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Shareology
and
Social Media
in Academia
Keynote Presentation
Sue Beckingham | @suebecks | Sheffield Hallam University
Making Connections - Libraries@Cambridge 2016 Conference
University of Cambridge #cam16
Word(s) of the Year
sharing economy, noun
An economic system in which assets or
services are shared between private
individuals, either for free or for a fee,
typically by means of the Internet.
Word of the Year Shortlist 2015
Oxford Dictionaries
"As I pack for Lesley University's faculty-led travel
course to Osaka, the 2016 Japanese word in my head is
“HAI”
Not just “hai” directly translating to “yes”,
but the more ambiguous “hai” meaning
“I see you and affirm that you have my attention.”
In 2016, I vow to use “HAI” (I see you) and “HAI” (yes)
less interchangeably and to use both more frequently.
I also plan to pull back considerably on
“hai, hai” (yes, yes, of course)!"
achieve
roar
change
let go
resilience
innovate
wonder
actualise
What's Your Word for 2016?
University of Venus @UVenus, Inside Higher Ed
University of Venus is a collaborative venture bringing together the voices of GenX women in higher education from around
the globe created by Mary Churchill @mary_churchill, Associate Provost for Innovation and Partnerships and Interim Dean
of the School of Graduate Studies at Salem State University in Greater Boston.
Consider your
Word(s) of the Year
for 2016
My Words of the Year
share
work out loud
connect
communicate
curate
collaborate
create
Share Work Out Loud
5Cs
Nerantzi and Beckingham 2014
The 5C Framework
SHARING
Great things in business are never
done by one person. They’re done
by a team of people.
Steve Jobs
Why should it be any different for
educators?
It is not simply the giving or receiving of information.
We should consider:
• the new co-learning opportunities we can make
(Rheingold);
• the ability to develop new capacities for action and
change (Grey);
• and how we create knowledge and leverage it
(Wenger).
Information Sharing
We share information
we hear, see and read
Information needs
• Philosophical perspective:
information in science and technology
• Political perspective:
information in modern society and a global world
• Economic perspective:
information as a commodity on the market
• Societal perspective:
information as the glue between communities
• Psychological perspective:
information as a basis for knowing and acting
• Ecological perspective:
information as a prerequisite for living creatures
Philosophical
Political
Economic
Societal
Psychological
Ecological
Adapted from Vosen 2012
However through the ubiquitous adoption of
the internet there has been an exponential
growth of information shared
How much
of that stored
information is
now
obsolete?
What's changed?
We share
MORE
content
From MORE
sources
With MORE
people
MORE often
MORE
quickly
NYT 2015
Alvin Toffler
Future Shock 1970
data smog
information surplus
infobesity
infotoxication
Information overload
information glut
data deluge
Information overload occurs when the
amount of input to a system exceeds its
processing capacity.
Decision makers have fairly limited
cognitive processing capacity.
Consequently, when information overload
occurs, it is likely that a reduction in
decision quality will occur.
Spieir et al 1999
We are expected to filter, understand and act
upon an enormous mountain of data.
Strother et al (2012)
The chasm between technology and corporate culture
between possibility and practice
Technology Reality (What is Possible)
• unlimited accessibility of everyone to
everyone by many communication
channels
• sending messages is easy to do and
perceived practically free of cost (monetary
or other)
• free, asynchronous access to everyone's
attention queues
• queued messaging is available for most
communication modes (email, voice mail)
• work from home technology is 'as good as
being in the office'
• computers allow multitasking and rapid
switching from task to task
Cultural Paradigm (What is Done)
• everyone is expected by managers, peers,
and self to be available 24 x 7
• we sanction the unlimited sending of
unsolicited messages ('freedom of
speech')
• interruption-driven, unnegotiated task
management replacing plan-driven
methodology
• expectation that message queues be
emptied (including unsolicited messages)
• no clear understanding, much less a policy,
of where to place the work-life barrier
• implicit expectation that all people are
good at multitasking and can switch rapidly
Have we reached a point of
infotoxification?
We have been here before.....
There have been
eight epochal transformations of
communication that in their way were
no less profound and transformative
than what we are experiencing now:
from cave drawings to oral language,
the written word to the printing press,
the telegraph to the radio, broadcast
television to cable, and now the
Internet
Kovach and Rosensteil 2011
A multitude of books....
We have reason to fear that the multitude of books which grows every day in a
prodigious fashion will make the following centuries fall into a state as barbarous as that
of the centuries that followed the fall of the Roman Empire. Unless we try to prevent this
danger by separating those books which we must throw out or leave in oblivion from
those which one should save and within the latter between what is useful and what is
not.
(Adrien Baillet, 1685)
OR
is it 'simply' filter failure?
(Clay Shirky)
Information overload...?
The new filters of the online world remove clicks not content
Filters no longer filter out. They filter forward, bringing their
results to the front. What doesn't make it through is still
visible and available in the background.
Weinberger 2014:10-11
We don't have a crystal ball, however it is
clear that in this Information Age we are
living in that we need to adapt and find new
ways to share knowledge
As educators it is through knowledge sharing and socially
mediated interactions that we can make a difference
In the traditional education system, students typically
learned on their own and were judged individually.
But as technology progresses and once separate
economies become interdependent, working with
others is becoming increasingly important.
Today, innovation rarely results from individuals
working in isolation; far more often than not, it is the
product of sharing and collaboration. Schools need
to incorporate this new reality into their curriculums,
preparing their students to work across cultures and
equipping them for a world shaped by issues that
transcend national boundaries.
Andreas Schleicher (World Economic Forum) 2015
"The future of education is not just about
utilizing the abundance of technology that is
available. It is about how the education
marketplace will adapt to the changing needs
of the future knowledge worker, the future of
work, and the economy." (Citrix 2015)
"In the past, education was about imparting knowledge.
