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IMPERIALISM:
Beginnings and Basic
Structures
© Student Handouts, Inc. www.studenthandouts.com
COLONIALISM SPEEDS UP
Age of Exploration
↓
Europeans raced for overseas colonies
↓
Growth of European commerce and trade
worldwide
↓
Commercial Revolution
“OLD” IMPERIALISM
•1500s-1700s
•England, France, Holland, Portugal, and
Spain
•Wars over colonies
INTERLUDE – LATE 1700s-LATE 1800s
Europeans were preoccupied with happenings on
the European continent and in the existing
European colonies.
American Revolution
French Revolution
Napoleonic Wars
Latin American Wars for Independence
Growth of Nationalism
Industrial Revolution
“NEW” IMPERIALISM
•Beginning circa 1875
•Renewed race for colonies
•Spurred by needs created by the Industrial
Revolution
•New markets for finished goods
•New sources of raw materials
•Nationalism
•Colonies = economic and political power
•Social Darwinism = racist justification
WHAT IS “NEW” IMPERIALISM?
•No longer about setting up colonies or
exercising direct control over areas
•Became largely economic
•Possession or control of an area for economic
gain
•Spheres of influence and extraterritoriality
rather than colonial settlement
ECONOMIC MOTIVES
•Markets for finished goods
•Products of British Industrial Revolution sold in China
and India
•Sources of raw materials
•Egypt – cotton
•Malaya – rubber and tin
•Middle East – oil
•Capital investments
•Profits from Industrial Revolution invested in mines,
railroads, etc., in unindustrialized areas
POLITICAL MOTIVES
•Nationalism – national pride
“The sun never sets on the British empire.”
•Large empires increased national pride
•French acquisitions in Africa and Asia followed
France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
MILITARY MOTIVES
•Bases
•British naval bases
•Aden, Alexandria, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Singapore
•Manpower
•British – Indian sepoys
•French – north African troops
SOCIAL MOTIVES
•Surplus population
•Japanese in Korea
•Italians in Africa
•“White Man’s Burden”
•Rudyard Kipling’s poetry and prose
•Whites morally obligated to bring the “blessings of
civilization” to “backward” peoples
•Cecil Rhodes – imperialism is “philanthropy—plus
five percent”
RELIGIOUS MOTIVES
•Conversion to Christianity
•End-of-the-century crusading spirit
•Missionaries in Africa, Asia, Hawaii, etc.
†
JUSTIFICATIONS
•Social Darwinism
•Interpreted Darwin’s evolutionary theory in terms of
powerful nations
•“Only the strong survive”
•Powerful nations able to develop areas and
resources being “wasted” by native peoples
•Racism
•Increased feelings of white superiority
•Increased feelings of Japanese superiority
•Eugenics developed as a branch of science
CONCEPT OF “RACES” CIRCA 1900
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Describe three motives for imperialism.
2. Describe three types of imperialism.
3. Which nations became imperial powers?
4. Which nations were controlled by
imperial powers?
5. How did imperial powers justify their
control over foreign nations?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OJe1W_HIWmA

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IMPERIALISM.pptggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg

  • 1. IMPERIALISM: Beginnings and Basic Structures © Student Handouts, Inc. www.studenthandouts.com
  • 2. COLONIALISM SPEEDS UP Age of Exploration ↓ Europeans raced for overseas colonies ↓ Growth of European commerce and trade worldwide ↓ Commercial Revolution
  • 3. “OLD” IMPERIALISM •1500s-1700s •England, France, Holland, Portugal, and Spain •Wars over colonies
  • 4. INTERLUDE – LATE 1700s-LATE 1800s Europeans were preoccupied with happenings on the European continent and in the existing European colonies. American Revolution French Revolution Napoleonic Wars Latin American Wars for Independence Growth of Nationalism Industrial Revolution
  • 5. “NEW” IMPERIALISM •Beginning circa 1875 •Renewed race for colonies •Spurred by needs created by the Industrial Revolution •New markets for finished goods •New sources of raw materials •Nationalism •Colonies = economic and political power •Social Darwinism = racist justification
  • 6. WHAT IS “NEW” IMPERIALISM? •No longer about setting up colonies or exercising direct control over areas •Became largely economic •Possession or control of an area for economic gain •Spheres of influence and extraterritoriality rather than colonial settlement
  • 7. ECONOMIC MOTIVES •Markets for finished goods •Products of British Industrial Revolution sold in China and India •Sources of raw materials •Egypt – cotton •Malaya – rubber and tin •Middle East – oil •Capital investments •Profits from Industrial Revolution invested in mines, railroads, etc., in unindustrialized areas
  • 8. POLITICAL MOTIVES •Nationalism – national pride “The sun never sets on the British empire.” •Large empires increased national pride •French acquisitions in Africa and Asia followed France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
  • 9. MILITARY MOTIVES •Bases •British naval bases •Aden, Alexandria, Cyprus, Hong Kong, Singapore •Manpower •British – Indian sepoys •French – north African troops
  • 10. SOCIAL MOTIVES •Surplus population •Japanese in Korea •Italians in Africa •“White Man’s Burden” •Rudyard Kipling’s poetry and prose •Whites morally obligated to bring the “blessings of civilization” to “backward” peoples •Cecil Rhodes – imperialism is “philanthropy—plus five percent”
  • 11. RELIGIOUS MOTIVES •Conversion to Christianity •End-of-the-century crusading spirit •Missionaries in Africa, Asia, Hawaii, etc. †
  • 12. JUSTIFICATIONS •Social Darwinism •Interpreted Darwin’s evolutionary theory in terms of powerful nations •“Only the strong survive” •Powerful nations able to develop areas and resources being “wasted” by native peoples •Racism •Increased feelings of white superiority •Increased feelings of Japanese superiority •Eugenics developed as a branch of science
  • 14. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Describe three motives for imperialism. 2. Describe three types of imperialism. 3. Which nations became imperial powers? 4. Which nations were controlled by imperial powers? 5. How did imperial powers justify their control over foreign nations? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OJe1W_HIWmA

Editor's Notes

  1. Possible anecdotes: Colonization of the Americas, mercantilism, etc.
  2. Possible anecdotes: French and Indian War (Seven Years’ War), Spanish and Portuguese competition in Latin America, etc.
  3. Possible anecdote: The loss of colonies in the Americas helped spur interest in new colonies while also illustrating the need for change in the nature of imperialism.
  4. Possible anecdote: British textile mills required more cotton than could be produced in Great Britain.
  5. Possible anecdote: Many foreign countries had to be coerced to purchase European goods. Railroads were built throughout Europeans’ colonial possessions and in areas where industrialized nations held economic and political influuence.
  6. Possible anecdote: The legacy of empires is reflected in languages spoken around the world today, particularly English.
  7. Possible anecdote: Compare the use of native troops within the British and French empires with the use of “barbarian” troops within the Roman empire, with the idea that imperial powers historically have never had enough of their own troops to maintain their empires.
  8. Possible anecdote: Did imperial powers bestow any positive benefits? Did these benefits outweigh the costs of colonization?
  9. Possible anecdote: In what ways did well-intentioned missionaries become cultural imperialists?
  10. Possible anecdote: Racism and eugenics developed and/or increased simultaneously to justify the dominance of imperial powers, both among the Japanese and Europeans.
  11. Possible anecdote: Discussion about how the concept of races is outdated and has been proven incorrect through modern research into human migrations and DNA.