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The Impact of Calcium on Transpiration
and Root Function
Lily E. Zahor1, Michele L. Pruyn1,
Mark B. Green1,2, ,Geoff Wilson1,3
1 Plymouth State University – Center for the Environm
2 U.S. Forest Service – Northern Research Sta
3 Hubbard Brook Research Founda
• Acid rain has impacted New England forests for over 60 years
(Cogbill and Likens 1974)
• Acid deposition causes calcium to leach from soils, which is
problematic for forests because calcium is broadly important to
healthy plant function.
Introduction
hubbardbrookfoundation.org
Introduction
• Through a whole
watershed experiment,
it has been shown that
calcium silicate
addition can
temporarily increase
the forest uptake of
water.
• However, the
mechanisms behind
this response remain
uncertain. (Green, at el
2013)
• We applied a calcium silicate on 50 x
50 meter plots in an attempt to
replace leached calcium in fall 2011.
• Previous forest responses to calcium
application have shown increased
health, growth, and survivorship in
maple trees. (Juice, 2006)
Introduction
Research Question
Will adding calcium
increase tree
transpiration and
productivity in sites
across the White
Mountain National
Forest?
Study Area
Initial study established
at Hubbard Brook
Experimental Forest,
just below watershed 3
e :Matt Vadeboncoeur
Sapflux Methods
• 9 trees at each site. 3 each of American beech (Fagus
grandifolia), sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch
(Betula alleghaniensis).
• Initial measurements began at HBEF in summer 2012, with other
two sites in added in summer 2013.
• Tree sapflow was recorded every 15 minutes with a Granier
system, which utilized a heated thermocouple probe inserted in
the sapwood 10 mm above a reference probe. (Granier, A. 1987)
• Measurements were then converted into sapflux (Js, g . m2 . S-1)
using baseliner software (Oren and Parashkevov, 2012).
Methods
https://www.bgc-jena.mpg.de/bgp/pmwiki.php/NorbertKunert/SapFlux
Preliminary Data
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Sapflux(Js,g.m2.s-1)
American Beech Calcium
American Beech Control
Sugar Maple Calcium
Sugar Maple Control
Yellow Birch Calcium
Yellow Birch Control
12:00 AM12:00 AM
Sapflux data from August 2012
below watershed 3, averaged
by species and over a 24 hour
period, for seven days.
2013 Season
• The 2013 field season is currently underway on the
WMNF
• Two additional sites on the White Mountain National
Forest at Bartlett Experimental Forest and Jeffers Brook .
• Blow down storm damage at Hubbard Brook site.
0
20
40
60
80
175.99 177.03 178.07 179.11 180.16 181.2
Sapflux(Js,g.m2.S-1)
Sum of Cont Sugar Maple 2
Sum of Cont Sugar Maple 1
Sum of Ca Sugar Maple 1
Sum of Ca Sugar Maple 2
Sum of Cont Sugar Maple 3
Sapflux Hubbard Brook June 2013
Ordinal
date/time
Root Function Methods
• The TTC method provides a
quantitative measure of
potential root respiration
and reflects the number of
living cells per unit root dry
weight (Ruf and Brunner,
2003)
• Percent embolism,
assessment of temporary
embolism in the xylem.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Ca Control Ca Control Ca Control
Sugar Maple Yellow Birch American Beech
absorbancyoffineroots
Live Tissue per gram of fine roots by species and
treatment , Hubbard Brook Spring 2013
n = 2 n =3 n = 1 n = 3 n =1 n =3
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Ca Control Ca Control Ca Control
Sugar Maple Yellow Birch American Beech
PercentEmbolism(%)
Percent Embolism /Species/Treatment
Hubbard Brook Spring 2013
Conclusion
• Sapflux had a high response at calcium silicate treated
site compared to the control.
• With the strongest response from American Beech,
followed Yellow Birch, and then Sugar Maple.
• Night time sapflux at control site observed, which could
be attributed to insufficient stoma closer.
• Varied root function among the different species in
early spring , such as Yellow Birch having lower root
embolism at the calcium silicate treated site.
References and Acknowledgments
• Green, Mark B., et al. "Decreased water flowing from a forest amended
with calcium silicate." Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 110.15 (2013): 5999-6003.
• Oren, Parashkevov, & Duke University. (2012). Base Liner (Version
2.4.2) http://ch2oecology.env.duke.edu/orenlab/software.html
• Granier, A. (1987). Evaluation of transpiration in a Douglas-fir stand by
means of. Tree Physiology, 3, 309-320.
• Juice, et l. 2006. “Response of Sugar Maple to Calcium Addition to
Northern Hardwood Forest.” Ecology 87 (5): 1267–1280.
• Thanks to Plymouth State University and United States Forest Service
Northern Research Station
• The Awesome Tree Physiology lab assistants.