Today, it is about providing students with the tools to
navigate an increasingly uncertain, volatile world.
Unfortunately, the skills that are easiest to teach and test
are also the easiest to automate or outsource. State-of-the-
art knowledge remains important.
But the global economy no longer rewards workers for what
they know (Google knows everything); it rewards them for
what they can do with what they know."
Andreas Schleicher 2015
"Human beings have an innate
inner drive to be autonomous,
self-determined, and connected
to one another. And when that
drive is liberated, people achieve
more and richer lives."
Daniel Pink
SHARING best practices,
reflections and documentation of
learning is the essential fabric of
education and the building block of
networking, growing and moving
forward.
Silvia Tolisano @langwitches 2014
Why we should share
An array of user-generated multimedia artefacts are now shared
via social media that can be discussed, debated and critiqued.
Social media is a group of internet-based
applications that build on the idealogical and
technological foundations of Web 2.0 and allow the
creation and exchange of user generated content
Kaplan and Haenlein 2009
SOCIALMEDIA
Personal networks e.g. Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn
Interest based
networks
Niche interests and hobbies e.g. Ravelry,
DeviantArt, Goodreads
Media sharing
networks
Images, video and audio e.g. Flickr,
YouTube and Soundcloud
Discussion forums Threaded conversations e.g. Google
communities, LinkedIn groups
Bookmarking sites Curation spaces e.g. Pinterest, Diigo
Social publishing Blogs and microblogs e.g. WordPress,
Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr
Online reviews Commentary on publications e.g.
ResearchGate, Academia.edu, Mendeley
Social is a behaviour, not a channel
Most people visit social networking sites to connect with others: to
stay in touch with friends and family; to share things with
colleagues and peers; and even to meet strangers with similar
interests and needs.
There are times when technology plays an important part in
facilitating these connections; the filters on Instagram, or the
sharing features common to most social networks, are important
parts of the social networking experience.
However, for most people, social media are just means to an end,
with that ‘end’ being social interaction.
Simon Kemp 2014:21
http://www.briansolis.com/2013/07/the-2013-social-media-landscape-infographic/
Solis 2013
LinkedIn operates the world’s largest professional network on the Internet with
more than 400 million members in over 200 countries and territories.
Adapted from Charles Hardy 2015
Identity who you are
Networks who you know AND who knows you
Knowledge what you know
Developing and
optimising your
professional
identity
"Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The
most certain way to succeed is always to try
just one more time."
Thomas Edison
innovators early early late laggards
adopters majority majority
Techies
Conservatives
Pragmatists
Visionaries
Skeptics
"Let's try
it"
"Get ahead
of the herd"
"Stick
with the
herd"
"Hold on
there"
"Hmm...
no way"
Kuhn (1962) used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate the way
in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in
an entirely different way.
Paradigm Shift
"A paradigm is a set of rules and
regulations ) written or unwritten)
that does two things: (1) it
establishes or defines boundaries;
and (2) it tells you how to behave
inside the boundaries in order to be
successful."
Barker 1992:36
Paradigm paralysis
“The inability or refusal to
see beyond the current
models of thinking”
(Harrison 1994)
digital
disconnected
digital
curious
digital
savvy
Not all have adapted
to using social media and
technology and for many it is an
ongoing learning journey
Using social
media can help
you develop
NEW
connections
beyond your
immediate
networks
LeadershipProblem Solving
Digital
Capabilities
Communication
Emotional
Intelligence
Communication
Teamworking
Digital capabilities development
is of value to all
My digital journey
Developing my first social network
https://discover.twitter.com/
I was moving out of my own
comfort zone….
...and then discovered a whole new
way of learning and communities to
learn with
I was taking ownership of my own
development
…by taking small steps
Learning basic Microsoft Office skills
video tutorials blog tutorials
case studies and courses
http://socialmediaforlearning.com/
http://socioviz.net/
Making new connections
The beginning of the #cam16 community
https://moz.com/followerwonk
My Twitter community
The #SocMedHE15 community NodeXL map
The importance of sharing
"We share for many reasons -
some self serving and some not.
Our need to share is based on the
human instinct not only to
survive but to thrive."
Kramer 2015
Shareology
visibility in social spaces
1
an informative profile
2
social connectedness
3
mutual interests
4
active listening
5
interactive dialogue
6
dash of serendipity
7
sharing is
enhanced by
Shareology
visibility in social spaces
1
an informative profile
2
social connectedness
3
mutual interests
4
active listening
5
interactive dialogue
6
dash of serendipity
7
sharing is
enhanced by
Shareology
visibility in social spaces
1
an informative profile
2
social connectedness
3
mutual interests
4
active listening
5
interactive dialogue
6
dash of serendipity
7
sharing is
enhanced by
Shareology
visibility in social spaces
1
an informative profile
2
social connectedness
3
mutual interests
4
active listening
5
interactive dialogue
6
dash of serendipity
7
sharing is
enhanced by
Shareology
visibility in social spaces
1
an informative profile
2
social connectedness
3
mutual interests
4
active listening
5
interactive dialogue
6
dash of serendipity
7
sharing is
enhanced by
Shareology
visibility in social spaces
1
an informative profile
2
social connectedness
3
mutual interests
4
active listening
5
interactive dialogue
6
dash of serendipity
7
sharing is
enhanced by
Shareology
visibility in social spaces
1
an informative profile
2
social connectedness
3
mutual interests
4
active listening
5
interactive dialogue
6
dash of serendipity
7
sharing is
enhanced by
World of Mouth
Difference between Word of Mouth and World of Mouth
(Qualman 2011:2)
Established academic 'sharing' mechanisms
LinkedIn
updates
Blog
comments
Blog
posts
Tweets
Slideshare
YouTube
& Vimeo
Complementing the traditional
we are now seeing a growing
use of social channels
AND to continue this
dialogue face to face
CREATORS
CURATORS
CRITICS
CONVERSATIONALISTS
COLLABORATORS
COMMUNICATORS
Social Media EMPOWERS
individuals to become digitally
connected and social
Beckingham 2013
My Shareology Methodology
The 5Cs Framework
5Cs
Nerantzi and Beckingham 2014
The 5C Framework
5Cs
Nerantzi and Beckingham 2014
Making Connections
for example at a conference
Twitter
• Check the speaker list and follow
• Either add to an existing list or create a new group
• Reach out and interact
1
LinkedIn
• Send invite to connect with a message
• Receive updates on activities
• Share my activities
2
Blogs, SlideShare and other spaces
• Follow and connect as appropriate
3
engage
learn
share
increases the
opportunities for
professional
development
Social Connectedness
5Cs
Nerantzi and Beckingham 2014
Spoken and gestural are by their very nature ephemeral. It
requires close contact for a message to be sent and received.
