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Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Training principles,Training principles,
methods of trainingmethods of training
and exerciseand exercise
physiology knowledgephysiology knowledge
for application infor application in
physical activity.physical activity.
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Improving performanceImproving performance
in a physical activityin a physical activity
 To improve performance in a physicalTo improve performance in a physical
activity an effective training program isactivity an effective training program is
required.required.
 There are many components that mustThere are many components that must
be considered in the planning of abe considered in the planning of a
program if improvement is to occur.program if improvement is to occur.
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What is our focus inWhat is our focus in
this modulethis module
 Training principlesTraining principles
 Methods of trainingMethods of training
 Exercise physiologyExercise physiology
 Note: there are many more relevant components e.gNote: there are many more relevant components e.g
biophysical aspects such as skill acquisition, anatomy,biophysical aspects such as skill acquisition, anatomy,
biomechanics, sports psychology as well as sociobiomechanics, sports psychology as well as socio
cultural such as barriers, enablers etc…However, thesecultural such as barriers, enablers etc…However, these
three are the focus of this module.three are the focus of this module.
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Training PrinciplesTraining Principles
 Training is a systematic process in whichTraining is a systematic process in which
athletes improve their fitness to meet theathletes improve their fitness to meet the
demands of their sport/activity. Training isdemands of their sport/activity. Training is
a long-term process that is progressivea long-term process that is progressive
and meets the individual at their level ofand meets the individual at their level of
fitness and conditioning. Training usesfitness and conditioning. Training uses
both general and event-specificboth general and event-specific
exercises to develop individuals for theirexercises to develop individuals for their
sport. Training is a cyclical process: tearsport. Training is a cyclical process: tear
down, recovery, super-compensation anddown, recovery, super-compensation and
buildup (adaptation).buildup (adaptation).
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Training PrinciplesTraining Principles
 When we train, we do specific damage toWhen we train, we do specific damage to
some cells, and use up cellular resourcessome cells, and use up cellular resources
(fuel, water, salts). When you finish your(fuel, water, salts). When you finish your
workout, you are weaker, not stronger.workout, you are weaker, not stronger.
How much weaker depends on theHow much weaker depends on the
amount and intensity of the exercise.amount and intensity of the exercise.
After the training session, if the body isAfter the training session, if the body is
given proper rest and food, the body willgiven proper rest and food, the body will
adjust to super-compensate and prepareadjust to super-compensate and prepare
for the next stress/session.for the next stress/session.
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SpecificitySpecificity
 The specific nature of a training producesThe specific nature of a training produces
its own specific response andits own specific response and
adaptations.adaptations.
 The training must be specific to both theThe training must be specific to both the
individual and the demands of theirindividual and the demands of their
sport/activity.sport/activity.
 Training should use specific patterns ofTraining should use specific patterns of
joint and muscle coordination that arejoint and muscle coordination that are
used in the sport/activity.used in the sport/activity.
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SpecificitySpecificity
 Specific components of fitness that areSpecific components of fitness that are
used in the sport/activity should beused in the sport/activity should be
trained.trained.
 The programme should also use theThe programme should also use the
specific energy system/s that are used inspecific energy system/s that are used in
the sport/activity.the sport/activity.
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Health related fitnessHealth related fitness
componentscomponents
  
 Body CompositionBody Composition
 Cardio-respiratory EnduranceCardio-respiratory Endurance
 Muscular StrengthMuscular Strength
 Muscular EnduranceMuscular Endurance
 FlexibilityFlexibility
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Body CompositionBody Composition
 Relative amounts of Relative amounts of 
muscle, fat, bone, muscle, fat, bone, 
and other vital parts and other vital parts 
of the body.of the body. ThereThere
are three generalare three general
classifications ofclassifications of
body type.body type.
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EndomorphsEndomorphs::
 EndomorphsEndomorphs: A predominantly: A predominantly
endomorphic individual typically hasendomorphic individual typically has
short arms and legs, as well as a largeshort arms and legs, as well as a large
amount of mass on their shorter thanamount of mass on their shorter than
normal frame. This hampers their abilitynormal frame. This hampers their ability
to compete in sports requiring high levelsto compete in sports requiring high levels
of agility or speed. Sports of pureof agility or speed. Sports of pure
strength, like power lifting, are perfect forstrength, like power lifting, are perfect for
an endomorph.an endomorph. http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htmhttp://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htm
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MesomorphsMesomorphs
 Mesomorphs:Mesomorphs: A predominantlyA predominantly
mesomorphic individual excels inmesomorphic individual excels in
strength, agility, and speed sports. Theirstrength, agility, and speed sports. Their
medium structure and height, along withmedium structure and height, along with
their tendency to gain muscle andtheir tendency to gain muscle and
strength easily makes them a strongstrength easily makes them a strong
candidate for a top athlete in any sport.candidate for a top athlete in any sport.
