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State of the Art
  Web Mapping
with Open Source
OSCON 2012 | Dane Springmeyer
@springmeyer
 github / twitter
see also:
           Justin Miller
Building a mobile, offline mapping stack
        using open tools & data

        5pm Wednesday, F150
Background

    Engineer @ MapBox
 Building TileMill and Mapnik
Web performance / rendering
github / twitter
http://mapbox.com
We provide services & open source tools
open source tools
    to cover
CartoDB
TileMill
•
maps are simple
   (a primer)
geodata as
  just another
data field / type
cartography as just a
 sexy form of data
    visualization
location: lat/lon, x/y

    attributes:
 name, type, value
styles separate from
data akin to css/html
CartoCSS
@motorway: #90BFE0;

.highway[TYPE='motorway'] {

  .line[zoom>=0]    {

      line-color: spin(darken(@motorway,36),-10);

      line-cap:round;

      line-join:round;

  }

  .fill[zoom>=10] {

      line-color:@motorway;

      line-cap:round;

      line-join:round;}}
spatial types
point:	

	

 	

 	

 •
line:	

	

 	

 	

 	

 	

 -----------
polygon:
                             _____
                            |_____|
Multi* types
  many to one
geometries   feature
tabular geo-csv
 latitude    longitude   name



45.5        -122.6       PDX
tabular geo-csv
        (multipoint)
        WKT                     Name
 MULTIPOINT ((10 40),
(40 30), (20 20), (30 10))
                             Group of Cities
geojson
 { "type": "FeatureCollection",
   "features": [
     { "type": "Feature",
         "properties": { "name": "PDX" },
         "geometry" : { "type": "Point",
            "coordinates": [ -122.6, 45.5 ]
          }
     }]}

Works everywhere: e.g QGIS, TileMill, Web clients
postgis
postgis=# select 'POINT(-122.6
45.5)'::geometry as geom,'PDX'::text as name;

                    geom                    | name
--------------------------------------------+------
 01010000006666666666A65EC00000000000C04640 | PDX
(1 row)



                                     WKB
                              (Well Known Binary)
postgis
postgis=# select ST_Distance('POINT(-122.6
45.5)'::geography,'POINT(-122.3
47.6)'::geography)/1609.344 as
dist_in_miles_from_pdx_to_sea;

 dist_in_miles_from_pdx_to_sea
-------------------------------
              145.755555956692
(1 row)
minimal code for
simple maps, both
 server and client
Mapnik

var mapnik = require('mapnik');
var map = new mapnik.Map(256, 256);
map.loadSync('map.xml');
map.zoomAll();
map.renderFileSync('map.png');
Leaflet
<html>
<head>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="http://cdn.leafletjs.com/leaflet-0.3.1/leaflet.css" />
  <script src="http://cdn.leafletjs.com/leaflet-0.3.1/leaflet.js"></script>
</head>
<body>
! <div id="map" style="width: 100%; height: 100%"></div>
  <script>
   var map = new L.Map('map');
   var osm = new L.TileLayer('http://tile.osm.org/{z}/{x}/{y}.png');
   map.setView(new L.LatLng(45.5, -122.65), 12).addLayer(osm);
   var pdx = { "type": "FeatureCollection", "features": [ { "type": "Feature",
     "properties": { "name": "PDX" },
     "geometry" : { "type": "Point","coordinates": [ -122.65, 45.5 ]}}]
   };
   map.addLayer(new L.GeoJSON(pdx));
  </script>
</body>
</html>
•
but maps are
    hard
geodata can be
messy and multi-
  resolution
geodata can be
    huge
geodata can be
   dynamic
data    story
takes too long
maps as the single
lock-in point (google)
  or point of failure
 (Slow WMS, IE support, clashing
           design)
•
how modern
web maps work
or, how to tell stories
  with maps quickly,
 ensure they are fast
    under load and
      work in IE
open data
         osm.org
   naturalearthdata.com
us census (geo/www/tiger)
local governments portals
serverside
pre-processing
gradually work
   clientside
tile renderers
mapnik / mapserver
fast app servers
Node.js/Python/C++
pre-processed
pre-rendered
  cacheable
beautiful graphics
 Antigrain Geometry
   Cairo Graphics
standard formats
  geojson, wkt, csv,
  shapefile, postgis,
       geotiff
tiled data
bake big data   bitmaps
pre-render where
possible, but beware the
      world is big
coming...
optimized tiled formats
like msgpack, protobuf
    (not just bitmaps)
coming ...
optimized tiled storage
     and indexing
coming ...
  more robust and
configurable clientside
     renderers
UI: Browser JS client / Mobile Native client