And after the moment of transmission, it's gone forever.
Graphic communication, on the other hand, decouples that
relationship. And with its invention, it became possible for the
first time for a message to be transmitted and preserved beyond
a single moment in place and time.
Genevieve von Petzinger 2015
There are three main kinds of communication
spoken
1
• gestural
2
graphic
3
Barring a handful of outliers, there are only 32
geometric signs across a 30,000-year time span
and the entire continent of Europe.
(von Petzinger 2015)
Spot the icons that are used in
social media today
Adding images to tweets
Embed video clips into blogs
Add SlideShare presentations to your LinkedIn profile
Collect and share useful resources using Pinterest
Communicate what you do - the visual augments the written
13328 views
5Cs
Nerantzi and Beckingham 2014
Twitter list
YouTube
playlist
Pinterest
board
Storify
Scoop.it
page
Paperli
SlideShare
collection
Diigo
bookmark
collection
http://www.scoop.it/t/taking-a-look-at-moocs
https://twitter.com/suebecks/lists/cam16/members
5Cs
Nerantzi and Beckingham 2014
Collaborative
writing
Google apps
Collaborative
discussions
Skype and Google
Hangouts
Collaborative
discussions
written
Twitter, Blogs,
LinkedIn Groups
Collaborative spaces
"In the long history of humankind (and animal
kind too) those who learned to collaborate
and improvise most effectively have prevailed".
Charles Darwin
5Cs
Nerantzi and Beckingham 2014
https://byod4learning.wordpress.com/
/
Learning and Teaching in Higher Education - weekly chat
@LTHEchat #LTHEchat http://lthechat.com
Create an interconnected
digital online presence
Create and grow a
personal learning
network and
communities
Crowd Learning
Involves harnessing the knowledge
and expertise of many people
in order to answer questions or address immediate problems.
Sharples et al 2013 - Innovating Pedagogy Report
8 key steps to building a personal learning network
1. explore
2. search
3. follow
4. tune 8. respond
7. inquire
6. engage
5. feed
Rheingold 2011
Learning and Network
The connections in a network can function as
learning ties providing access to information flows
and exchanges. This access can be intentional or
serendipitous. It can be direct – involving a
personal connection, or indirect – involving a
series of connections. Participation in a network
does not require a sustained learning partnership
or a commitment to a shared domain. In this
sense, learning in a network does not have to
have an explicit collective dimension.
Learning and Community
The formation of a community creates a
social space in which participants can
discover and further a learning partnership
related to a common domain. This
partnership can be formal or informal and its
intention can be explicit or tacit. The key
characteristic is the blending of individual
and collective learning in the development of
a shared practice.
Wengeretal2011
@suebecks
N
D
I
PI
Y
T
E
RE
S
COMMUNITIES
community of
PURPOSE
community of
CIRCUMSTANCE
community of
PRACTICE
community of
INTEREST
Marathe 1999
Motivations
to join online
communities
shared
purpose
shared
circumstances
shared
practice
shared
interest
to explore or express
their passion
to contribute to getting
something done
to connect with others
in a similar life
condition
want to acquire or
impart knowledge or
skills
Communities of purpose
formed by people who are trying to
achieve a similar objective, who assist
each other by sharing experiences,
information, and peer-to-peer knowledge.
Communities of practice
formed by groups of people sharing a
similar profession or vocation who seek
to share experiences and facilitate
professional exchange (which may also
add value to offline networks)
Communities of circumstance
which are similar to communities of
practice but are generally more
personally focussed, or related to life
experiences, and not driven by
professional activities.
Communities of interest
linking people who share their ideas,
passion, and knowledge in a common
interest or theme, but might know very
little about each other outside this shared
interest.
ONLINE
COMMUNITIES
(Rennie and Keppell 2010)
COMMUNITIES
community of
purpose
community of
circumstance
community of
practice
community of
interest
e.g. a campaigning
organisation committed to
changing public policy
e.g. an association of
professionals
e.g. a community of
people with a particular
medical condition
e.g. a leisure or social
activity
#celcshooc
conversations about end of life care
#epccmooc
enhancing prostate cancer care
#XFactor
@TheXFactor
#RWC2015
@rugbyworldcup
#LTHEchat
learning and teaching
in higher education
chat
@LTHEchat
lthechat.com
ALS Challenge
Arab Spring and
the uprising in the
Middle East
Natural disaster
responses
#HomeToVote
and #LoveWins
@ahpshooc
#celcshooc
conversations about end of life care
Network
The network aspect refers to
the set of relationships, personal
interactions, and connections
among participants who have
personal reasons to connect. It
is viewed as a set of nodes and
links with affordances for learning,
such as information flows, helpful
linkages, joint problem solving,
and knowledge creation.