http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htm
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EctomorphsEctomorphs
 EctomorphsEctomorphs: A predominantly: A predominantly
endomorphic individual is long, slenderendomorphic individual is long, slender
and thin, and therefore power andand thin, and therefore power and
strength sports are almost totally out ofstrength sports are almost totally out of
the question. Their slight build alsothe question. Their slight build also
leaves them susceptible to injuries. Whileleaves them susceptible to injuries. While
they can easily get lean and hard, theirthey can easily get lean and hard, their
lack of musculature severely limits theirlack of musculature severely limits their
chances in sports requiring mass.chances in sports requiring mass.
Typically, Ectomorphs dominateTypically, Ectomorphs dominate
endurance sports.endurance sports.
 http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htmhttp://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htm
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Cardio-respiratoryCardio-respiratory
EnduranceEndurance
 The ability of the The ability of the 
circulatory and circulatory and 
respiratory systems respiratory systems 
to supply fuel to supply fuel 
during sustained during sustained 
physical activity physical activity 
and to eliminate and to eliminate 
fatigue products fatigue products 
after supplying fuel. after supplying fuel. 
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Muscular StrengthMuscular Strength
 Muscular strength Muscular strength 
is the ability of a is the ability of a 
muscle to exert muscle to exert 
force. Strength is force. Strength is 
measured by the measured by the 
maximal amount of maximal amount of 
resistance or force resistance or force 
that can be that can be 
sustained in one sustained in one 
single effort.single effort.
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Muscular EnduranceMuscular Endurance
 Muscular Muscular 
Endurance is the Endurance is the 
amount of external amount of external 
force that a muscle force that a muscle 
can exert over an can exert over an 
extended period of extended period of 
time.time.
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FlexibilityFlexibility
 The absolute rangeThe absolute range
of movement in aof movement in a
joint or series ofjoint or series of
joints that isjoints that is
attainable in aattainable in a
momentary effortmomentary effort
with the help of awith the help of a
partner or a piece ofpartner or a piece of
equipment. Flexibilityequipment. Flexibility
is either staticis either static
(stationary) or(stationary) or
dynamic (moving).dynamic (moving).
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Skill related fitnessSkill related fitness
componentscomponents
 PowerPower
 SpeedSpeed
 AgilityAgility
 BalanceBalance
 Co-ordinationCo-ordination
 Reaction TimeReaction Time
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PowerPower
 Power is the amountPower is the amount
of work done orof work done or
energy transferredenergy transferred
per unit of time.per unit of time.
Muscular power isMuscular power is
the ability to usethe ability to use
strength quickly tostrength quickly to
produce an explosiveproduce an explosive
effort.effort.
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SpeedSpeed
 Speed relates to the Speed relates to the 
ability to perform a ability to perform a 
movement within a movement within a 
short time period. short time period. 
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AgilityAgility
 Agility is the ability Agility is the ability 
to rapidly change to rapidly change 
the position of the the position of the 
entire body in entire body in 
space with speed space with speed 
and accuracy.and accuracy.
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BalanceBalance
 Balance is the abilityBalance is the ability
to maintainto maintain
equilibrium whileequilibrium while
static (stationary) orstatic (stationary) or
dynamic (moving).dynamic (moving).
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Co-ordinationCo-ordination
 Co-ordination is theCo-ordination is the
ability for the body’sability for the body’s
senses, the nervoussenses, the nervous
system and musclessystem and muscles
to work together soto work together so
that specificthat specific
movements can bemovements can be
performed smoothlyperformed smoothly
and accurately.and accurately.
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Reaction timeReaction time
 The time it takes forThe time it takes for
the body to react to athe body to react to a
stimulus.stimulus.
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ENERGY SYSTEMSENERGY SYSTEMS
 During exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy System During exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy System 
being used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration of being used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration of 
the exercise:the exercise:
ANAEROBIC / ATP-CPANAEROBIC / ATP-CP ANAEROBIC / LACTIC ACIDANAEROBIC / LACTIC ACID AEROBICAEROBIC
(Anaerobic Glycolysis)(Anaerobic Glycolysis) (Aerobic Glycolysis)(Aerobic Glycolysis)
Very rapidVery rapid RapidRapid SlowSlow
Chemical fuel: PCChemical fuel: PC Food fuel: glycogenFood fuel: glycogen FoodFood
fuels:fuels:glycogen,glycogen, fats,fats,
and proteinand protein
Very limited ATPVery limited ATP Limited ATP productionLimited ATP production Unlimited ATPUnlimited ATP
Prod.Prod.
