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Shoestring2014 9-sapflow
Background 
• Hubbard Brook whole-watershed transpiration 
response to wollastonite (CaSiO3) addition: 
mechanisms unclear (Green et al. 2013) 
• MELNHE wollastonite plots established in 2011 
with aim to clarify 
• Measuring sap flow is one method to estimate 
transpiration (Granier, 1987)
Background 
• Preliminary sap flow measurements from HB Ca suggest 
increased transpiration in wollastonite treatment (Zahor 
et al. 2013)
Research Question 
• Does a wollastonite addition increase tree 
transpiration? 
• Expect that it does, possibly due to increased 
xylem and fine root growth 
• Alternatively, sap flow measurements could 
reflect the transition to decreased transpiration 
observed in W1 (Green et al. 2013)
Methods 
• Sap flow measured by the Granier method: reference probe 10 cm 
below thermocouple heating probe with constant source of heat, 
measures temperature difference (ΔT) (Granier, 1987) 
• Measurements collected by data logger every 30 seconds, average 
recorded every 15 minutes 
• ΔT is converted to sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) using BaseLiner 
software (Oren and Parashkevov, 2012) 
(Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry)
Methods 
• Sap flow to be measured in 
wollastonite and control 
plots at mature stands in 
Bartlett Experimental Forest 
(C8), Hubbard Brook 
Experimental Forest (Ca) 
and Jeffers Brook 
• 9 canopy trees measured 
per plot: 3 American beech, 
3 sugar maple and 3 yellow 
birch 
• Measurements collected for 
~5 days per stand
Results 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 
0 
Bartlett C8 
171.5 172 172.5 173 173.5 174 174.5 175 175.5 176 176.5 177 
Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) 
Ordinal Date and Time 
C8 Control AB 
C8 Control SM 
C8 Control YB 
C8 Ca AB 
C8 Ca SM 
C8 Ca YB
Results 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM 12:00 AM 4:48 AM 
Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) 
C8 Yellow Birch 1 (CaSiO3) 
YB1 
• Example of a representative diurnal curve
CaSiO3 
Control 
• Within species, more 
variation across trees 
than across 
treatments 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 
0 
12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM12:00 AM 4:48 AM 
Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) 
C8 American Beech 
AB1 
AB4 
AB5 
AB6 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM 12:00 AM4:48 AM 
Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) 
C8 Sugar Maple 
SM1 
SM3 
SM4 
SM5 
SM6 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM 12:00 AM 4:48 AM 
Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) 
C8 Yellow Birch 
YB1 
YB2 
YB3 
YB4 
YB5 
YB6
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 
0 
12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM 12:00 AM4:48 AM 
Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) 
HB Sugar Maple 
SM2 
SM3 
SM4 
SM5 
SM6 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 
0 
12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM12:00 AM 4:48 AM 
Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) 
HB American Beech 
AB1 
AB3 
AB4 
AB5 
AB6 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 
0 
12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM 12:00 AM 4:48 AM 
Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) 
HB Yellow Birch 
YB1 
YB3 
YB5 
YB6 
CaSiO3 
Control 
• Within species, more 
variation across trees 
than across 
treatments
Conclusion 
• No apparent trends in sapflux between 
treatments, individual trees highly 
variable 
• Solid dataset to work with that will help 
direct future sap flow efforts
Future Work 
• Reevaluate methods: increase sample 
size and consider additional factors in 
analysis 
• Take sap flow measurements from Jeffers 
Brook, then return to Bartlett C8 and 
Hubbard Brook for the remainder of the 
field season 
• Develop a statistical model to determine 
significance
References & Acknowledgements 
• Granier, A. (1987). Evaluation of transpiration in a Douglas-fir stand by means of 
sap flow measurements. Tree Physiology 3: 309-320. 
• Green, M.B., et al. (2013). Decreased water flowing from a forest amended with 
calcium silicate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 
110(15):5999-6003. 
• Oren, Parashkevov, & Duke University. (2012). BaseLiner (Version 2.4.2) 
http://ch2oecology.env.duke.edu/orenlab/sofware.html 
• Michele Pruyn 
• Mariann Johnston 
• Mark Green 
• Ruth Yanai 
• Adam Wild, our glorious leader 
• Shoestring Crew