   Render:                            Display:
Hardware Vector                       <img> tiles
   Renderer



 Data Tiles:                        Image Tiles:
Optimized vectors                   Software Vector
                                       Renderer


  Storage: Database / Flat file (Spatially Indexed)
     Data Processing: GIS Apps, Scripting
UI: Leaflet / ModestMaps / RouteMe

    Render:                         Display:
 Kothic.js / Vecnik                all browers
(Canvas/WebGL in                     support
 some browsers)


  Data Tiles:                    Image Tiles:
  TileStache /                  Mapnik via TileMill
   Kothic.js /                    or TileStache
   TileMill ?                 + UTFGrid interactivity

   Storage: Postgres-PostGIS / CSV / GeoJSON
   Data Processing: Qgis, R stats, Python, SQL
•
TileMill
http://mapbox.com/tilemill/
Installing TileMill
TileMill: Ubuntu
sudo apt-add-repository
ppa:developmentseed/mapbox
sudo apt-get -y update
sudo apt-get -y install tilemill
sudo start tilemill
TileMill: Mac
TileMill: Basics
 Cross platform - Linux, Win, OS X
  Same code both desktop & web
Outputs PNG, MBTiles, Mapnik XML
Written in Javascript (Node.js) and C
             ++ (Mapnik)
Art of the possible
http://project.wnyc.org/stop-frisk-guns/
http://gop.sites.devseed.com/
foursquare.com
http://www.npr.org/censusmap/
http://streeteasy.com/
Millions of points without sacrificing speed
TileMill: Live

       http://bit.ly/MFjLnG
       http://bit.ly/SFeBfJ
      Ec2 machines only available on July 17,2012
set one up yourself like: http://mapbox.com/tilemill/docs/
                guides/ubuntu-service/
Demos...

• TileMill: layer ordering, fonts, labeling,
  plugins, mbtiles export, mapnik xml export,
  svg/marker-transforms
• TileMill: reinforce basics through demos:
  arc.js geojson, cartodb csv, etherpad csv
• OSM-bright setup
Thanks!

 @springmeyer
  github / twitter
dane@mapbox.com
•
Do not miss Stamen
   and Vizzuality
    (Cartodb)
TileMill Extra Details
IVE                                                                         doi:10.1038/nature10836




pen computer programs
m-Cumming3



 idence that cannot be entirely included in publications, but the rise of
 layer of inaccessibility. Although it is now accepted that data should be made
 ons regarding the availability of software are inconsistent. We argue that, with
 elease of source programs is intolerable for results that depend on computation.
nd natural language will always ensure that exact reproducibility remains
es the chances that efforts to reproduce results will fail.


 d to unprecedented       rerunning of the code on, say, a different combination of hardware and
 e powerful computers     systems software, to detect the sort of numerical computation11,12 and
were thought almost       interpretation13 problems found in programming languages, which we
gies allow data collec-   discuss later. Without code, direct reproducibility is impossible. Indirect
data are collected, and   reproducibility refers to independent efforts to validate something other
vailable with which to    than the entire code package, for example a subset of equations or a par-
                          ticular code module. Here, before time-consuming reprogramming of an
 y, by which we mean      entire model, researchers may simply want to check that incorrect coding of
ing, rather than exact    previously published equations has not invalidated a paper’s result, to
 n to several decimal     extract and check detailed assumptions, or to run their own code against
 (for an early attempt    the original to check for statistical validity and explain any discrepancies.
y available computer         Any debate over the difficulties of reproducibility (which, as we will
 d the point that, with   show, are non-trivial) must of course be tempered by recognizing the
ual source code is an     undeniable benefits afforded by the explosion of internet facilities and the
 depend on computa-       rapid increase in raw computational speed and data-handling capability
dless, and needlessly     that has occurred as a result of major advances in computer technology14.
                          Such advances have presented science with a great opportunity to address
  computer programs       problems that would have been intractable in even the recent past. It is
cies still ranging from   our view, however, that the debate over code release should be resolved as
 ral language descrip-    soon as possible to benefit fully from our novel technical capabilities. On
program algorithms.       their own, finer computational grids, longer and more complex compu-
 n computer program       tations and larger data sets—although highly attractive to scientific
 e in the list of items   researchers—do not resolve underlying computational uncertainties of
State of the Art Web Mapping with Open Source
State of the Art Web Mapping with Open Source