ProductionProduction
Muscular stores limitedMuscular stores limited By-product, lactic acid,By-product, lactic acid, No fatiguingNo fatiguing
by-prod.by-prod.
causes muscular fatigue Produces H20,causes muscular fatigue Produces H20,
CO2, heatCO2, heat
Used with sprint or anyUsed with sprint or any Used with activities ofUsed with activities of Used withUsed withAdapted from (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)Adapted from (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)
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ATPATP
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Anaerobic glycolysisAnaerobic glycolysis
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Aerobic GlycolysisAerobic Glycolysis
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Energy systemsEnergy systems
 There is a relationship between theThere is a relationship between the
energy systems and the graph on theenergy systems and the graph on the
next slide shows the overlap between thenext slide shows the overlap between the
systems. Highly trained athletes havesystems. Highly trained athletes have
increased efficiency of each of theincreased efficiency of each of the
energy systems and this enables a fasterenergy systems and this enables a faster
transition between each energy system.transition between each energy system.
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Oxygen consumptionOxygen consumption
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Examples of theExamples of the
overlap of energyoverlap of energy
systemssystems
ATP- CP ANAEROBICATP- CP ANAEROBIC AEROBICAEROBIC EXAMPLESEXAMPLES
100%100% 0%0% 0%0% Diving, jumps, throwsDiving, jumps, throws
80%80% 20%20% 0%0% Basketball, baseball, fencing, judoBasketball, baseball, fencing, judo
60%60% 20%20% 20%20% Figure skating, soccer, tennisFigure skating, soccer, tennis
0%0% 20%20% 80%80% Slalom skiing, 1500m run, 500m kayakSlalom skiing, 1500m run, 500m kayak
0%0% 10%10% 90%90% 3000m run, 800m swim, 5000m skate3000m run, 800m swim, 5000m skate
0%0% 5%5% 95%95% 10,000M skate, 10,000 run10,000M skate, 10,000 run
0%0% 1%1% 99%99% Road cycling, biathlon, marathonRoad cycling, biathlon, marathon
0%0% 0%0% 10%10% shooting, bowls, drivingshooting, bowls, driving
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SpecificitySpecificity
 Therefore when trying to improveTherefore when trying to improve
performance it is important to considerperformance it is important to consider
training the relevant components oftraining the relevant components of
fitness and energy systems. This willfitness and energy systems. This will
differ according to the sport/physicaldiffer according to the sport/physical
activity that you are training in youractivity that you are training in your
programme.programme.
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AdaptationAdaptation
 One important consideration inOne important consideration in
planning an exercise program is thatplanning an exercise program is that
conditioning will occur only withconditioning will occur only with
regular exercise (frequency). Thisregular exercise (frequency). This
principal is referred to as the principleprincipal is referred to as the principle
of adaptation which means that onlyof adaptation which means that only
regular exercise produces physicalregular exercise produces physical
gains. Adaptation depends ongains. Adaptation depends on
challenging the physical capabilitychallenging the physical capability
beyond a minimum threshold level.beyond a minimum threshold level.
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OverloadOverload
 If the appropriate type and amount ofIf the appropriate type and amount of
activity is in excess of this thresholdactivity is in excess of this threshold
level, a training overload is incurredlevel, a training overload is incurred
and physiological gain usually occurs.and physiological gain usually occurs.
Regular overloading can lead toRegular overloading can lead to
increased function and the trainingincreased function and the training
workload needs to be increased toworkload needs to be increased to
ensure overload and progress whenensure overload and progress when
the fitness level improves.the fitness level improves.
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Progressive overloadProgressive overload
 The progression rate at the start of anThe progression rate at the start of an
exercise program needs to be gradualexercise program needs to be gradual
to best ensure fitness benefits. Fitnessto best ensure fitness benefits. Fitness
should improve only when theshould improve only when the
appropriate amount of overload isappropriate amount of overload is
progressively increased. This principleprogressively increased. This principle
is referred to as the principle ofis referred to as the principle of
progressive overload. Overload can beprogressive overload. Overload can be
an increase in Frequency, Intensity,an increase in Frequency, Intensity,
Distance or Time (duration). To ensureDistance or Time (duration). To ensure
efficiency only one variable should beefficiency only one variable should be
changed at a time.changed at a time.
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ReversibilityReversibility
(detraining)(detraining)
 When exercise stops the physicalWhen exercise stops the physical
gains can regress to pre-traininggains can regress to pre-training
levels (regression/reversibility).levels (regression/reversibility).
