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A non-technical
introduction
to ChatGPT
Sue Beckingham
Peter Hartley
This session:
Please put comments and
questions in the Chat.
• Introducing ourselves
• ChatGPT: very brief history
and context
• What ChatGPT can do:
examples and options.
• Implications and issues
• Next steps
• Further sources, such as
Sue Beckingham
Sue is a National Teaching Fellow, Principal Lecturer in Digital Analytics and Technologies, and a Learning and
Teaching Portfolio Lead at Sheffield Hallam University.
She is also a Certified Management and Business Educator, a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, a
Fellow of the Staff and Educational Development Association, and a Visiting Fellow at Edge Hill University.
Her research interests include social media for learning and digital identity, groupwork, and the use of
technology to enhance learning and teaching; and has published and presented this work nationally and
internationally as an invited keynote speaker. She is a co-founder of the international #LTHEchat 'Learning and
Teaching in Higher Education Twitter Chat' and the Social Media for Learning in HE Conference @SocMedHE.
Publications: https://www.suebeckingham.com/p/publications.html
Twitter: @suebecks
Blog: http://socialmediaforlearning.com/
LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/suebeckingham
Email: s.beckingham@shu.ac.uk
2022
Author of book chapters
Peter Hartley
Now into my 3rd career:
• Career 1: Teaching academic in
Communication Studies: lecturer > dept head >
Professor of Communication.
• Career 2: Educational developer.
National Teaching Fellow.
Head of Ed Development Unit
Professor of Education Development.
• Career 3: Educational consultant.
Visiting Professor at Edge Hill.
External examiner & writer. Working/ed on:
project evaluation; learning spaces; NTF/CATE
mentoring; assessment strategies; visual thinking,
online development/ethical issues re tech (e.g.
applications/implications of ChatGPT); new
SEDA/Jisc Student Partnership Impact Award etc.
https://www.routled
ge.com/products/97
81138854710
http://www.routled
ge.com/books/detai
ls/9780415640282/
https://he.p
algrave.com/
page/detail/
Learning-
Developmen
t-in-Higher-
Education/?
K=97802302
41480
4
PROGRAMME ASSESSMENT
Chapters with Ruth Whitfield in………………………………………………and in ……………………..…
https://www.bloomsbury.
com/uk/success-in-
groupwork-
9781350933491/
2nd edition,
February, 2022
with
Sue Beckingham
and Mark Dawson
Now published:
https://ww
w.springer.c
om/gp/boo
k/97830302
63416
Forthcoming in May 2023.
3rd edition of
https://www.r
outledge.com/I
nterpersonal-
Communicatio
n/Hartley/p/bo
ok/978041518
1075
With
Helena Knapton
And
Susie Marriott
From
Edge Hill University
Terminology
• AI = artificial intelligence
the simulation of human intelligence processes by computer
systems. SIRI and Alexa are powered by AI
• GPT = Generative Pre-Training Transformer
• Chat GPT – Software which interacts in a conversational way.
The dialogue format makes it possible for ChatGPT to
answer follow-up questions, admit its mistakes, challenge
incorrect premises, and reject inappropriate requests.
• OpenAI – Organisation that developed ChatGPT
https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/
The brief history (up to Feb 7, 2023)
• Long history of experiments with computers as text generators and
‘chatbots’ (remember Eliza, anyone - https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/the-eliza-effect/ ).
• OpenAI is the company that created GPT-3 which received
considerable attention – see Sharples and Perez y Perez (2022).
• ChatGPT is the latest ‘free’ version (more user-friendly) and the
‘fastest growing’ online product of all time.
• ChatGPTPlus announced this week (will be $20 a month in the USA
for better, speedier access and some additional features).
• Microsoft investment in OpenAI - announcing they will put AI into all
their products. Google event – enter the Bard - February 8.
Mass media
attention
Dan Fitzpatrick
https://thirdbox.org
Video clip at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=S0LvTqxQiXE
Other reactions
First response from QAA Selected Quotations ...
