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Recipes for PhD
Milad Shokouhi
About your Chef
• Undergraduateat Bu-Ali Sina university Iran (top 10 uni, but not top 5)
• PhD at RMIT Australia (2.5 years)
• Senior Applied Researcher at Microsoft (Bing & MSRC)
• Honorary Lecturer at University of Glasgow
@invertedindex
Let’s Cook!
Hello World
Why, What, Where, When & How?
http://qsiu.dev.qs.com/wp-
content/uploads/2013/07/graduate_b
ars.png
Why?
Do you like research?
What do you want to do in future?
Do you care a lot about $$?
What?
What do you like?
What does future look like?
What undergraduate subjects did you well on?
Where?
Which universities do related
research?
Rankings are good proxy but
may lie
Faculty ranking matters
more than university ranking
Advisor is more important
than both
Duration, visa requirements
and work permits
When?
In Australia, Autumn starts in March
Deadlines for applications, scholarships, IELTS, etc.
How?
• Make your own timetable.
• Study for tests.
• Apply.
Build up your research profile
CV, recommendation letters, getting in touch
You are awesome, but no one’s perfect!
Believe in yourself…
Work hard on your weaknesses.
Turn them into your strengths.
Follow footsteps of others.
Not a great GPA? Do great on
your Masters project, get a
paper out of it.
…and others will start having believing in you!
Get recommendation letters
You are not famous – yet
Your Masters advisor may be
You must be good if
recommended by someone good.
Get in touch
• Dear Professor, Dear Sir/Madam
• Explain your previous research
• Explain why you have reached out this particular person/group.
• Professors get many emails like this. Differentiate and show that you care.
Check box
http://whyitdemos.com/eduabroad1/wp-
content/uploads/2013/06/scholarships.jpg
Target universities identified.
Entry tests.
Recommendation letters.
CVs and publications.
Letter to potential future supervisors.
Appetizer
Congratulations! You are now a PhD student. Early year(s)…
Everything’s great, now let’s change the world!
Well,… except that, you probably won’t!
Your PhD project
• Pick something that your advisor cares about.
• Pick something that you like.
• Pick an area which is not too mature.
• Pick an area which is not too immature.
• Pick an area which is trendy.
• Too trendy: high competition
• Not trendy: less impact and recognition.
• Pick something that you can do.
Your advisor
• Pick an advisor which is well-known in the field.
• Junior advisors may spend more time with you but may lack experience.
• Senior advisors may be “too busy”.
• Look how successful their previous students are.
• Get feedback from their current students.
• Learn about their supervision style.
PhD probability density function
• Before the peak:
• Lots of reading
• Lots of failing experiments
• At the peak:
• You know your area  first paper
• After the peak:
• lots of writing
Time (#years, #semesters)
Reading,Confusion&Stress
Thesis/Funding
deadline
PhD Cumulative density function
• You need to start early.
• Don’t waste time in early years.
• At the end of your PhD you’ll
have so many ideas
• Save some time for writing them!
Thesis/Funding
deadline
Time (#years, #semesters)
#papers,Success
To get to the peak earlier
• Read
• Read
• Read
• Read
• Read
• Read
• Read
Read…
• Identify the top conferences and journals in your field and read as many
papers as you can.
• Identify the top authors in your field and read their papers.
• Follow the citation graph and read the related papers.
• Summarize each paper you read in a few sentences.
• Read critically.
Do … take part in regular paper reading
groups, or start your own. Its often much
easier to ask stupid questions when you’re
in a forum run just by students
Filip Radlinski
@firadl
if you are targeting a publication in venue
X, read lots of papers from venue X. There
is probably a formula, or at least a set of
community expectations. They might not
be helpful, in various ways, but you should
at least know what they are.
Paul Thomas
@pt_ir
Main dish
Get your hands dirty with experiments
Your PhD shelf
• Latex
• Vim, emacs, MS Word
• R, Matlab
• Scripting languages
• IR toolkits: Lemur, Indri, Zettair, Terrier etc.