Aerobic endurance losses are quickerAerobic endurance losses are quicker
than strength (power) losses.than strength (power) losses.
Basically,Basically,
 ““If you don’t use it you lose it”.If you don’t use it you lose it”.
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Overtraining/RetrogressiOvertraining/Retrogressi
onon
 Retrogression refers to an excessiveRetrogression refers to an excessive
training overload wheretraining overload where
improvements have slowed.improvements have slowed.
Retrogression can occur with highlyRetrogression can occur with highly
intense single exercise bouts (acuteintense single exercise bouts (acute
overload) over extended time periods.overload) over extended time periods.
Excessive overload over time isExcessive overload over time is
commonly referred to as chroniccommonly referred to as chronic
overload.overload.
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Periodisation/trainingPeriodisation/training
yearyear
 The year can be divided into 12 monthsThe year can be divided into 12 months
of training. Obviously if the season isof training. Obviously if the season is
shorter, the following principles areshorter, the following principles are
applied but over a shorter time period.applied but over a shorter time period.
The first month is the month immediatelyThe first month is the month immediately
after the end of the season. Usually theafter the end of the season. Usually the
targeted or peak competition concludestargeted or peak competition concludes
the sports season. Therefore, month 12the sports season. Therefore, month 12
should be the peak competition, theshould be the peak competition, the
national championships, the regionalnational championships, the regional
championship or the Worldchampionship or the World
Championships.Championships.
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Periodisation/trainingPeriodisation/training
yearyear
 The coach should decide on the peakThe coach should decide on the peak
competition for each athlete and countcompetition for each athlete and count
backwards to establish the number of thebackwards to establish the number of the
relevant months of training. If the nationalrelevant months of training. If the national
or world championships is the peakor world championships is the peak
competition and it is in September, thencompetition and it is in September, then
October is month one. This programOctober is month one. This program
divides the year into six main phases.divides the year into six main phases.
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Periodisation-examplePeriodisation-example
PhasePhase AimAim MonthMonth
Recovery periodRecovery period Active recoveryActive recovery Month 1Month 1
Early preparationEarly preparation
periodperiod
General strength andGeneral strength and
enduranceendurance
Months 2 and 3Months 2 and 3
Preparation periodPreparation period Maximum strength andMaximum strength and
general endurancegeneral endurance
Months 4 and 5Months 4 and 5
Pre-CompetitionPre-Competition
periodperiod
Maximum strength andMaximum strength and
specific endurancespecific endurance
Months 6 and 7Months 6 and 7
Early competitionEarly competition
periodperiod
Specific endurance andSpecific endurance and
sport techniquesport technique
Months 8 and 9Months 8 and 9
Peak competitionPeak competition
periodperiod
Race/match prep andRace/match prep and
peak performancepeak performance
Months 10 through 12Months 10 through 12
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F.I.T.T PrincipleF.I.T.T Principle
 FrequencyFrequency
 IntensityIntensity
 Time (duration)Time (duration)
 Type (methods of training)Type (methods of training)
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FrequencyFrequency
 FrequencyFrequency.. The minimum number ofThe minimum number of
workouts for cardio respiratoryworkouts for cardio respiratory
improvement is 3 times weekly with noimprovement is 3 times weekly with no
more than two days between exercisemore than two days between exercise
sessions. You should graduallysessions. You should gradually
progress to 5 days per week as yourprogress to 5 days per week as your
fitness level improves. The benefits offitness level improves. The benefits of
exercising beyond 5 days per week canexercising beyond 5 days per week can
be negated by an increased injury risk.be negated by an increased injury risk.
If you should exercise five days perIf you should exercise five days per
week, it is important to lower exerciseweek, it is important to lower exercise
intensity.intensity.
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FrequencyFrequency
 To improve strength, power and speedTo improve strength, power and speed
has an ideal frequency of 3-5 days perhas an ideal frequency of 3-5 days per
week. Therefore it is important inweek. Therefore it is important in
planning programmes to ensure youplanning programmes to ensure you
know which components of fitness areknow which components of fitness are
your focus to ensure gains can be made.your focus to ensure gains can be made.
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IntensityIntensity
 Training intensity refers to how hard eachTraining intensity refers to how hard each
training session will be. Intensitytraining session will be. Intensity
measurement is dependant on the typemeasurement is dependant on the type
of training used. It can be measured byof training used. It can be measured by
heart rate or by resistance levels. We willheart rate or by resistance levels. We will
look at both of these separately.look at both of these separately.