“every product of Microsoft will have some of the
same AI capabilities ...we'll be seeing it soon” (1)
“Ai won’t replace teachers, but it will replace
teachers who can’t use AI.” (2)
“ChatGPT isn’t a great leap forward, it’s an
expensive deal with the devil.” (3)
It is “hi-tech plagiarism” (4)
”ChatGPT ... can easily teach classes already” (5)
“Google Panics Over ChatGPT (The AI wars have
begun).” (6)
“the myths surrounding AI are so dangerous” (7)
“Chat GPT would have received a B to B- grade on
the (MBA) exam.” (8)
https://www.qaa.ac.uk/news-
events/news/qaa-briefs-members-on-
artificial-intelligence-threat-to-
academic-integrity
ChatGPT text is:
• Grammatical – few or no mistakes spotted
by grammar-checkers like Grammarly.
• Relevant to the topic.
• Plausible – you can ‘fool’ expert readers if
they are unaware of the text origins.
• Worthy of a decent/good academic grade
in some assignments.
ChatGPT text – note that:
• It does not ‘understand’.
• May be wrong/inaccurate or ’invented’.
• Is based on estimating the most likely next
word(s) given the overall topic question or
prompt.
• Can mimic different styles of writing or
adapt the text to target a particular
audience.
Comparing tools
Google
DuckDuckGo
ChatGPT
Outputs Delivers results as ... Ranked links Full text
Provides details of sources Yes No/possibly
Reliable and truthful Link-dependent Not necessarily
Capacities Can write ‘good’ computer code No Yes
Can construct a story No Yes
Can summarise information No Yes
Can simulate a conversation No Yes
Examples
(all responses totally generated by ChatGPT)
1. ChatGPT explaining ChatGPT
2. The future of educational development?
3. Why does ChatGPT sometimes lie?
4. Responding in different styles
5. A more complex question on literary characters
6. Plan a presentation – expand it – and evaluate it.
Some questions you may like
to pose for our examples ...
• Is the ChatGPT text coherent and plausible?
• Any obvious errors?
• Anything that could be challenged?
• What level is ChatGPT working at?
For example, would you ‘accept’ the text from an
undergraduate student? If so, what level of
student?
1a: ChatGPT explaining ChatGPT v1
To a non-technical audience
ChatGPT is a computer program that can respond to questions
and provide information on a wide range of topics. You can talk
to ChatGPT as if you were speaking to a knowledgeable friend
or a reference book. It can provide answers, explanations, and
information on topics such as history, science, arts, and current
events, among many others. It can also generate text for tasks
such as writing stories, composing poems, and creating
conversations. In short, ChatGPT is an AI tool that helps
people access information and communicate in a more natural
and efficient way.
1b: ChatGPT explaining ChatGPT v2
To a technical audience
ChatGPT is an AI-powered language model developed by
OpenAI. It's based on the Transformer architecture and trained
on a massive amount of text data using a variant of the GPT-3
language model. ChatGPT uses this training to generate human-
like text in response to prompts, allowing it to perform a wide
range of natural language tasks such as answering questions,
generating text, and holding conversations. Its advanced
technology enables it to understand context, handle complex
relationships between concepts, and produce coherent,
informative outputs.
2a: What is the future for educational
development in higher education in the UK?
It is difficult to predict the exact future of educational development
in higher education in the UK, however, some current trends and
developments include an increased focus on online and blended
learning, personalized and student-centered education, greater
use of technology and data to drive learning and decision making,
and an emphasis on preparing students for the future workforce
through interdisciplinary, experiential and practical learning
experiences. Additionally, there is growing recognition of the
importance of mental health and well-being in higher education,
and institutions are exploring new approaches to support
students in these areas. These and other developments are likely
to shape the future of educational development in the UK's higher
2b: Does this future look like good news for
educational developers?