• Data
• TREC
• Query logs
• Tweets, blogs etc.
Bash Scripts Are Your Friend!
• Same pipeline with different parameters and on different datasets.
• Run experiment, compute stat tests, generate plots and latex tables.
Baselines
• Identify the state-of-the-art baselines.
• Implement them and make sure that your results
are consistent with published work
• If not, you have to understand why.
• Contact the authors if needed.
• Be fair to your baselines:
• Implement them as carefully as you do your own work.
• Train and tune them with the same data and features
when possible.
Developing your ideas
• Start with easy and incremental ones.
• Look into the raw data and to find patterns.
• Run oracle experiments.
• Run tons of experiments.
• Use source control tools.
• Build new testbeds and release them.
Don’t shy away from coding.
Get stuck in and make a prototype.
Look to theory to provide an underpinning for your
research, and consider how the empirical research
you are doing fits into this bigger picture
Leif Azzopardi
@leifos
Dealing with research problems is
like doing a puzzle. Not only you
have to focus on individual pieces,
but you also need to keep the big
picture in mind.
Maarten de Rijke
@mdr
Get feedback
• Talk to as many people as possible about your work.
• Learn how others tackle their problems and compare with yourself.
• You should be able to explain your work to a non-technical person.
• You should be able to convince experts about your work.
Don’t give up soon, but fail early
• Things usually don’t work when tried first.
• Go deeper, ask for help and debug.
• Be flexible. If something’s not working & is unlikely to work,
• Then move on.
• Don’t spend too much time on it, no matter how much you’ve already spent.
Back it up!
Hatch Out
Papers & Presentations
Be organized & Plan ahead
Time to publish
• Start early. If you don’t have a paper, write a poster.
• Doctoral consortiums are great for getting early feedback.
• Collaborate with other – more experienced – students.
• Don’t focus on a single conference only.
• Don’t rush it too much.
• Don’t submit half-baked papers due to time pressure.
• Sometimes it’s worth waiting for a better conference.
Proof read your work
• Spelling mistakes are unacceptable.
• Going beyond the page limit is unacceptable.
• Mathematical mistakes in formulas are unacceptable.
• Misrepresenting previous work is unacceptable and unethical.
Choosing the right title
• Descriptive: not too short, not too long.
• The reader should be able to guess from title what your work is about.
• Avoid boring titles.
Abstract
• First part  motivation
• Second part  contribution
• Third part  summary of the results
• Anyone should be able to describe
your work based on abstract without
having to read the whole paper.
Introduction
• Opening paragraphs set the tone.
• Avoid cliché.
• Clearly describe the motivation behind your work.
• What is your signature dish?
• Back it up with examples and screen shots when possible.
• Describe what the reader should expect to find in remaining sections.
Related work
• Be comprehensive.
• Group them based on topics.
• Don’t be vague.
• Provide more details for more relevant papers.
• Be clear about their differences compared to your work.
• Avoid self-citation unless really necessary.
• Refer to your previous work in third person.
Writing style
• Be consistent
• British vs. American
spelling
• Capitalization
• Tables, Figures,
Captions and
notations
• Be formal
• Don’t use “I”.
• Don’t use “don’t”!
• Don’t use
exclamation mark!!
• Be efficient, do not
rant, do not ramble.
• Define the acronyms
before using them.
Tables & figures
• Follow the same style.
• Usually, captions are above tables and below figures.
• Avoid short captions. Ideally, the text in the caption should be enough
for the reader to understand the figure (or table).
• Legends, axes and labels should be easily readable.
• Plots should still be clear on a black and white print.
• Do you need error bars or statistical significance tests?
Results
• When possible report results on publicallyavailable datasets
• Explain the features clearly.
• Explain which features were most effective.
• Failure analysis is key, don’t just report numbers.
• Compare with state-of-the-art.