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Time (duration)Time (duration)
 Duration can be used for the length of aDuration can be used for the length of a
training session or the length of a trainingtraining session or the length of a training
programme. The minimum length of aprogramme. The minimum length of a
training programme for improvement is 6training programme for improvement is 6
weeks. However, for real benefits to beweeks. However, for real benefits to be
seen aerobic programmes should last forseen aerobic programmes should last for
12 weeks and anaerobic programmes12 weeks and anaerobic programmes
should last 8-10 weeks.should last 8-10 weeks.
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Time (duration)Time (duration)
 In terms of the length of sessions thisIn terms of the length of sessions this
should be taken into consideration whenshould be taken into consideration when
using the principle of progressiveusing the principle of progressive
overload. Therefore duration ofoverload. Therefore duration of
individuals sessions can increase over aindividuals sessions can increase over a
programme (particularly with aerobicprogramme (particularly with aerobic
training).training).
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Type of trainingType of training
 This refers to the methods of trainingThis refers to the methods of training
being implemented in a trainingbeing implemented in a training
programme eg continuous training, circuitprogramme eg continuous training, circuit
training etc… We will look at thesetraining etc… We will look at these
separately. It can also refer to actual typeseparately. It can also refer to actual type
of activity eg running, cycling, swimmingof activity eg running, cycling, swimming
etc…etc…
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Intensity by HeartIntensity by Heart
RateRate
 Intensity of training can be measured byIntensity of training can be measured by
a % of MHR (maximum heart rate).a % of MHR (maximum heart rate).
 For training the aerobic systems theFor training the aerobic systems the
target heart rate is approx 70-85% oftarget heart rate is approx 70-85% of
MHR.MHR.
 For training the anaerobic systems theFor training the anaerobic systems the
target heart rate is approx 85-100%target heart rate is approx 85-100%
MHR.MHR.
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Putting it all together-Putting it all together-
by heart rateby heart rate
Training AspectTraining Aspect Endurance (aerobic)Endurance (aerobic)
trainingtraining
Sprint (anaerobic)Sprint (anaerobic)
trainingtraining
FrequencyFrequency 4-7 days/week4-7 days/week 3-5 days/week3-5 days/week
IntensityIntensity Heart Rate: 70-85%Heart Rate: 70-85%
MHRMHR
Heart rate:85-100%Heart rate:85-100%
MHRMHR
Sessions per daySessions per day 11 11
DurationDuration 12-16 weeks or12-16 weeks or
longerlonger
8-10 weeks8-10 weeks
Distance/workoutDistance/workout 5-8km5-8km 3-4km3-4km
(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)
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Intensity byIntensity by
resistance.resistance.
 Intensity can also be measured byIntensity can also be measured by
resistance. It is measured against yourresistance. It is measured against your
repetition maximum (RM). Eg 1RM is therepetition maximum (RM). Eg 1RM is the
maximum you can lift in one rep. 10RM ismaximum you can lift in one rep. 10RM is
the maximum you can lift in 10 reps. Thisthe maximum you can lift in 10 reps. This
differs depending on what you arediffers depending on what you are
training eg strength, power etc…training eg strength, power etc…
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Putting it all together-Putting it all together-
by resistance.by resistance.
FitnessFitness
ComponentComponent
WeightWeight
1RM or1RM or
RMRM
RepsReps SetsSets SpeedSpeed RestRest
betweenbetween
SetsSets
FrequencyFrequency
per weekper week
StrengthStrength VeryVery
Heavy 80-Heavy 80-
95% or 2-95% or 2-
6 RM6 RM
2-62-6 5-125-12 SlowSlow 3-5mins3-5mins 3-43-4
HypertrophyHypertrophy
(bulk)(bulk)
Heavy 70-Heavy 70-
80% or 6-80% or 6-
12 RM12 RM
6-126-12 3-103-10 SlowSlow 1-3mins1-3mins 3-63-6
PowerPower MediumMedium
60-80%60-80%
or 8-20or 8-20
RMRM
2-102-10 3-83-8 FastFast 3-5mins3-5mins 3-43-4
EnduranceEndurance Light 40-Light 40-
60% or60% or
20-40 RM20-40 RM
15-4015-40 2-52-5 FastFast 1-3mins1-3mins 3-63-6
(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)
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VarietyVariety
 Variety adds spice to your programme,Variety adds spice to your programme,
and helps you to stay motivated. You caand helps you to stay motivated. You ca
do this by varying…do this by varying…
 How you train (Methods)How you train (Methods)
 Where you trainWhere you train
 How hard you train (Intensity)How hard you train (Intensity)
 Who you train withWho you train with
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Acute and chronicAcute and chronic
effects of exercise.effects of exercise.