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Hb2013 zahor transpiration

  • 1. The Impact of Calcium on Transpiration and Root Function Lily E. Zahor1, Michele L. Pruyn1, Mark B. Green1,2, ,Geoff Wilson1,3 1 Plymouth State University – Center for the Environm 2 U.S. Forest Service – Northern Research Sta 3 Hubbard Brook Research Founda
  • 2. • Acid rain has impacted New England forests for over 60 years (Cogbill and Likens 1974) • Acid deposition causes calcium to leach from soils, which is problematic for forests because calcium is broadly important to healthy plant function. Introduction hubbardbrookfoundation.org
  • 3.
  • 4. Introduction • Through a whole watershed experiment, it has been shown that calcium silicate addition can temporarily increase the forest uptake of water. • However, the mechanisms behind this response remain uncertain. (Green, at el 2013)
  • 5. • We applied a calcium silicate on 50 x 50 meter plots in an attempt to replace leached calcium in fall 2011. • Previous forest responses to calcium application have shown increased health, growth, and survivorship in maple trees. (Juice, 2006) Introduction
  • 6. Research Question Will adding calcium increase tree transpiration and productivity in sites across the White Mountain National Forest?
  • 8. Initial study established at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, just below watershed 3 e :Matt Vadeboncoeur
  • 9. Sapflux Methods • 9 trees at each site. 3 each of American beech (Fagus grandifolia), sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). • Initial measurements began at HBEF in summer 2012, with other two sites in added in summer 2013. • Tree sapflow was recorded every 15 minutes with a Granier system, which utilized a heated thermocouple probe inserted in the sapwood 10 mm above a reference probe. (Granier, A. 1987) • Measurements were then converted into sapflux (Js, g . m2 . S-1) using baseliner software (Oren and Parashkevov, 2012).
  • 11. Preliminary Data 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Sapflux(Js,g.m2.s-1) American Beech Calcium American Beech Control Sugar Maple Calcium Sugar Maple Control Yellow Birch Calcium Yellow Birch Control 12:00 AM12:00 AM Sapflux data from August 2012 below watershed 3, averaged by species and over a 24 hour period, for seven days.
  • 12. 2013 Season • The 2013 field season is currently underway on the WMNF • Two additional sites on the White Mountain National Forest at Bartlett Experimental Forest and Jeffers Brook . • Blow down storm damage at Hubbard Brook site.
  • 13. 0 20 40 60 80 175.99 177.03 178.07 179.11 180.16 181.2 Sapflux(Js,g.m2.S-1) Sum of Cont Sugar Maple 2 Sum of Cont Sugar Maple 1 Sum of Ca Sugar Maple 1 Sum of Ca Sugar Maple 2 Sum of Cont Sugar Maple 3 Sapflux Hubbard Brook June 2013 Ordinal date/time
  • 14. Root Function Methods • The TTC method provides a quantitative measure of potential root respiration and reflects the number of living cells per unit root dry weight (Ruf and Brunner, 2003) • Percent embolism, assessment of temporary embolism in the xylem.
  • 15. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Ca Control Ca Control Ca Control Sugar Maple Yellow Birch American Beech absorbancyoffineroots Live Tissue per gram of fine roots by species and treatment , Hubbard Brook Spring 2013
  • 16. n = 2 n =3 n = 1 n = 3 n =1 n =3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Ca Control Ca Control Ca Control Sugar Maple Yellow Birch American Beech PercentEmbolism(%) Percent Embolism /Species/Treatment Hubbard Brook Spring 2013
  • 17. Conclusion • Sapflux had a high response at calcium silicate treated site compared to the control. • With the strongest response from American Beech, followed Yellow Birch, and then Sugar Maple. • Night time sapflux at control site observed, which could be attributed to insufficient stoma closer. • Varied root function among the different species in early spring , such as Yellow Birch having lower root embolism at the calcium silicate treated site.
  • 18. References and Acknowledgments • Green, Mark B., et al. "Decreased water flowing from a forest amended with calcium silicate." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110.15 (2013): 5999-6003. • Oren, Parashkevov, & Duke University. (2012). Base Liner (Version 2.4.2) http://ch2oecology.env.duke.edu/orenlab/software.html • Granier, A. (1987). Evaluation of transpiration in a Douglas-fir stand by means of. Tree Physiology, 3, 309-320. • Juice, et l. 2006. “Response of Sugar Maple to Calcium Addition to Northern Hardwood Forest.” Ecology 87 (5): 1267–1280. • Thanks to Plymouth State University and United States Forest Service Northern Research Station • The Awesome Tree Physiology lab assistants.

Editor's Notes

  1. Acid rain deposition driven by emissions causes calcium to leach from forest soils and into streams.
  2. Calcium enters the forest trough bedrock weathering and our applications. Soil calcium can be taken up by trees or leached into ground water.
  3. As many of you maybe familiar with, the calcium experiment at WS1, here at Hubbard Brook. There was increase in forest water uptake after
  4. Same rate as WS1
  5. Picture :Matt Vadeboncoeur Three sites on the WMNF Jeffers Brook Valley, Hubbard Brook EF and Bartlett EF
  6. Configuration of the Granier system for sap flow measurement. Each probe contains a thermocouple. Voltage difference between upper and lower probe was recorded with a data logger, which was then converted into sapflux using Baseliner software . (2)
  7. Night time response for control trees
  8. Heathy trees that experincefrezze thaw events and droughts become emblized , and naturally have the ablkiity to remove them.
  9. Neg embolism tended to occur at the Ca for YB and AB. Is xylem formation effected by the Ca treatment, casuing not to handle vaccum pressure well