Acknowledge whoever has helped
• Leif Azzopardi
• Peter Bailey (check his SIGIR tips on twitter)
• Bodo Billerbeck
• Nick Craswell
• Maarten de Rijke
• Vanessa Murdock
• Kira Radinsky
• Filip Radlinski
• Paul Thomas
• Vishwa Vinay
• Justin Zobel (check his book on “writing for computer science”).
I’m grateful to the following Chefs in alphabetical order,
Get your paper proof-read by others
• If something’s confusing for proof-readers it could be confusing for
reviewers too.
• Your first papers will come back with lots of comments.
• Don’t worry, you’re not the only one.
• It gets better as you write more.
Don’t leave things to last minute
• Plan in advance.
• Get the first draft ready & iterate.
It probably will be last minute anyway…
• Some things will be out of your control.
• You may not get so much sleep for a few days – be prepared.
• Set your clocks to Samoan time!
http://www.hdwallpaperstock.in/walls/exotic_beach_accessori
es-wide.jpg
Relax!
You’re not done yet…
• You’re expected to address the issues raised by the reviewers.
• Take the feedback seriously but not personally.
• Appreciate them and improve your work.
• In cases where you have to address them in a letter:
• Make sure you have understood the points & be polite.
Presentation
Well-presented food tastes better
Presenting your work
• Get inspired by watching great speakers.
• Wear comfortablebut not too informal.
• Practice your talk but not memorize it.
• Don’t read from your notes.
• Open with interesting slides.
• “Outline slides” are often boring.
phdcomics.com
Presenting your work (cont’d)
• Dense slides are confusing.
• Minimize text, equations and animations
• Speak clearly and don’t rush your words.
• Make sure people at the back can see and hear you.
• Don’t skip too much.
• Finish on time.
• Thank the audience.
Handling questions
• Don’t panic.
• You know your work better than anyone else.
• Don’t get angry and don’t take it personally.
• Make sure you understood the question.
• Don’t get into long arguments.
• Have the courage to admit mistakes and shortcomings.
Life outside the kitchen
Internships, guest visits
www.theinternshipmovie.com/
• Learn more about industry research.
• Experience a competitive job interview.
• Work on something different.
• Meet and work with new people.
Collaborate like crazy, and broaden your academic
network: Discover if there are opportunities to
spend part of your PhD in another university,
working with another research group. There may be
funding or scholarships, plus it’s a great way to see
the world and experience life in a different
environment
Peter Bailey
@peter_r_bailey
Get a life!
• PhD is not your life.
• “Healthy brain lives in a healthy body” – Persian idiom
• Regularly take some time off to do something else.
• If you ignore people around you, they’ll start doing the same after a while.
Frustration
• We’ve all been there…
• Remember, “If we knew what we were doing it wouldn’t be called
research” – (Albert Einstein)
Photo suggestedby Leif Azzopardi
• Consult with others.
• Ignore negative comments about slow progress.
• Don’t panic if others have published more.
• You can’t compare fields.
• Quantity does not matter.
When stuck on an experiment try writing it up – this
will be needed for publication anyway (even though
it may be only an early draft), but it might make it
much more clearly to you what you are trying to do,
and what the way forward is; it also allows you to
more clearly communicate your work to others and
may facilitatefeedback from others.
Bodo Billerbeck
@bodobop
Take charge
• Look, let’s be very clear:
• It’s your PhD
• It’s your life
• … and your advisor does not care as much as you think about you!
Dessert
Writing up your thesis
Writing your thesis
• Start writing early, otherwise
• It gets harder, and you may forget/lose things.
• Resist running more experiments unless really
essential.
• Get multiple people proof read & iterate.
• Proof read reversely at least once starting
from the last chapter.
Enough is Enough!
• Don’t be a perfectionist.
• If you really miss it you can always do a post-doc.
• Don’t forget that:
• You are getting older.
• There’s more to learn – $and to earn$ – out there.
The PhD is not the greatest work of your life – it is a
proof of concept that you are capableof doing a project
of that scale mostly by yourself, so that when you leave
school and are working in a team of people, it is clear
that you will have a contribution. The important part is
to complete it and move on without delay, to get to
more interesting work. (From Bruce Croft.)