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State of the Art Web Mapping with Open Source

  • 1. State of the Art Web Mapping with Open Source OSCON 2012 | Dane Springmeyer
  • 3. see also: Justin Miller Building a mobile, offline mapping stack using open tools & data 5pm Wednesday, F150
  • 4. Background Engineer @ MapBox Building TileMill and Mapnik Web performance / rendering
  • 6.
  • 7. We provide services & open source tools
  • 8. open source tools to cover
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 17.
  • 18. maps are simple (a primer)
  • 19. geodata as just another data field / type
  • 20. cartography as just a sexy form of data visualization
  • 21. location: lat/lon, x/y attributes: name, type, value
  • 22. styles separate from data akin to css/html
  • 23. CartoCSS @motorway: #90BFE0; .highway[TYPE='motorway'] { .line[zoom>=0] { line-color: spin(darken(@motorway,36),-10); line-cap:round; line-join:round; } .fill[zoom>=10] { line-color:@motorway; line-cap:round; line-join:round;}}
  • 24. spatial types point: • line: ----------- polygon: _____ |_____|
  • 25. Multi* types many to one geometries feature
  • 26. tabular geo-csv latitude longitude name 45.5 -122.6 PDX
  • 27. tabular geo-csv (multipoint) WKT Name MULTIPOINT ((10 40), (40 30), (20 20), (30 10)) Group of Cities
  • 28. geojson { "type": "FeatureCollection", "features": [ { "type": "Feature", "properties": { "name": "PDX" }, "geometry" : { "type": "Point", "coordinates": [ -122.6, 45.5 ] } }]} Works everywhere: e.g QGIS, TileMill, Web clients
  • 29. postgis postgis=# select 'POINT(-122.6 45.5)'::geometry as geom,'PDX'::text as name; geom | name --------------------------------------------+------ 01010000006666666666A65EC00000000000C04640 | PDX (1 row) WKB (Well Known Binary)
  • 30. postgis postgis=# select ST_Distance('POINT(-122.6 45.5)'::geography,'POINT(-122.3 47.6)'::geography)/1609.344 as dist_in_miles_from_pdx_to_sea; dist_in_miles_from_pdx_to_sea ------------------------------- 145.755555956692 (1 row)
  • 31. minimal code for simple maps, both server and client
  • 32. Mapnik var mapnik = require('mapnik'); var map = new mapnik.Map(256, 256); map.loadSync('map.xml'); map.zoomAll(); map.renderFileSync('map.png');
  • 33. Leaflet <html> <head> <link rel="stylesheet" href="http://cdn.leafletjs.com/leaflet-0.3.1/leaflet.css" /> <script src="http://cdn.leafletjs.com/leaflet-0.3.1/leaflet.js"></script> </head> <body> ! <div id="map" style="width: 100%; height: 100%"></div> <script> var map = new L.Map('map'); var osm = new L.TileLayer('http://tile.osm.org/{z}/{x}/{y}.png'); map.setView(new L.LatLng(45.5, -122.65), 12).addLayer(osm); var pdx = { "type": "FeatureCollection", "features": [ { "type": "Feature", "properties": { "name": "PDX" }, "geometry" : { "type": "Point","coordinates": [ -122.65, 45.5 ]}}] }; map.addLayer(new L.GeoJSON(pdx)); </script> </body> </html>
  • 34.
  • 35. but maps are hard
  • 36. geodata can be messy and multi- resolution
  • 38. geodata can be dynamic
  • 39. data story takes too long
  • 40. maps as the single lock-in point (google) or point of failure (Slow WMS, IE support, clashing design)
  • 41.
  • 43. or, how to tell stories with maps quickly, ensure they are fast under load and work in IE
  • 44. open data osm.org naturalearthdata.com us census (geo/www/tiger) local governments portals
  • 46. gradually work clientside
  • 50. beautiful graphics Antigrain Geometry Cairo Graphics
  • 51. standard formats geojson, wkt, csv, shapefile, postgis, geotiff
  • 53. bake big data bitmaps
  • 54. pre-render where possible, but beware the world is big
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59.
  • 60. coming... optimized tiled formats like msgpack, protobuf (not just bitmaps)
  • 61. coming ... optimized tiled storage and indexing
  • 62. coming ... more robust and configurable clientside renderers
  • 63. UI: Browser JS client / Mobile Native client Render: Display: Hardware Vector <img> tiles Renderer Data Tiles: Image Tiles: Optimized vectors Software Vector Renderer Storage: Database / Flat file (Spatially Indexed) Data Processing: GIS Apps, Scripting