 These are physiological changes thatThese are physiological changes that
occur in response to the demands ofoccur in response to the demands of
exercise. Acute effects are thoseexercise. Acute effects are those
responses that occur while you areresponses that occur while you are
exercising and in the recovery period.exercising and in the recovery period.
Chronic effects are long term adaptationsChronic effects are long term adaptations
that take at least 6 weeks to occur.that take at least 6 weeks to occur.
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Acute effects of exerciseAcute effects of exercise
on the bodyon the body
(Immediate)(Immediate)
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Increased Heart RateIncreased Heart Rate
 When you exerciseWhen you exercise
your heart rate (beatsyour heart rate (beats
per minute)per minute)
increases to increaseincreases to increase
the supply of oxygenthe supply of oxygen
to your workingto your working
muscles.muscles.
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Increased RespirationIncreased Respiration
RateRate
 Respiratory rate is theRespiratory rate is the
number of breathsnumber of breaths
taken in one minute.taken in one minute.
During exerciseDuring exercise
amounts of carbonamounts of carbon
dioxide increases as itdioxide increases as it
is a waste productis a waste product
and the respiratoryand the respiratory
rate increases torate increases to
increase oxygen andincrease oxygen and
decrease carbondecrease carbon
dioxide.dioxide.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased StrokeIncreased Stroke
VolumeVolume
 Stroke volume is theStroke volume is the
amount of bloodamount of blood
pumped out of yourpumped out of your
left ventricle withleft ventricle with
each beat of theeach beat of the
heart. This increasesheart. This increases
to increase oxygento increase oxygen
supply to workingsupply to working
muscles.muscles.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased CardiacIncreased Cardiac
Output-QOutput-Q
 Cardiac output is theCardiac output is the
amount of bloodamount of blood
pumped out of thepumped out of the
left ventricle in 1left ventricle in 1
minute.minute.
 Q=stroke volume xQ=stroke volume x
heart rate.heart rate.
 Q=SV x HRQ=SV x HR
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased VOIncreased VO22
 Oxygen uptake (VOOxygen uptake (VO22))
is the amount ofis the amount of
oxygen that is takenoxygen that is taken
up and used by theup and used by the
body to producebody to produce
energy.energy.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased TidalIncreased Tidal
VolumeVolume
 Tidal volume is theTidal volume is the
size of each breathsize of each breath
and this increasesand this increases
with exercise as thewith exercise as the
body tries to increasebody tries to increase
oxygen flow to theoxygen flow to the
blood.blood.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased SystolicIncreased Systolic
Blood PressureBlood Pressure
 Systolic bloodSystolic blood
pressure is thepressure is the
pressure as the leftpressure as the left
ventricle ejects bloodventricle ejects blood
into the aorta. Diastolicinto the aorta. Diastolic
is the pressure in theis the pressure in the
arteries. Only thearteries. Only the
systolic pressuresystolic pressure
increases duringincreases during
exercise.exercise.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased Arterio-Increased Arterio-
venous Ovenous O22 differencedifference
 This is the differenceThis is the difference
between the Obetween the O22
concentration in theconcentration in the
arteries and in thearteries and in the
veins. As more Oveins. As more O22 isis
used during exerciseused during exercise
this differencethis difference
increases.increases.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased Blood toIncreased Blood to
working musclesworking muscles
 Due to increasedDue to increased
need for O2 duringneed for O2 during
exercise blood isexercise blood is
distributed moredistributed more
where it is required inwhere it is required in
working muscles.working muscles.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Decreased muscleDecreased muscle
Glycogen storesGlycogen stores
 Muscle glycogenMuscle glycogen
stores are decreasedstores are decreased
while exercising aswhile exercising as
they are being usedthey are being used
by the body forby the body for
energy production.energy production.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Decreased bloodDecreased blood
plasma volumeplasma volume
 Due to increasedDue to increased
sweating, the bloodsweating, the blood
plasma volumeplasma volume
usually decreasesusually decreases
during strenuousduring strenuous
exercise and hotexercise and hot
weather.weather.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Chronic Effects ofChronic Effects of
exercise on the bodyexercise on the body
(Long Term)(Long Term)
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
More efficient use ofMore efficient use of
OO22 because…because…
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased BloodIncreased Blood
Volume andVolume and
haemoglobin levelshaemoglobin levels
 Training stimulatesTraining stimulates
an increase inan increase in
plasma volume asplasma volume as
well as in the numberwell as in the number
of red blood cellsof red blood cells
(and therefore(and therefore
haemoglobin thathaemoglobin that
carries Ocarries O2.2.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased OIncreased O22 carryingcarrying
capacity of bloodcapacity of blood
 This is due to theThis is due to the
increase in plasma,increase in plasma,
haemoglobin as wellhaemoglobin as well
as increases in bloodas increases in blood
vessels etc…andvessels etc…and
overall greateroverall greater
efficiency.efficiency.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Lungs can take in andLungs can take in and
distribute more Odistribute more O22
 Increased VOIncreased VO22 Max.Max.