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Shoestring2014 9-sapflow

  • 2. Background • Hubbard Brook whole-watershed transpiration response to wollastonite (CaSiO3) addition: mechanisms unclear (Green et al. 2013) • MELNHE wollastonite plots established in 2011 with aim to clarify • Measuring sap flow is one method to estimate transpiration (Granier, 1987)
  • 3. Background • Preliminary sap flow measurements from HB Ca suggest increased transpiration in wollastonite treatment (Zahor et al. 2013)
  • 4. Research Question • Does a wollastonite addition increase tree transpiration? • Expect that it does, possibly due to increased xylem and fine root growth • Alternatively, sap flow measurements could reflect the transition to decreased transpiration observed in W1 (Green et al. 2013)
  • 5. Methods • Sap flow measured by the Granier method: reference probe 10 cm below thermocouple heating probe with constant source of heat, measures temperature difference (ΔT) (Granier, 1987) • Measurements collected by data logger every 30 seconds, average recorded every 15 minutes • ΔT is converted to sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) using BaseLiner software (Oren and Parashkevov, 2012) (Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry)
  • 6. Methods • Sap flow to be measured in wollastonite and control plots at mature stands in Bartlett Experimental Forest (C8), Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (Ca) and Jeffers Brook • 9 canopy trees measured per plot: 3 American beech, 3 sugar maple and 3 yellow birch • Measurements collected for ~5 days per stand
  • 7. Results 25 20 15 10 5 0 Bartlett C8 171.5 172 172.5 173 173.5 174 174.5 175 175.5 176 176.5 177 Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) Ordinal Date and Time C8 Control AB C8 Control SM C8 Control YB C8 Ca AB C8 Ca SM C8 Ca YB
  • 8. Results 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM 12:00 AM 4:48 AM Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) C8 Yellow Birch 1 (CaSiO3) YB1 • Example of a representative diurnal curve
  • 9. CaSiO3 Control • Within species, more variation across trees than across treatments 25 20 15 10 5 0 12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM12:00 AM 4:48 AM Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) C8 American Beech AB1 AB4 AB5 AB6 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM 12:00 AM4:48 AM Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) C8 Sugar Maple SM1 SM3 SM4 SM5 SM6 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM 12:00 AM 4:48 AM Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) C8 Yellow Birch YB1 YB2 YB3 YB4 YB5 YB6
  • 10. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM 12:00 AM4:48 AM Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) HB Sugar Maple SM2 SM3 SM4 SM5 SM6 25 20 15 10 5 0 12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM12:00 AM 4:48 AM Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) HB American Beech AB1 AB3 AB4 AB5 AB6 25 20 15 10 5 0 12:00 AM 4:48 AM 9:36 AM 2:24 PM 7:12 PM 12:00 AM 4:48 AM Sapflux (Js, g x m2 x s-1) HB Yellow Birch YB1 YB3 YB5 YB6 CaSiO3 Control • Within species, more variation across trees than across treatments
  • 11. Conclusion • No apparent trends in sapflux between treatments, individual trees highly variable • Solid dataset to work with that will help direct future sap flow efforts
  • 12. Future Work • Reevaluate methods: increase sample size and consider additional factors in analysis • Take sap flow measurements from Jeffers Brook, then return to Bartlett C8 and Hubbard Brook for the remainder of the field season • Develop a statistical model to determine significance
  • 13. References & Acknowledgements • Granier, A. (1987). Evaluation of transpiration in a Douglas-fir stand by means of sap flow measurements. Tree Physiology 3: 309-320. • Green, M.B., et al. (2013). Decreased water flowing from a forest amended with calcium silicate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(15):5999-6003. • Oren, Parashkevov, & Duke University. (2012). BaseLiner (Version 2.4.2) http://ch2oecology.env.duke.edu/orenlab/sofware.html • Michele Pruyn • Mariann Johnston • Mark Green • Ruth Yanai • Adam Wild, our glorious leader • Shoestring Crew

Editor's Notes

  1. Picture
  2. Explain red and blue
  3. Picture. Green et al graph, wondering about mechanisms, if we’re at the transition stage
  4. Citation of picture!
  5. Add Jeffers, plan for rest of the summer.
  6. Blue lower than red
  7. Darker and thicker lines . More variation between trees than between treatments. Put all six on one? Let them stare at it while I say: it’s good that we have this continuous data, but now we need to thinking about how to change the methods , if anyone has any ideas for covariates that we should use in analysis
  8. Darker and thicker lines . More variation between trees than between treatments. Put all six on one? Let them stare at it while I say: it’s good that we have this continuous data, but now we need to thinking about how to change the methods , if anyone has any ideas for covariants that we should use in analysis
  9. Bring back to Green et al paper, transition, the things Mark talked about
  10. Normalize by DBH as covariant? Yes, and maybe crown measurements? Maybe focus on only one dominant species in each plot and increase sample size.
  11. Separate out references and acknowledgements