Community
The community aspect refers
to the development of a shared
identity around a topic or set of
challenges. It represents a
collective intention – however
tacit and distributed – to steward
a domain of knowledge and to
sustain learning about it.
Wenger et al 2011
Wenger et al 2011
Open Learning and Working Out Loud
“If you ask me what I came to do in this
world, I, an artist, will answer you: I am
here to live out loud.”
Émile Zola
“Working Out Loud starts with making your
work visible in such a way that it might help
others. When you do that – when you work
in a more open, connected way – you can
build a purposeful network that makes you
more effective and provides access to
more opportunities.”
John Stepper
5 Elements of Working Out Loud
Making your work
visible1
Making work better 2
Leading with
generosity3
Building a social
network. 4
Making it all purposeful5
Stepper 2014
Benefits of Working Out Loud
Internal: enterprise social
network
• peer-to-peer recognition
• improved internal
communications
• better working
relationships
• humanised work
• higher productivity
• increased innovation and
collaboration
External: professional social
networks
• build professional
network
• opens virtual doors
• crowd source information
• breaks down
geographical barriers
Six sources of influence to inspire staff to work out loud
If people don't find the social behaviour appealing, how can the organisation
get them to try it and connect it to other things they value? And, if an employee
likes doing it, how can the organisation reinforce that behaviour by recognising
their accomplishments and encouraging them to do more?
1) Personal motivation
How can the organisation make it simpler for colleagues to start? And, how
can they provide staff with opportunities to practise the behaviour and attain
achievable goals while giving them immediate feedback on ways to get even
better?
2) Personal ability
Who are the influential leaders who can help model the vital behaviours? How
can the organisation identify relevant peer groups who are already behaving in
that desired way?
3) Social motivation
How can the company foster social ties (e.g. buddies systems, peer support
groups, advocates programs) that can help an individual get better with the
vital behaviours?
4) Social ability
After the intrinsic motivators and social support are in place, what other
extrinsic rewards - which have to be gratifying and in line with the encouraged
behaviours - can also be used?
5) Structural motivation
How can the organisation change the environment to make those relevant
behaviours easier to implement?6) Structural ability
AdaptedfromJohnStepper-DeutscheBank
Cumulative evidence
Immediate
value
productive
activities
Potential
value
robust
resources
Applied
value
promising
practices
Realised
value
return on
investment
Wenger et al (2011:37-38)
To benefit from working
out loud we also need to
progress from selective
hearing
to active listening
The Lurker
to be in a hidden place : to wait in a secret or hidden
place especially in order to do something wrong or
harmful
computers : to read messages written by other people on
the Internet in a newsgroup, chat room, etc., without
writing any messages yourself
Vicariousness
experiences or felt by watching, hearing about, or
reading about someone else rather than by doing
something yourself
Is 'listening in' vicarious
lurking???
Positive Silent Engagement (PSE)
I would argue that positive silent
engagement (PSE) is not only valuable,
but an essential component of digital
connectedness.
We learn by listening. It is no different
online
KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge is embodied in people gathered in communities and networks.
The road to knowledge is via people, conversations, connections and relationships.
Knowledge surfaces through dialog, all knowledge is socially mediated and access to
knowledge is by connecting to people that know or know who to contact.
In the knowledge economy, connections and relationships count more than personal
knowhow and access to content.
The environment changes so fast, the optimum knowledge strategy is instant access to
people & their ideas and continuous awareness & learning in a supportive community.
People and discourse communities provide the 'filter' mechanism for alerting and
awareness.
This helps to keep your focus, provides market intelligence and affords a platform
for negotiating meaning and value.
Denham Grey 2002
Sue Beckingham | @suebecks
Educational Developer and Senior Lecturer at Sheffield Hallam University
with a research interest in the use of social media in education.
Blog: http://socialmediaforlearning.com/
LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/suebeckingham
Shareology and Social Media in Academia
Shareology and Social Media in Academia
As children we learn how to share with others and in the words of Darwin "In the long history of humankind (and animal
kind too) those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed". Through the ubiquitous
adoption of the internet there has been an exponential growth of information shared. The use of digital technologies
such as social networking tools and smart devices have enabled individuals to connect, communicate, curate,
collaborate and create. An array of user-generated multimedia artefacts are now shared that can be discussed, debated
and critiqued. As educators it is through knowledge sharing and socially mediated interactions that we can make a
difference. However it is not simply the giving or receiving of information, but about the new co-learning opportunities
we can make (Rheingold); the ability to develop new capacities for action and change (Grey); and how we create
knowledge and leverage it (Wenger). My keynote presentation will consider the concept of shareology and
connectedness through social media and the value of working out loud.

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Shareology and Social Media in Academia

  • 1. Shareology and Social Media in Academia Keynote Presentation Sue Beckingham | @suebecks | Sheffield Hallam University Making Connections - Libraries@Cambridge 2016 Conference University of Cambridge #cam16
  • 2. Word(s) of the Year sharing economy, noun An economic system in which assets or services are shared between private individuals, either for free or for a fee, typically by means of the Internet. Word of the Year Shortlist 2015 Oxford Dictionaries
  • 3. "As I pack for Lesley University's faculty-led travel course to Osaka, the 2016 Japanese word in my head is “HAI” Not just “hai” directly translating to “yes”, but the more ambiguous “hai” meaning “I see you and affirm that you have my attention.” In 2016, I vow to use “HAI” (I see you) and “HAI” (yes) less interchangeably and to use both more frequently. I also plan to pull back considerably on “hai, hai” (yes, yes, of course)!" achieve roar change let go resilience innovate wonder actualise What's Your Word for 2016? University of Venus @UVenus, Inside Higher Ed University of Venus is a collaborative venture bringing together the voices of GenX women in higher education from around the globe created by Mary Churchill @mary_churchill, Associate Provost for Innovation and Partnerships and Interim Dean of the School of Graduate Studies at Salem State University in Greater Boston.
