other entities of international commerce present.