The future of educational development in higher education in the
UK is likely to present both opportunities and challenges for
educational developers. The increased focus on student-centered
learning, technology integration, and well-being are likely to create
new opportunities for educational developers to create innovative
and effective educational experiences. On the other hand, the
changing nature of education and the increasing demand for
online and blended learning may require educational developers
to acquire new skills and adapt to new technologies. Overall, the
future of educational development in higher education in the UK is
likely to be shaped by a number of complex and dynamic factors,
and educational developers will need to be proactive and agile in
3. Why does ChatGPT sometimes lie?
ChatGPT, like other language models, is a machine learning
model that is trained on vast amounts of text data. However, it is
not programmed to always tell the truth and sometimes
generates incorrect or misleading information. This can occur
due to various factors, such as training on inaccurate or biased
data, or generating outputs based on incomplete or
misunderstood information. Additionally, ChatGPT's outputs are
not always vetted or reviewed, so it's important to double-check
the information it provides and use additional sources to verify its
accuracy. While ChatGPT can be a useful tool for generating
information and ideas, it's important to remember that it's not
always correct and should not be relied upon for critical decision
4. Answer the question in the style of ......
Well, folks, let me tell you, ChatGPT is a jolly clever
machine, but like all machines, it's not perfect. It's trained on
a load of data, but sometimes that data ain't spot on, and it
can lead to the occasional mistake. So, what I'm saying is,
while ChatGPT can be a useful tool, don't go making any big
decisions based on what it tells you. Do your own research,
check the facts, and always trust your gut!
5. A more complex question?
Which of Shakespeare's main characters was the most
tortured from a psychological perspective?
Assume that this answer is aimed at someone who has
read and studied all the plays.
5. And the answer
As a language model, I don't have opinions or emotions, but
I can tell you that Hamlet is often considered to be one of
Shakespeare's most psychologically complex characters
and is widely regarded as one of the most tortured
characters in all of literature. Hamlet is torn between his
duty to avenge his father's murder and his moral objections
to killing his uncle, and this conflict causes him great
psychological distress throughout the play. Other
characters, such as Macbeth and King Lear, also suffer from
intense psychological torment, but Hamlet's struggles with
his own mind and the ghosts of his past make his story
particularly poignant.
6a. Plan a presentation
The prompt:
Produce an outline for a 15-minute PowerPoint presentation
on ChatGPT, explaining what it is, what it does, and any
significant limitations for lecturers and students in UK Higher
Education.
6b:The plan
I. Introduction
A. Explanation of what ChatGPT is
B. Purpose of the presentation
II. What is ChatGPT?
A. Description of ChatGPT as a large
language model
B. Explanation of how it is trained
C. Capabilities of ChatGPT
III. What does ChatGPT do?
A. Explanation of how ChatGPT can be
used for natural language processing
tasks
B. Examples of how ChatGPT has been
used in industry and research
C. Discussion of potential use cases in
higher education
IV. Limitations
A. Explanation of any significant
limitations of ChatGPT
B. Discussion of limitations related to
data bias and ethical considerations
C. Discussion of limitations related to
the interpretability of ChatGPT's
output
V. Conclusion
A. Summary of key points
B. Discussion of future developments
in the field of language models
C. Final thoughts and
recommendations for using ChatGPT
in higher education
6c: The expansion
II. What is ChatGPT?
A Description of ChatGPT as a large language model:
ChatGPT has 175 billion parameters, making it one of the largest language models
currently available.
It is trained on a diverse set of internet text, allowing it to generate text that is
similar to human-written text.
B. Explanation of how it is trained:
ChatGPT is trained using a technique called unsupervised learning, where the
model learns patterns in the data without any specific task in mind.
This allows the model to learn a wide range of language patterns, making it useful
for a variety of natural language processing tasks.
Capabilities of ChatGPT: -
ChatGPT can generate text that is similar to human-written text, making it useful
for tasks such as text completion, question answering, and text generation.
It can also be fine-tuned on specific tasks such as text classification, language
translation, and summarization.
6d: And the evaluation, part 1
Overall, the expanded outline produced by the undergraduate humanities student is quite good.