  • 4. Consider your Word(s) of the Year for 2016
  • 5. My Words of the Year share work out loud connect communicate curate collaborate create
  • 7. 5Cs Nerantzi and Beckingham 2014 The 5C Framework
  • 8. SHARING Great things in business are never done by one person. They’re done by a team of people. Steve Jobs Why should it be any different for educators?
  • 9. It is not simply the giving or receiving of information. We should consider: • the new co-learning opportunities we can make (Rheingold); • the ability to develop new capacities for action and change (Grey); • and how we create knowledge and leverage it (Wenger). Information Sharing
  • 10. We share information we hear, see and read
  • 11. Information needs • Philosophical perspective: information in science and technology • Political perspective: information in modern society and a global world • Economic perspective: information as a commodity on the market • Societal perspective: information as the glue between communities • Psychological perspective: information as a basis for knowing and acting • Ecological perspective: information as a prerequisite for living creatures Philosophical Political Economic Societal Psychological Ecological Adapted from Vosen 2012
  • 12. However through the ubiquitous adoption of the internet there has been an exponential growth of information shared
  • 13.
  • 14. How much of that stored information is now obsolete?
  • 15. What's changed? We share MORE content From MORE sources With MORE people MORE often MORE quickly NYT 2015
  • 16. Alvin Toffler Future Shock 1970 data smog information surplus infobesity infotoxication Information overload information glut data deluge
  • 17.
  • 18. Information overload occurs when the amount of input to a system exceeds its processing capacity. Decision makers have fairly limited cognitive processing capacity. Consequently, when information overload occurs, it is likely that a reduction in decision quality will occur. Spieir et al 1999
  • 19. We are expected to filter, understand and act upon an enormous mountain of data.
  • 20. Strother et al (2012) The chasm between technology and corporate culture between possibility and practice Technology Reality (What is Possible) • unlimited accessibility of everyone to everyone by many communication channels • sending messages is easy to do and perceived practically free of cost (monetary or other) • free, asynchronous access to everyone's attention queues • queued messaging is available for most communication modes (email, voice mail) • work from home technology is 'as good as being in the office' • computers allow multitasking and rapid switching from task to task Cultural Paradigm (What is Done) • everyone is expected by managers, peers, and self to be available 24 x 7 • we sanction the unlimited sending of unsolicited messages ('freedom of speech') • interruption-driven, unnegotiated task management replacing plan-driven methodology • expectation that message queues be emptied (including unsolicited messages) • no clear understanding, much less a policy, of where to place the work-life barrier • implicit expectation that all people are good at multitasking and can switch rapidly
  • 21. Have we reached a point of infotoxification?
  • 22. We have been here before..... There have been eight epochal transformations of communication that in their way were no less profound and transformative than what we are experiencing now: from cave drawings to oral language, the written word to the printing press, the telegraph to the radio, broadcast television to cable, and now the Internet Kovach and Rosensteil 2011
  • 23. A multitude of books.... We have reason to fear that the multitude of books which grows every day in a prodigious fashion will make the following centuries fall into a state as barbarous as that of the centuries that followed the fall of the Roman Empire. Unless we try to prevent this danger by separating those books which we must throw out or leave in oblivion from those which one should save and within the latter between what is useful and what is not. (Adrien Baillet, 1685)
  • 24. OR is it 'simply' filter failure? (Clay Shirky) Information overload...?
  • 25. The new filters of the online world remove clicks not content Filters no longer filter out. They filter forward, bringing their results to the front. What doesn't make it through is still visible and available in the background. Weinberger 2014:10-11
  • 26. We don't have a crystal ball, however it is clear that in this Information Age we are living in that we need to adapt and find new ways to share knowledge
  • 27. As educators it is through knowledge sharing and socially mediated interactions that we can make a difference
  • 28. In the traditional education system, students typically learned on their own and were judged individually. But as technology progresses and once separate economies become interdependent, working with others is becoming increasingly important. Today, innovation rarely results from individuals working in isolation; far more often than not, it is the product of sharing and collaboration. Schools need to incorporate this new reality into their curriculums, preparing their students to work across cultures and equipping them for a world shaped by issues that transcend national boundaries. Andreas Schleicher (World Economic Forum) 2015
  • 29. "The future of education is not just about utilizing the abundance of technology that is available. It is about how the education marketplace will adapt to the changing needs of the future knowledge worker, the future of work, and the economy." (Citrix 2015)
  • 30. "In the past, education was about imparting knowledge. Today, it is about providing students with the tools to navigate an increasingly uncertain, volatile world. Unfortunately, the skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the easiest to automate or outsource. State-of-the- art knowledge remains important. But the global economy no longer rewards workers for what they know (Google knows everything); it rewards them for what they can do with what they know." Andreas Schleicher 2015
  • 31. "Human beings have an innate inner drive to be autonomous, self-determined, and connected to one another. And when that drive is liberated, people achieve more and richer lives." Daniel Pink
  • 32. SHARING best practices, reflections and documentation of learning is the essential fabric of education and the building block of networking, growing and moving forward. Silvia Tolisano @langwitches 2014 Why we should share
  • 33. An array of user-generated multimedia artefacts are now shared via social media that can be discussed, debated and critiqued.