  • 64. UI: Leaflet / ModestMaps / RouteMe Render: Display: Kothic.js / Vecnik all browers (Canvas/WebGL in support some browsers) Data Tiles: Image Tiles: TileStache / Mapnik via TileMill Kothic.js / or TileStache TileMill ? + UTFGrid interactivity Storage: Postgres-PostGIS / CSV / GeoJSON Data Processing: Qgis, R stats, Python, SQL
  • 65.
  • 68. TileMill: Ubuntu sudo apt-add-repository ppa:developmentseed/mapbox sudo apt-get -y update sudo apt-get -y install tilemill sudo start tilemill
  • 70. TileMill: Basics Cross platform - Linux, Win, OS X Same code both desktop & web Outputs PNG, MBTiles, Mapnik XML Written in Javascript (Node.js) and C ++ (Mapnik)
  • 71. Art of the possible
  • 77. Millions of points without sacrificing speed
  • 78. TileMill: Live http://bit.ly/MFjLnG http://bit.ly/SFeBfJ Ec2 machines only available on July 17,2012 set one up yourself like: http://mapbox.com/tilemill/docs/ guides/ubuntu-service/
  • 79. Demos... • TileMill: layer ordering, fonts, labeling, plugins, mbtiles export, mapnik xml export, svg/marker-transforms • TileMill: reinforce basics through demos: arc.js geojson, cartodb csv, etherpad csv • OSM-bright setup
  • 80. Thanks! @springmeyer github / twitter dane@mapbox.com
  • 81.
  • 82. Do not miss Stamen and Vizzuality (Cartodb)
  • 83.
  • 84.
  • 86.
  • 87.
  • 88.
  • 89.
  • 90.
  • 91.
  • 92.
  • 93. IVE doi:10.1038/nature10836 pen computer programs m-Cumming3 idence that cannot be entirely included in publications, but the rise of layer of inaccessibility. Although it is now accepted that data should be made ons regarding the availability of software are inconsistent. We argue that, with elease of source programs is intolerable for results that depend on computation. nd natural language will always ensure that exact reproducibility remains es the chances that efforts to reproduce results will fail. d to unprecedented rerunning of the code on, say, a different combination of hardware and e powerful computers systems software, to detect the sort of numerical computation11,12 and were thought almost interpretation13 problems found in programming languages, which we gies allow data collec- discuss later. Without code, direct reproducibility is impossible. Indirect data are collected, and reproducibility refers to independent efforts to validate something other vailable with which to than the entire code package, for example a subset of equations or a par- ticular code module. Here, before time-consuming reprogramming of an y, by which we mean entire model, researchers may simply want to check that incorrect coding of ing, rather than exact previously published equations has not invalidated a paper’s result, to n to several decimal extract and check detailed assumptions, or to run their own code against (for an early attempt the original to check for statistical validity and explain any discrepancies. y available computer Any debate over the difficulties of reproducibility (which, as we will d the point that, with show, are non-trivial) must of course be tempered by recognizing the ual source code is an undeniable benefits afforded by the explosion of internet facilities and the depend on computa- rapid increase in raw computational speed and data-handling capability dless, and needlessly that has occurred as a result of major advances in computer technology14. Such advances have presented science with a great opportunity to address computer programs problems that would have been intractable in even the recent past. It is cies still ranging from our view, however, that the debate over code release should be resolved as ral language descrip- soon as possible to benefit fully from our novel technical capabilities. On program algorithms. their own, finer computational grids, longer and more complex compu- n computer program tations and larger data sets—although highly attractive to scientific e in the list of items researchers—do not resolve underlying computational uncertainties of