Here's an evaluation based on the assessment criteria provided:
Accuracy:
The outline provides an accurate overview of ChatGPT, including its capabilities, how it's trained,
and potential use cases. However, it could be more specific about the ethical considerations and
bias issues that are associated with the use of ChatGPT.
Relevance:
The outline is relevant to the topic of ChatGPT and its potential use in higher education,
specifically in the UK. It provides a good introduction to the model and its capabilities and
discusses potential use cases that could be relevant for lecturers and students in higher
education.
6e: And the evaluation, part 2
Structure:
The outline is well-structured, with clear headings and subheadings that make it easy to follow
the flow of the presentation. It covers all the key points that should be included in a presentation
on ChatGPT.
Quality of communication:
The outline is written in clear and concise language, making it easy to understand. The examples
used to illustrate the different points are well-chosen, and the explanations provided are clear
and informative. However, the student could have been more specific about the ethical
considerations and bias issues that are associated with the use of ChatGPT.
Overall
The outline provides a good foundation for a presentation on ChatGPT in higher education and
demonstrates a good understanding of the topic.
With some additional work on the ethical considerations and bias issues associated with the use
of ChatGPT, it would be an excellent outline for a presentation
Staff
using
GPT
As a “study aid,”
(description of DNA methylation)
“Virtual teaching assistant”
(see conversation here with ChatGPT)
Grading
Lesson and curriculum planning
Formative feedback
Designing presentations
Listing privacy/safety concerns
Students using ChatGPT
5 SECRET Ways to Become a
Speed Learner With ChatGPT
• Personal Tutor
• Study Buddy
• Create tests/exams
• Language Learning
• Summarise Information.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V
eXKByjBMXw
Important issues and implications
• Can we reliably identify an
AI-generated text?
• Can we/should we control
the use of ChatGPT?
• How can we use it positively?
• Do we need an institutional
strategy?
More important issues and implications
• How can individual tutors
make best use of it?
• How do we develop ‘critical
AI’ skills in our students (and
our staff)?
• Issues of data security and
privacy?
• Access and accessibility –
which students can afford
the premium product?
Recording
Next steps?
Please see the SEDA
website or @Seda_UK for
forthcoming events and
recordings, including an
invited keynote from Mike
Sharples, March 8, 2023.
https://www.seda.ac.uk/
https://twitter.com/Seda_
UK_
Sources
1.Interview with Satya Nadella, Microsoft CEO
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNbyT7wPwk4
2. Dan Fitzpatrick on Twitter.
3. John Naughton in The Observer, 4/2/23.
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/feb/04/chatgpt-isnt-a-great-leap-forward-its-an-
expensive-deal-with-the-devil
4. Noam Chomsky interview at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgxzcOugvEI&t=789s
5. New York Post, 25/1/23, quoting Pengcheng Shi, Associate Dean in computer dept. At:
https://nypost.com/2023/01/25/chat-gpt-could-make-these-jobs-obsolete/
6. KellyRow at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zk1_to-Slbo
7. Web Summit at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBdZi_JtV4c&t=1349s
8. Would Chat GPT Get a Wharton MBA? New White Paper By Christian Terwiesch
At: https://mackinstitute.wharton.upenn.edu/2023/would-chat-gpt3-get-a-wharton-mba-new-white-
paper-by-christian-terwiesch/
More Sources
Sharples, M. and Pérez y Pérez, R. (2022) Story Machines: How Computers Have Become Creative
Writers. London: Routledge.