  • 34. Social media is a group of internet-based applications that build on the idealogical and technological foundations of Web 2.0 and allow the creation and exchange of user generated content Kaplan and Haenlein 2009
  • 35. SOCIALMEDIA Personal networks e.g. Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn Interest based networks Niche interests and hobbies e.g. Ravelry, DeviantArt, Goodreads Media sharing networks Images, video and audio e.g. Flickr, YouTube and Soundcloud Discussion forums Threaded conversations e.g. Google communities, LinkedIn groups Bookmarking sites Curation spaces e.g. Pinterest, Diigo Social publishing Blogs and microblogs e.g. WordPress, Blogger, Twitter, Tumblr Online reviews Commentary on publications e.g. ResearchGate, Academia.edu, Mendeley
  • 36. Social is a behaviour, not a channel Most people visit social networking sites to connect with others: to stay in touch with friends and family; to share things with colleagues and peers; and even to meet strangers with similar interests and needs. There are times when technology plays an important part in facilitating these connections; the filters on Instagram, or the sharing features common to most social networks, are important parts of the social networking experience. However, for most people, social media are just means to an end, with that ‘end’ being social interaction. Simon Kemp 2014:21
  • 37.
  • 39.
  • 40. LinkedIn operates the world’s largest professional network on the Internet with more than 400 million members in over 200 countries and territories.
  • 41. Adapted from Charles Hardy 2015 Identity who you are Networks who you know AND who knows you Knowledge what you know Developing and optimising your professional identity
  • 42. "Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time." Thomas Edison
  • 43. innovators early early late laggards adopters majority majority Techies Conservatives Pragmatists Visionaries Skeptics "Let's try it" "Get ahead of the herd" "Stick with the herd" "Hold on there" "Hmm... no way"
  • 44. Kuhn (1962) used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way. Paradigm Shift
  • 45. "A paradigm is a set of rules and regulations ) written or unwritten) that does two things: (1) it establishes or defines boundaries; and (2) it tells you how to behave inside the boundaries in order to be successful." Barker 1992:36
  • 46. Paradigm paralysis “The inability or refusal to see beyond the current models of thinking” (Harrison 1994)
  • 47. digital disconnected digital curious digital savvy Not all have adapted to using social media and technology and for many it is an ongoing learning journey
  • 48. Using social media can help you develop NEW connections beyond your immediate networks
  • 51. Developing my first social network
  • 53. I was moving out of my own comfort zone…. ...and then discovered a whole new way of learning and communities to learn with
  • 54. I was taking ownership of my own development …by taking small steps
  • 55. Learning basic Microsoft Office skills video tutorials blog tutorials case studies and courses
  • 56.
  • 58. http://socioviz.net/ Making new connections The beginning of the #cam16 community
  • 61. The importance of sharing "We share for many reasons - some self serving and some not. Our need to share is based on the human instinct not only to survive but to thrive." Kramer 2015
  • 62. Shareology visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7 sharing is enhanced by
  • 63. Shareology visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7 sharing is enhanced by
  • 64. Shareology visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7 sharing is enhanced by
  • 65. Shareology visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7 sharing is enhanced by
  • 66. Shareology visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7 sharing is enhanced by
  • 67. Shareology visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7 sharing is enhanced by
  • 68. Shareology visibility in social spaces 1 an informative profile 2 social connectedness 3 mutual interests 4 active listening 5 interactive dialogue 6 dash of serendipity 7 sharing is enhanced by
  • 69. World of Mouth Difference between Word of Mouth and World of Mouth (Qualman 2011:2)
  • 71. LinkedIn updates Blog comments Blog posts Tweets Slideshare YouTube & Vimeo Complementing the traditional we are now seeing a growing use of social channels
  • 72. AND to continue this dialogue face to face CREATORS CURATORS CRITICS CONVERSATIONALISTS COLLABORATORS COMMUNICATORS Social Media EMPOWERS individuals to become digitally connected and social Beckingham 2013
  • 74. 5Cs Nerantzi and Beckingham 2014 The 5C Framework
  • 76.
  • 77. Making Connections for example at a conference Twitter • Check the speaker list and follow • Either add to an existing list or create a new group • Reach out and interact 1 LinkedIn • Send invite to connect with a message • Receive updates on activities • Share my activities 2 Blogs, SlideShare and other spaces • Follow and connect as appropriate 3
  • 80. Spoken and gestural are by their very nature ephemeral. It requires close contact for a message to be sent and received. And after the moment of transmission, it's gone forever. Graphic communication, on the other hand, decouples that relationship. And with its invention, it became possible for the first time for a message to be transmitted and preserved beyond a single moment in place and time. Genevieve von Petzinger 2015 There are three main kinds of communication spoken 1 • gestural 2 graphic 3
  • 81. Barring a handful of outliers, there are only 32 geometric signs across a 30,000-year time span and the entire continent of Europe. (von Petzinger 2015)
  • 82. Spot the icons that are used in social media today
  • 83. Adding images to tweets Embed video clips into blogs Add SlideShare presentations to your LinkedIn profile Collect and share useful resources using Pinterest Communicate what you do - the visual augments the written 13328 views
  • 88.