Vanessa Murdock
@vanessa_murdock
Thank You,
Good Luck,
& Bon Appétit…

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Recipes for PhD

  • 2. About your Chef • Undergraduateat Bu-Ali Sina university Iran (top 10 uni, but not top 5) • PhD at RMIT Australia (2.5 years) • Senior Applied Researcher at Microsoft (Bing & MSRC) • Honorary Lecturer at University of Glasgow @invertedindex
  • 4. Hello World Why, What, Where, When & How?
  • 5. http://qsiu.dev.qs.com/wp- content/uploads/2013/07/graduate_b ars.png Why? Do you like research? What do you want to do in future? Do you care a lot about $$?
  • 6. What? What do you like? What does future look like? What undergraduate subjects did you well on?
  • 7. Where? Which universities do related research? Rankings are good proxy but may lie Faculty ranking matters more than university ranking Advisor is more important than both Duration, visa requirements and work permits
  • 8. When? In Australia, Autumn starts in March Deadlines for applications, scholarships, IELTS, etc.
  • 9. How? • Make your own timetable. • Study for tests. • Apply.
  • 10. Build up your research profile CV, recommendation letters, getting in touch
  • 11. You are awesome, but no one’s perfect!
  • 12. Believe in yourself… Work hard on your weaknesses. Turn them into your strengths. Follow footsteps of others. Not a great GPA? Do great on your Masters project, get a paper out of it.
  • 13. …and others will start having believing in you! Get recommendation letters You are not famous – yet Your Masters advisor may be You must be good if recommended by someone good.
  • 14. Get in touch • Dear Professor, Dear Sir/Madam • Explain your previous research • Explain why you have reached out this particular person/group. • Professors get many emails like this. Differentiate and show that you care.
  • 15. Check box http://whyitdemos.com/eduabroad1/wp- content/uploads/2013/06/scholarships.jpg Target universities identified. Entry tests. Recommendation letters. CVs and publications. Letter to potential future supervisors.
  • 16. Appetizer Congratulations! You are now a PhD student. Early year(s)…
  • 17. Everything’s great, now let’s change the world! Well,… except that, you probably won’t!
  • 18. Your PhD project • Pick something that your advisor cares about. • Pick something that you like. • Pick an area which is not too mature. • Pick an area which is not too immature. • Pick an area which is trendy. • Too trendy: high competition • Not trendy: less impact and recognition. • Pick something that you can do.
  • 19. Your advisor • Pick an advisor which is well-known in the field. • Junior advisors may spend more time with you but may lack experience. • Senior advisors may be “too busy”. • Look how successful their previous students are. • Get feedback from their current students. • Learn about their supervision style.
  • 20. PhD probability density function • Before the peak: • Lots of reading • Lots of failing experiments • At the peak: • You know your area  first paper • After the peak: • lots of writing Time (#years, #semesters) Reading,Confusion&Stress Thesis/Funding deadline
  • 21. PhD Cumulative density function • You need to start early. • Don’t waste time in early years. • At the end of your PhD you’ll have so many ideas • Save some time for writing them! Thesis/Funding deadline Time (#years, #semesters) #papers,Success
  • 22. To get to the peak earlier • Read • Read • Read • Read • Read • Read • Read
  • 23. Read… • Identify the top conferences and journals in your field and read as many papers as you can. • Identify the top authors in your field and read their papers. • Follow the citation graph and read the related papers. • Summarize each paper you read in a few sentences. • Read critically.
  • 24. Do … take part in regular paper reading groups, or start your own. Its often much easier to ask stupid questions when you’re in a forum run just by students Filip Radlinski @firadl
  • 25. if you are targeting a publication in venue X, read lots of papers from venue X. There is probably a formula, or at least a set of community expectations. They might not be helpful, in various ways, but you should at least know what they are. Paul Thomas @pt_ir
  • 26. Main dish Get your hands dirty with experiments
  • 27. Your PhD shelf • Latex • Vim, emacs, MS Word • R, Matlab • Scripting languages • IR toolkits: Lemur, Indri, Zettair, Terrier etc. • Data • TREC • Query logs • Tweets, blogs etc.