See the review at https://leonfurze.com/2022/07/27/review-story-machines-by-mike-sharples-and-
rafael-perez-y-perez/
Anna Mills – as well as her NAIN presentation (see title slide), see her website for some excellent
resources: https://www.annarmills.com
• University of Oxford Centre for Teaching and Learning
Four lessons from ChatGPT: Challenges and opportunities for educators
https://ctl.ox.ac.uk/article/four-lessons-from-chatgpt-challenges-and-opportunities-for-educators
• Example of student guidance on using AL tools
https://blogs.deakin.edu.au/deakinlife/2023/02/02/what-you-need-to-know-about-chatgpt-and-
other-ai-tools/
• Teaching AI ethics
https://leonfurze.com/2023/01/26/teaching-ai-ethics/

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A non-technical introduction to ChatGPT - SEDA.pptx

  • 2. This session: Please put comments and questions in the Chat. • Introducing ourselves • ChatGPT: very brief history and context • What ChatGPT can do: examples and options. • Implications and issues • Next steps • Further sources, such as
  • 3. Sue Beckingham Sue is a National Teaching Fellow, Principal Lecturer in Digital Analytics and Technologies, and a Learning and Teaching Portfolio Lead at Sheffield Hallam University. She is also a Certified Management and Business Educator, a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, a Fellow of the Staff and Educational Development Association, and a Visiting Fellow at Edge Hill University. Her research interests include social media for learning and digital identity, groupwork, and the use of technology to enhance learning and teaching; and has published and presented this work nationally and internationally as an invited keynote speaker. She is a co-founder of the international #LTHEchat 'Learning and Teaching in Higher Education Twitter Chat' and the Social Media for Learning in HE Conference @SocMedHE. Publications: https://www.suebeckingham.com/p/publications.html Twitter: @suebecks Blog: http://socialmediaforlearning.com/ LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/suebeckingham Email: s.beckingham@shu.ac.uk 2022 Author of book chapters
  • 4. Peter Hartley Now into my 3rd career: • Career 1: Teaching academic in Communication Studies: lecturer > dept head > Professor of Communication. • Career 2: Educational developer. National Teaching Fellow. Head of Ed Development Unit Professor of Education Development. • Career 3: Educational consultant. Visiting Professor at Edge Hill. External examiner & writer. Working/ed on: project evaluation; learning spaces; NTF/CATE mentoring; assessment strategies; visual thinking, online development/ethical issues re tech (e.g. applications/implications of ChatGPT); new SEDA/Jisc Student Partnership Impact Award etc. https://www.routled ge.com/products/97 81138854710 http://www.routled ge.com/books/detai ls/9780415640282/ https://he.p algrave.com/ page/detail/ Learning- Developmen t-in-Higher- Education/? K=97802302 41480 4 PROGRAMME ASSESSMENT Chapters with Ruth Whitfield in………………………………………………and in ……………………..… https://www.bloomsbury. com/uk/success-in- groupwork- 9781350933491/ 2nd edition, February, 2022 with Sue Beckingham and Mark Dawson Now published: https://ww w.springer.c om/gp/boo k/97830302 63416 Forthcoming in May 2023. 3rd edition of https://www.r outledge.com/I nterpersonal- Communicatio n/Hartley/p/bo ok/978041518 1075 With Helena Knapton And Susie Marriott From Edge Hill University
  • 5. Terminology • AI = artificial intelligence the simulation of human intelligence processes by computer systems. SIRI and Alexa are powered by AI • GPT = Generative Pre-Training Transformer • Chat GPT – Software which interacts in a conversational way. The dialogue format makes it possible for ChatGPT to answer follow-up questions, admit its mistakes, challenge incorrect premises, and reject inappropriate requests. • OpenAI – Organisation that developed ChatGPT https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/
  • 6. The brief history (up to Feb 7, 2023) • Long history of experiments with computers as text generators and ‘chatbots’ (remember Eliza, anyone - https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/the-eliza-effect/ ). • OpenAI is the company that created GPT-3 which received considerable attention – see Sharples and Perez y Perez (2022). • ChatGPT is the latest ‘free’ version (more user-friendly) and the ‘fastest growing’ online product of all time. • ChatGPTPlus announced this week (will be $20 a month in the USA for better, speedier access and some additional features). • Microsoft investment in OpenAI - announcing they will put AI into all their products. Google event – enter the Bard - February 8.