  • 89. Collaborative writing Google apps Collaborative discussions Skype and Google Hangouts Collaborative discussions written Twitter, Blogs, LinkedIn Groups Collaborative spaces
  • 90. "In the long history of humankind (and animal kind too) those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed". Charles Darwin
  • 93. / Learning and Teaching in Higher Education - weekly chat @LTHEchat #LTHEchat http://lthechat.com
  • 95. Create and grow a personal learning network and communities
  • 96. Crowd Learning Involves harnessing the knowledge and expertise of many people in order to answer questions or address immediate problems. Sharples et al 2013 - Innovating Pedagogy Report
  • 97. 8 key steps to building a personal learning network 1. explore 2. search 3. follow 4. tune 8. respond 7. inquire 6. engage 5. feed Rheingold 2011
  • 98. Learning and Network The connections in a network can function as learning ties providing access to information flows and exchanges. This access can be intentional or serendipitous. It can be direct – involving a personal connection, or indirect – involving a series of connections. Participation in a network does not require a sustained learning partnership or a commitment to a shared domain. In this sense, learning in a network does not have to have an explicit collective dimension. Learning and Community The formation of a community creates a social space in which participants can discover and further a learning partnership related to a common domain. This partnership can be formal or informal and its intention can be explicit or tacit. The key characteristic is the blending of individual and collective learning in the development of a shared practice. Wengeretal2011
  • 100. COMMUNITIES community of PURPOSE community of CIRCUMSTANCE community of PRACTICE community of INTEREST Marathe 1999
  • 101. Motivations to join online communities shared purpose shared circumstances shared practice shared interest to explore or express their passion to contribute to getting something done to connect with others in a similar life condition want to acquire or impart knowledge or skills
  • 102. Communities of purpose formed by people who are trying to achieve a similar objective, who assist each other by sharing experiences, information, and peer-to-peer knowledge. Communities of practice formed by groups of people sharing a similar profession or vocation who seek to share experiences and facilitate professional exchange (which may also add value to offline networks) Communities of circumstance which are similar to communities of practice but are generally more personally focussed, or related to life experiences, and not driven by professional activities. Communities of interest linking people who share their ideas, passion, and knowledge in a common interest or theme, but might know very little about each other outside this shared interest. ONLINE COMMUNITIES (Rennie and Keppell 2010)
  • 103. COMMUNITIES community of purpose community of circumstance community of practice community of interest e.g. a campaigning organisation committed to changing public policy e.g. an association of professionals e.g. a community of people with a particular medical condition e.g. a leisure or social activity #celcshooc conversations about end of life care #epccmooc enhancing prostate cancer care #XFactor @TheXFactor #RWC2015 @rugbyworldcup #LTHEchat learning and teaching in higher education chat @LTHEchat lthechat.com ALS Challenge Arab Spring and the uprising in the Middle East Natural disaster responses #HomeToVote and #LoveWins
  • 105. Network The network aspect refers to the set of relationships, personal interactions, and connections among participants who have personal reasons to connect. It is viewed as a set of nodes and links with affordances for learning, such as information flows, helpful linkages, joint problem solving, and knowledge creation. Community The community aspect refers to the development of a shared identity around a topic or set of challenges. It represents a collective intention – however tacit and distributed – to steward a domain of knowledge and to sustain learning about it. Wenger et al 2011 Wenger et al 2011
  • 106. Open Learning and Working Out Loud
  • 107. “If you ask me what I came to do in this world, I, an artist, will answer you: I am here to live out loud.” Émile Zola
  • 108. “Working Out Loud starts with making your work visible in such a way that it might help others. When you do that – when you work in a more open, connected way – you can build a purposeful network that makes you more effective and provides access to more opportunities.” John Stepper
  • 109. 5 Elements of Working Out Loud Making your work visible1 Making work better 2 Leading with generosity3 Building a social network. 4 Making it all purposeful5 Stepper 2014
  • 110. Benefits of Working Out Loud Internal: enterprise social network • peer-to-peer recognition • improved internal communications • better working relationships • humanised work • higher productivity • increased innovation and collaboration External: professional social networks • build professional network • opens virtual doors • crowd source information • breaks down geographical barriers
  • 111.
  • 112. Six sources of influence to inspire staff to work out loud If people don't find the social behaviour appealing, how can the organisation get them to try it and connect it to other things they value? And, if an employee likes doing it, how can the organisation reinforce that behaviour by recognising their accomplishments and encouraging them to do more? 1) Personal motivation How can the organisation make it simpler for colleagues to start? And, how can they provide staff with opportunities to practise the behaviour and attain achievable goals while giving them immediate feedback on ways to get even better? 2) Personal ability Who are the influential leaders who can help model the vital behaviours? How can the organisation identify relevant peer groups who are already behaving in that desired way? 3) Social motivation How can the company foster social ties (e.g. buddies systems, peer support groups, advocates programs) that can help an individual get better with the vital behaviours? 4) Social ability After the intrinsic motivators and social support are in place, what other extrinsic rewards - which have to be gratifying and in line with the encouraged behaviours - can also be used? 5) Structural motivation How can the organisation change the environment to make those relevant behaviours easier to implement?6) Structural ability AdaptedfromJohnStepper-DeutscheBank
  • 114. To benefit from working out loud we also need to progress from selective hearing to active listening
  • 115. The Lurker to be in a hidden place : to wait in a secret or hidden place especially in order to do something wrong or harmful computers : to read messages written by other people on the Internet in a newsgroup, chat room, etc., without writing any messages yourself Vicariousness experiences or felt by watching, hearing about, or reading about someone else rather than by doing something yourself Is 'listening in' vicarious lurking???
  • 116.