  • 28. Bash Scripts Are Your Friend! • Same pipeline with different parameters and on different datasets. • Run experiment, compute stat tests, generate plots and latex tables.
  • 29. Baselines • Identify the state-of-the-art baselines. • Implement them and make sure that your results are consistent with published work • If not, you have to understand why. • Contact the authors if needed. • Be fair to your baselines: • Implement them as carefully as you do your own work. • Train and tune them with the same data and features when possible.
  • 30. Developing your ideas • Start with easy and incremental ones. • Look into the raw data and to find patterns. • Run oracle experiments. • Run tons of experiments. • Use source control tools. • Build new testbeds and release them.
  • 31. Don’t shy away from coding. Get stuck in and make a prototype. Look to theory to provide an underpinning for your research, and consider how the empirical research you are doing fits into this bigger picture Leif Azzopardi @leifos
  • 32. Dealing with research problems is like doing a puzzle. Not only you have to focus on individual pieces, but you also need to keep the big picture in mind. Maarten de Rijke @mdr
  • 33. Get feedback • Talk to as many people as possible about your work. • Learn how others tackle their problems and compare with yourself. • You should be able to explain your work to a non-technical person. • You should be able to convince experts about your work.
  • 34. Don’t give up soon, but fail early • Things usually don’t work when tried first. • Go deeper, ask for help and debug. • Be flexible. If something’s not working & is unlikely to work, • Then move on. • Don’t spend too much time on it, no matter how much you’ve already spent.
  • 36. Hatch Out Papers & Presentations
  • 37. Be organized & Plan ahead
  • 38. Time to publish • Start early. If you don’t have a paper, write a poster. • Doctoral consortiums are great for getting early feedback. • Collaborate with other – more experienced – students. • Don’t focus on a single conference only. • Don’t rush it too much. • Don’t submit half-baked papers due to time pressure. • Sometimes it’s worth waiting for a better conference.
  • 39. Proof read your work • Spelling mistakes are unacceptable. • Going beyond the page limit is unacceptable. • Mathematical mistakes in formulas are unacceptable. • Misrepresenting previous work is unacceptable and unethical.
  • 40. Choosing the right title • Descriptive: not too short, not too long. • The reader should be able to guess from title what your work is about. • Avoid boring titles.
  • 41. Abstract • First part  motivation • Second part  contribution • Third part  summary of the results • Anyone should be able to describe your work based on abstract without having to read the whole paper.
  • 42. Introduction • Opening paragraphs set the tone. • Avoid cliché. • Clearly describe the motivation behind your work. • What is your signature dish? • Back it up with examples and screen shots when possible. • Describe what the reader should expect to find in remaining sections.
  • 43. Related work • Be comprehensive. • Group them based on topics. • Don’t be vague. • Provide more details for more relevant papers. • Be clear about their differences compared to your work. • Avoid self-citation unless really necessary. • Refer to your previous work in third person.
  • 44. Writing style • Be consistent • British vs. American spelling • Capitalization • Tables, Figures, Captions and notations • Be formal • Don’t use “I”. • Don’t use “don’t”! • Don’t use exclamation mark!! • Be efficient, do not rant, do not ramble. • Define the acronyms before using them.
  • 45. Tables & figures • Follow the same style. • Usually, captions are above tables and below figures. • Avoid short captions. Ideally, the text in the caption should be enough for the reader to understand the figure (or table). • Legends, axes and labels should be easily readable. • Plots should still be clear on a black and white print. • Do you need error bars or statistical significance tests?
  • 46. Results • When possible report results on publicallyavailable datasets • Explain the features clearly. • Explain which features were most effective. • Failure analysis is key, don’t just report numbers. • Compare with state-of-the-art.