This occurs due toThis occurs due to
increased tidalincreased tidal
volume as well asvolume as well as
improved ability toimproved ability to
attract Oattract O22 from thefrom the
alveoli onto the redalveoli onto the red
blood cells.blood cells.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased number ofIncreased number of
blood vesselsblood vessels
 Efficiency is alsoEfficiency is also
improved as theimproved as the
number of bloodnumber of blood
vessels is increased.vessels is increased.
Particularly theParticularly the
capillaries wherecapillaries where
gaseous exchangegaseous exchange
takes place.takes place.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased blood supplyIncreased blood supply
as increasedas increased
capillariescapillaries
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Cardiac HypertrophyCardiac Hypertrophy
 The size of the heartThe size of the heart
increases. Forincreases. For
endurance theendurance the
chambers get largerchambers get larger
(particularly the left(particularly the left
ventricle) and for nonventricle) and for non
endurance theendurance the
thickness of thethickness of the
ventricle wallsventricle walls
increases.increases.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Decreased restingDecreased resting
heart rateheart rate
 Your resting heartYour resting heart
rate decreases withrate decreases with
fitness due to greaterfitness due to greater
efficiency of systems.efficiency of systems.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased StrokeIncreased Stroke
volume at restvolume at rest
 The heart developsThe heart develops
larger chamberslarger chambers
and/or thicker wallsand/or thicker walls
and improvedand improved
efficiency. Thereforeefficiency. Therefore
the stroke volumethe stroke volume
increases and thisincreases and this
relates to therelates to the
decrease in restingdecrease in resting
heart rate.heart rate.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
More glycogen storedMore glycogen stored
in musclein muscle
 Greater amounts ofGreater amounts of
fuel are stored forfuel are stored for
use in enduranceuse in endurance
events. (For non-events. (For non-
endurance ATP andendurance ATP and
CP stores areCP stores are
increased.increased.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased size ofIncreased size of
musclemuscle
 In non-enduranceIn non-endurance
athletes the size ofathletes the size of
the muscle isthe muscle is
increased due toincreased due to
hypertrophy of fasthypertrophy of fast
twitch fibres, intwitch fibres, in
endurance twitchendurance twitch
fibres, increasedfibres, increased
numbers ofnumbers of
capillaries, increasedcapillaries, increased
strength in connectivestrength in connective
tissues eg tendons,tissues eg tendons,
ligaments.ligaments.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Increased strength ofIncreased strength of
musclemuscle
 In non-enduranceIn non-endurance
athletes the size ofathletes the size of
the muscle isthe muscle is
increased due toincreased due to
hypertrophy of fasthypertrophy of fast
twitch fibres,twitch fibres,
increased numbersincreased numbers
of capillaries,of capillaries,
increased strength inincreased strength in
connective tissuesconnective tissues
eg tendons,eg tendons,
ligaments.ligaments.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Effects of exerciseEffects of exercise
 When completing a training programmeWhen completing a training programme
both acute and chronic effects ofboth acute and chronic effects of
exercise should be monitored this is partexercise should be monitored this is part
of ensuring that improvements areof ensuring that improvements are
measurable. This can occur through goalmeasurable. This can occur through goal
setting. Goal setting for programmessetting. Goal setting for programmes
should follow the S.M.A.R.T principle.should follow the S.M.A.R.T principle.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
S.M.A.R.T GOALSS.M.A.R.T GOALS
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
S.M.A.R.T GoalsS.M.A.R.T Goals
 These may relate to acute and chronicThese may relate to acute and chronic
effects of exercise and what you areeffects of exercise and what you are
trying to improve or it may relate to whattrying to improve or it may relate to what
fitness components you are trying tofitness components you are trying to
improve. They could also involve longimprove. They could also involve long
term achievement. However, these goalsterm achievement. However, these goals
should be measurable. These goals willshould be measurable. These goals will
only be achievable if the trainingonly be achievable if the training
principles and methods of training areprinciples and methods of training are
carefully considered.carefully considered.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Training Methods.Training Methods.
 There are various types of training thatThere are various types of training that
can be used in a training programme.can be used in a training programme.