  • 7. Mass media attention Dan Fitzpatrick https://thirdbox.org Video clip at: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=S0LvTqxQiXE
  • 8. Other reactions First response from QAA Selected Quotations ... “every product of Microsoft will have some of the same AI capabilities ...we'll be seeing it soon” (1) “Ai won’t replace teachers, but it will replace teachers who can’t use AI.” (2) “ChatGPT isn’t a great leap forward, it’s an expensive deal with the devil.” (3) It is “hi-tech plagiarism” (4) ”ChatGPT ... can easily teach classes already” (5) “Google Panics Over ChatGPT (The AI wars have begun).” (6) “the myths surrounding AI are so dangerous” (7) “Chat GPT would have received a B to B- grade on the (MBA) exam.” (8) https://www.qaa.ac.uk/news- events/news/qaa-briefs-members-on- artificial-intelligence-threat-to- academic-integrity
  • 9. ChatGPT text is: • Grammatical – few or no mistakes spotted by grammar-checkers like Grammarly. • Relevant to the topic. • Plausible – you can ‘fool’ expert readers if they are unaware of the text origins. • Worthy of a decent/good academic grade in some assignments.
  • 10. ChatGPT text – note that: • It does not ‘understand’. • May be wrong/inaccurate or ’invented’. • Is based on estimating the most likely next word(s) given the overall topic question or prompt. • Can mimic different styles of writing or adapt the text to target a particular audience.
  • 11. Comparing tools Google DuckDuckGo ChatGPT Outputs Delivers results as ... Ranked links Full text Provides details of sources Yes No/possibly Reliable and truthful Link-dependent Not necessarily Capacities Can write ‘good’ computer code No Yes Can construct a story No Yes Can summarise information No Yes Can simulate a conversation No Yes
  • 12. Examples (all responses totally generated by ChatGPT) 1. ChatGPT explaining ChatGPT 2. The future of educational development? 3. Why does ChatGPT sometimes lie? 4. Responding in different styles 5. A more complex question on literary characters 6. Plan a presentation – expand it – and evaluate it.
  • 13. Some questions you may like to pose for our examples ... • Is the ChatGPT text coherent and plausible? • Any obvious errors? • Anything that could be challenged? • What level is ChatGPT working at? For example, would you ‘accept’ the text from an undergraduate student? If so, what level of student?
  • 14. 1a: ChatGPT explaining ChatGPT v1 To a non-technical audience ChatGPT is a computer program that can respond to questions and provide information on a wide range of topics. You can talk to ChatGPT as if you were speaking to a knowledgeable friend or a reference book. It can provide answers, explanations, and information on topics such as history, science, arts, and current events, among many others. It can also generate text for tasks such as writing stories, composing poems, and creating conversations. In short, ChatGPT is an AI tool that helps people access information and communicate in a more natural and efficient way.
  • 15. 1b: ChatGPT explaining ChatGPT v2 To a technical audience ChatGPT is an AI-powered language model developed by OpenAI. It's based on the Transformer architecture and trained on a massive amount of text data using a variant of the GPT-3 language model. ChatGPT uses this training to generate human- like text in response to prompts, allowing it to perform a wide range of natural language tasks such as answering questions, generating text, and holding conversations. Its advanced technology enables it to understand context, handle complex relationships between concepts, and produce coherent, informative outputs.