  • 47. Acknowledge whoever has helped • Leif Azzopardi • Peter Bailey (check his SIGIR tips on twitter) • Bodo Billerbeck • Nick Craswell • Maarten de Rijke • Vanessa Murdock • Kira Radinsky • Filip Radlinski • Paul Thomas • Vishwa Vinay • Justin Zobel (check his book on “writing for computer science”). I’m grateful to the following Chefs in alphabetical order,
  • 48. Get your paper proof-read by others • If something’s confusing for proof-readers it could be confusing for reviewers too. • Your first papers will come back with lots of comments. • Don’t worry, you’re not the only one. • It gets better as you write more.
  • 49. Don’t leave things to last minute • Plan in advance. • Get the first draft ready & iterate.
  • 50. It probably will be last minute anyway… • Some things will be out of your control. • You may not get so much sleep for a few days – be prepared. • Set your clocks to Samoan time!
  • 51.
  • 53. You’re not done yet… • You’re expected to address the issues raised by the reviewers. • Take the feedback seriously but not personally. • Appreciate them and improve your work. • In cases where you have to address them in a letter: • Make sure you have understood the points & be polite.
  • 55. Presenting your work • Get inspired by watching great speakers. • Wear comfortablebut not too informal. • Practice your talk but not memorize it. • Don’t read from your notes. • Open with interesting slides. • “Outline slides” are often boring. phdcomics.com
  • 56. Presenting your work (cont’d) • Dense slides are confusing. • Minimize text, equations and animations • Speak clearly and don’t rush your words. • Make sure people at the back can see and hear you. • Don’t skip too much. • Finish on time. • Thank the audience.
  • 57. Handling questions • Don’t panic. • You know your work better than anyone else. • Don’t get angry and don’t take it personally. • Make sure you understood the question. • Don’t get into long arguments. • Have the courage to admit mistakes and shortcomings.
  • 58. Life outside the kitchen Internships, guest visits
  • 59. www.theinternshipmovie.com/ • Learn more about industry research. • Experience a competitive job interview. • Work on something different. • Meet and work with new people.
  • 60. Collaborate like crazy, and broaden your academic network: Discover if there are opportunities to spend part of your PhD in another university, working with another research group. There may be funding or scholarships, plus it’s a great way to see the world and experience life in a different environment Peter Bailey @peter_r_bailey
  • 61. Get a life! • PhD is not your life. • “Healthy brain lives in a healthy body” – Persian idiom • Regularly take some time off to do something else. • If you ignore people around you, they’ll start doing the same after a while.
  • 62. Frustration • We’ve all been there… • Remember, “If we knew what we were doing it wouldn’t be called research” – (Albert Einstein) Photo suggestedby Leif Azzopardi • Consult with others. • Ignore negative comments about slow progress. • Don’t panic if others have published more. • You can’t compare fields. • Quantity does not matter.
  • 63. When stuck on an experiment try writing it up – this will be needed for publication anyway (even though it may be only an early draft), but it might make it much more clearly to you what you are trying to do, and what the way forward is; it also allows you to more clearly communicate your work to others and may facilitatefeedback from others. Bodo Billerbeck @bodobop
  • 64. Take charge • Look, let’s be very clear: • It’s your PhD • It’s your life • … and your advisor does not care as much as you think about you!
  • 66. Writing your thesis • Start writing early, otherwise • It gets harder, and you may forget/lose things. • Resist running more experiments unless really essential. • Get multiple people proof read & iterate. • Proof read reversely at least once starting from the last chapter.
  • 67. Enough is Enough! • Don’t be a perfectionist. • If you really miss it you can always do a post-doc. • Don’t forget that: • You are getting older. • There’s more to learn – $and to earn$ – out there.
  • 68. The PhD is not the greatest work of your life – it is a proof of concept that you are capableof doing a project of that scale mostly by yourself, so that when you leave school and are working in a team of people, it is clear that you will have a contribution. The important part is to complete it and move on without delay, to get to more interesting work. (From Bruce Croft.) Vanessa Murdock @vanessa_murdock
  • 69. Thank You, Good Luck, & Bon Appétit…