  • 117. Positive Silent Engagement (PSE) I would argue that positive silent engagement (PSE) is not only valuable, but an essential component of digital connectedness. We learn by listening. It is no different online
  • 118. KNOWLEDGE Knowledge is embodied in people gathered in communities and networks. The road to knowledge is via people, conversations, connections and relationships. Knowledge surfaces through dialog, all knowledge is socially mediated and access to knowledge is by connecting to people that know or know who to contact. In the knowledge economy, connections and relationships count more than personal knowhow and access to content. The environment changes so fast, the optimum knowledge strategy is instant access to people & their ideas and continuous awareness & learning in a supportive community. People and discourse communities provide the 'filter' mechanism for alerting and awareness. This helps to keep your focus, provides market intelligence and affords a platform for negotiating meaning and value. Denham Grey 2002
  • 119. Sue Beckingham | @suebecks Educational Developer and Senior Lecturer at Sheffield Hallam University with a research interest in the use of social media in education. Blog: http://socialmediaforlearning.com/ LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/suebeckingham
  • 120. Shareology and Social Media in Academia Shareology and Social Media in Academia As children we learn how to share with others and in the words of Darwin "In the long history of humankind (and animal kind too) those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed". Through the ubiquitous adoption of the internet there has been an exponential growth of information shared. The use of digital technologies such as social networking tools and smart devices have enabled individuals to connect, communicate, curate, collaborate and create. An array of user-generated multimedia artefacts are now shared that can be discussed, debated and critiqued. As educators it is through knowledge sharing and socially mediated interactions that we can make a difference. However it is not simply the giving or receiving of information, but about the new co-learning opportunities we can make (Rheingold); the ability to develop new capacities for action and change (Grey); and how we create knowledge and leverage it (Wenger). My keynote presentation will consider the concept of shareology and connectedness through social media and the value of working out loud.

Editor's Notes

  1. http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2015/11/word-of-the-year-2015-shortlist/
  2. https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/university-venus/whats-your-word-2016
  3. Vosen in Strother et al (2012) Information Overload: An International Challenge for Professional Engineers and Technical Communicators
  4. New York Times (2015) The Pschology of Sharing: Why do people share online?
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvin_Toffler
  6. Speier et al (1999). "The Influence of Task Interruption on Individual Decision Making: An Information Overload Perspective".
  7. Strother et al (2012) Information Overload: An International Challenge for Professional Engineers and Technical Communicators
  8. Kovach and Rosensteil (2011) Blur: How to Know What's True in the Age of Information Overload
  9. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:17th-century_unknown_painters_-_Still-Life_with_Books_-_WGA23542.jpg http://www.jstor.org/stable/3654293?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/3228379/blair%202003.pdf?sequence=2
  10. Weinberger (2014) Too Big to Know
  11. https://pixabay.com/en/here-and-now-tablet-blue-computer-413092/
  12. https://agenda.weforum.org/2015/12/how-can-we-equip-the-future-workforce-for-technological-change/
  13. https://www.citrix.com/content/dam/citrix/en_us/documents/news/2020-technology-landscape.pdf#page=18 https://pixabay.com/en/hand-robot-machine-697264/
  14. https://agenda.weforum.org/2015/12/how-can-we-equip-the-future-workforce-for-technological-change/
  15. Pink (2011) Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
  16. http://langwitches.org/blog/2014/12/21/3-reasons-why-you-should-share-and-3-things-what-you-can-do-to-share/
  17. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites
  18. https://pixabay.com/en/system-network-news-connection-954967/ http://wearesocial.sg/blog/2014/04/social-brands-ebook-2/
  19. Simon Kemp @eskimon http://www.slideshare.net/wearesocialsg/digital-social-mobile-in-southeast-asia-in-2015/7-wearesocialsg_7We_Are_SocialACTIVEINTERNET_USERSTOTALPOPULATIONACTIVE
  20. http://www.slideshare.net/wearesocialsg/digital-social-mobile-in-southeast-asia-in-2015/8-wearesocialsg_8We_Are_SocialACTIVE_USERS
  21. https://press.linkedin.com/about-linkedin
  22. http://www.slideshare.net/CharlesHardy1/developing-and-optimising-your-professional-identity
  23. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_adoption_lifecycle
  24. Source: http://www.mnsu.edu/comdis/kuster/Infostuttering/Paradigmparalysis.html
  25. Used with permission : https://instagram.com/madebyfolks/ and http://madebyfolks.tumblr.com/
  26. https://pixabay.com/en/away-child-human-nature-hiking-265212/
  27. Kramer (2015) Shareology: How sharing is powering the human economy
  28. Qualman (2012) Socialnomics
  29. http://www.slideshare.net/suebeckingham/scholarship-and-social-media
  30. https://pixabay.com/en/connections-issues-people-ideas-990699/
  31. https://www.ted.com/talks/genevieve_von_petzinger_why_are_these_32_symbols_found_in_ancient_caves_all_over_europe?language=en#t-391687
  32. https://www.ted.com/talks/genevieve_von_petzinger_why_are_these_32_symbols_found_in_ancient_caves_all_over_europe?language=en#t-391687
  33. https://www.ted.com/talks/genevieve_von_petzinger_why_are_these_32_symbols_found_in_ancient_caves_all_over_europe?language=en#t-391687
  34. https://pixabay.com/en/collaboration-collaborator-book-1106196/
  35. http://www.knowledge-architecture.com/downloads/Wenger_Trayner_DeLaat_Value_creation.pdf
  36. http://www.knowledge-architecture.com/downloads/Wenger_Trayner_DeLaat_Value_creation.pdf https://pixabay.com/en/crowd-sourcing-crowd-folk-people-154759/
  37. https://pixabay.com/en/network-computer-laptop-connection-698598/
  38. Stepper (2014) Working Out Loud
  39. http://johnstepper.com/2014/01/04/the-5-elements-of-working-out-loud/
  40. http://www.slideshare.net/Salesforce/salesforce-chatter-work-out-loud-love-your-job
  41. http://simply-communicate.com/case-studies/company-profile/working-out-loud-deutsche-bank
  42. http://www.knowledge-architecture.com/downloads/Wenger_Trayner_DeLaat_Value_creation.pdf
  43. https://pixabay.com/en/headphones-audio-black-songs-mp3-424163/
  44. https://pixabay.com/en/hearing-ear-sound-listen-deaf-41428/ https://pixabay.com/en/media-laptop-tablet-pc-smartphone-774068/
  45. http://www.gurteen.com/gurteen/gurteen.nsf/id/X0029135E/