  • 16. 2a: What is the future for educational development in higher education in the UK? It is difficult to predict the exact future of educational development in higher education in the UK, however, some current trends and developments include an increased focus on online and blended learning, personalized and student-centered education, greater use of technology and data to drive learning and decision making, and an emphasis on preparing students for the future workforce through interdisciplinary, experiential and practical learning experiences. Additionally, there is growing recognition of the importance of mental health and well-being in higher education, and institutions are exploring new approaches to support students in these areas. These and other developments are likely to shape the future of educational development in the UK's higher
  • 17. 2b: Does this future look like good news for educational developers? The future of educational development in higher education in the UK is likely to present both opportunities and challenges for educational developers. The increased focus on student-centered learning, technology integration, and well-being are likely to create new opportunities for educational developers to create innovative and effective educational experiences. On the other hand, the changing nature of education and the increasing demand for online and blended learning may require educational developers to acquire new skills and adapt to new technologies. Overall, the future of educational development in higher education in the UK is likely to be shaped by a number of complex and dynamic factors, and educational developers will need to be proactive and agile in
  • 18. 3. Why does ChatGPT sometimes lie? ChatGPT, like other language models, is a machine learning model that is trained on vast amounts of text data. However, it is not programmed to always tell the truth and sometimes generates incorrect or misleading information. This can occur due to various factors, such as training on inaccurate or biased data, or generating outputs based on incomplete or misunderstood information. Additionally, ChatGPT's outputs are not always vetted or reviewed, so it's important to double-check the information it provides and use additional sources to verify its accuracy. While ChatGPT can be a useful tool for generating information and ideas, it's important to remember that it's not always correct and should not be relied upon for critical decision
  • 19. 4. Answer the question in the style of ...... Well, folks, let me tell you, ChatGPT is a jolly clever machine, but like all machines, it's not perfect. It's trained on a load of data, but sometimes that data ain't spot on, and it can lead to the occasional mistake. So, what I'm saying is, while ChatGPT can be a useful tool, don't go making any big decisions based on what it tells you. Do your own research, check the facts, and always trust your gut!
  • 20. 5. A more complex question? Which of Shakespeare's main characters was the most tortured from a psychological perspective? Assume that this answer is aimed at someone who has read and studied all the plays.
  • 21. 5. And the answer As a language model, I don't have opinions or emotions, but I can tell you that Hamlet is often considered to be one of Shakespeare's most psychologically complex characters and is widely regarded as one of the most tortured characters in all of literature. Hamlet is torn between his duty to avenge his father's murder and his moral objections to killing his uncle, and this conflict causes him great psychological distress throughout the play. Other characters, such as Macbeth and King Lear, also suffer from intense psychological torment, but Hamlet's struggles with his own mind and the ghosts of his past make his story particularly poignant.
  • 22. 6a. Plan a presentation The prompt: Produce an outline for a 15-minute PowerPoint presentation on ChatGPT, explaining what it is, what it does, and any significant limitations for lecturers and students in UK Higher Education.
  • 23. 6b:The plan I. Introduction A. Explanation of what ChatGPT is B. Purpose of the presentation II. What is ChatGPT? A. Description of ChatGPT as a large language model B. Explanation of how it is trained C. Capabilities of ChatGPT III. What does ChatGPT do? A. Explanation of how ChatGPT can be used for natural language processing tasks B. Examples of how ChatGPT has been used in industry and research C. Discussion of potential use cases in higher education IV. Limitations A. Explanation of any significant limitations of ChatGPT B. Discussion of limitations related to data bias and ethical considerations C. Discussion of limitations related to the interpretability of ChatGPT's output V. Conclusion A. Summary of key points B. Discussion of future developments in the field of language models C. Final thoughts and recommendations for using ChatGPT in higher education
  • 24. 6c: The expansion II. What is ChatGPT? A Description of ChatGPT as a large language model: ChatGPT has 175 billion parameters, making it one of the largest language models currently available. It is trained on a diverse set of internet text, allowing it to generate text that is similar to human-written text. B. Explanation of how it is trained: ChatGPT is trained using a technique called unsupervised learning, where the model learns patterns in the data without any specific task in mind. This allows the model to learn a wide range of language patterns, making it useful for a variety of natural language processing tasks. Capabilities of ChatGPT: - ChatGPT can generate text that is similar to human-written text, making it useful for tasks such as text completion, question answering, and text generation. It can also be fine-tuned on specific tasks such as text classification, language translation, and summarization.
  • 25. 6d: And the evaluation, part 1 Overall, the expanded outline produced by the undergraduate humanities student is quite good. Here's an evaluation based on the assessment criteria provided: Accuracy: The outline provides an accurate overview of ChatGPT, including its capabilities, how it's trained, and potential use cases. However, it could be more specific about the ethical considerations and bias issues that are associated with the use of ChatGPT. Relevance: The outline is relevant to the topic of ChatGPT and its potential use in higher education, specifically in the UK. It provides a good introduction to the model and its capabilities and discusses potential use cases that could be relevant for lecturers and students in higher education.
  • 26. 6e: And the evaluation, part 2 Structure: The outline is well-structured, with clear headings and subheadings that make it easy to follow the flow of the presentation. It covers all the key points that should be included in a presentation on ChatGPT. Quality of communication: The outline is written in clear and concise language, making it easy to understand. The examples used to illustrate the different points are well-chosen, and the explanations provided are clear and informative. However, the student could have been more specific about the ethical considerations and bias issues that are associated with the use of ChatGPT. Overall The outline provides a good foundation for a presentation on ChatGPT in higher education and demonstrates a good understanding of the topic. With some additional work on the ethical considerations and bias issues associated with the use of ChatGPT, it would be an excellent outline for a presentation
  • 27. Staff using GPT As a “study aid,” (description of DNA methylation) “Virtual teaching assistant” (see conversation here with ChatGPT) Grading Lesson and curriculum planning Formative feedback Designing presentations Listing privacy/safety concerns
  • 28. Students using ChatGPT 5 SECRET Ways to Become a Speed Learner With ChatGPT • Personal Tutor • Study Buddy • Create tests/exams • Language Learning • Summarise Information. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V eXKByjBMXw
  • 29. Important issues and implications • Can we reliably identify an AI-generated text? • Can we/should we control the use of ChatGPT? • How can we use it positively? • Do we need an institutional strategy?
  • 30. More important issues and implications • How can individual tutors make best use of it? • How do we develop ‘critical AI’ skills in our students (and our staff)? • Issues of data security and privacy? • Access and accessibility – which students can afford the premium product?
  • 32. Next steps? Please see the SEDA website or @Seda_UK for forthcoming events and recordings, including an invited keynote from Mike Sharples, March 8, 2023. https://www.seda.ac.uk/ https://twitter.com/Seda_ UK_
  • 33. Sources 1.Interview with Satya Nadella, Microsoft CEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNbyT7wPwk4 2. Dan Fitzpatrick on Twitter. 3. John Naughton in The Observer, 4/2/23. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/feb/04/chatgpt-isnt-a-great-leap-forward-its-an- expensive-deal-with-the-devil 4. Noam Chomsky interview at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgxzcOugvEI&t=789s 5. New York Post, 25/1/23, quoting Pengcheng Shi, Associate Dean in computer dept. At: https://nypost.com/2023/01/25/chat-gpt-could-make-these-jobs-obsolete/ 6. KellyRow at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zk1_to-Slbo 7. Web Summit at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBdZi_JtV4c&t=1349s 8. Would Chat GPT Get a Wharton MBA? New White Paper By Christian Terwiesch At: https://mackinstitute.wharton.upenn.edu/2023/would-chat-gpt3-get-a-wharton-mba-new-white- paper-by-christian-terwiesch/
  • 34. More Sources Sharples, M. and Pérez y Pérez, R. (2022) Story Machines: How Computers Have Become Creative Writers. London: Routledge. See the review at https://leonfurze.com/2022/07/27/review-story-machines-by-mike-sharples-and- rafael-perez-y-perez/ Anna Mills – as well as her NAIN presentation (see title slide), see her website for some excellent resources: https://www.annarmills.com • University of Oxford Centre for Teaching and Learning Four lessons from ChatGPT: Challenges and opportunities for educators https://ctl.ox.ac.uk/article/four-lessons-from-chatgpt-challenges-and-opportunities-for-educators • Example of student guidance on using AL tools https://blogs.deakin.edu.au/deakinlife/2023/02/02/what-you-need-to-know-about-chatgpt-and- other-ai-tools/ • Teaching AI ethics https://leonfurze.com/2023/01/26/teaching-ai-ethics/

Editor's Notes

  1. Video link: https://youtu.be/zErbk3k6lD4