These again will relate back to whatThese again will relate back to what
components of fitness you have chosen/orcomponents of fitness you have chosen/or
been given to develop. They will alsobeen given to develop. They will also
depend on what energy systems you aredepend on what energy systems you are
trying to develop. The following examplestrying to develop. The following examples
are brief and research will need to occurare brief and research will need to occur
into developing relevant exercises withininto developing relevant exercises within
these methods.these methods.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Continuous TrainingContinuous Training
 Continuous exerciseContinuous exercise
for minimum offor minimum of
20mins. Particularly20mins. Particularly
for cardio-respiratoryfor cardio-respiratory
endurance andendurance and
muscular endurance.muscular endurance.
Energy systemEnergy system
predominantlypredominantly
aerobic glycolysis.aerobic glycolysis.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Fartlek trainingFartlek training
 This is a type ofThis is a type of
continuous trainingcontinuous training
that includes bursts ofthat includes bursts of
speed so that relevantspeed so that relevant
energy systems areenergy systems are
worked. Thereforeworked. Therefore
cardio-respiratorycardio-respiratory
endurance, muscularendurance, muscular
endurance and speedendurance and speed
are all developed.are all developed.
This increases theThis increases the
use of the anaerobicuse of the anaerobic
glycolysis system asglycolysis system as
well as aerobicwell as aerobic
glycolysis.glycolysis.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Circuit trainingCircuit training
 A combination ofA combination of
continuous and resistancecontinuous and resistance
training. It can train atraining. It can train a
variety of fitnessvariety of fitness
components such ascomponents such as
cardio-respiratorycardio-respiratory
endurance, muscularendurance, muscular
endurance, speed agilityendurance, speed agility
etc… Therefore dependingetc… Therefore depending
on how the circuit is set iton how the circuit is set it
can work the aerobiccan work the aerobic
glycolysis and anaerobicglycolysis and anaerobic
glycolysis systems. It canglycolysis systems. It can
be set up specifically tobe set up specifically to
include sports skills andinclude sports skills and
use of relevant muscleuse of relevant muscle
groups etc…groups etc…
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Plyometric trainingPlyometric training
 Involves exercises suchInvolves exercises such
as bounding, hopping,as bounding, hopping,
jumping and medicinejumping and medicine
ball passing.ball passing.
Plyometrics helpsPlyometrics helps
improve power andimprove power and
explosiveness for sportsexplosiveness for sports
especially sports thatespecially sports that
involve jumping,involve jumping,
throwing and speed. Itthrowing and speed. It
can train the ATP/CPcan train the ATP/CP
system and thesystem and the
anaerobic glycolysisanaerobic glycolysis
sytems.sytems.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Swiss ball trainingSwiss ball training
 Was used at one stageWas used at one stage
for rehabilitation.for rehabilitation.
However benefits suchHowever benefits such
as improved coreas improved core
stability, prime moverstability, prime mover
strength, balance,strength, balance,
dynamic flexibility anddynamic flexibility and
co-ordination haveco-ordination have
increased use inincreased use in
training programmes.training programmes.
Depending on howDepending on how
these exercises arethese exercises are
used all three energyused all three energy
systems can besystems can be
trained.trained.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Resistance trainingResistance training
 Depending on use inDepending on use in
a programme thisa programme this
type of training cantype of training can
develop, musculardevelop, muscular
strength, power andstrength, power and
endurance. See recapendurance. See recap
on following slide.on following slide.
Muscular enduranceMuscular endurance
works the aerobicworks the aerobic
glycolysis sytem whileglycolysis sytem while
the other two work thethe other two work the
ATP/CP andATP/CP and
anaerobic glycolysisanaerobic glycolysis
systems.systems.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Putting it all together-byPutting it all together-by
resistance.resistance.
FitnessFitness
ComponentComponent
WeightWeight
1RM or1RM or
RMRM
RepsReps SetsSets SpeedSpeed RestRest
betweenbetween
SetsSets
FrequencyFrequency
per weekper week
StrengthStrength VeryVery
Heavy 80-Heavy 80-
95% or 2-95% or 2-
6 RM6 RM
2-62-6 5-125-12 SlowSlow 3-5mins3-5mins 3-43-4
HypertrophyHypertrophy
(bulk)(bulk)
Heavy 70-Heavy 70-
80% or 6-80% or 6-
12 RM12 RM
6-126-12 3-103-10 SlowSlow 1-3mins1-3mins 3-63-6
PowerPower MediumMedium
60-80%60-80%
or 8-20or 8-20
RMRM
2-102-10 3-83-8 FastFast 3-5mins3-5mins 3-43-4
EnduranceEndurance Light 40-Light 40-
60% or60% or
20-40 RM20-40 RM
15-4015-40 2-52-5 FastFast 1-3mins1-3mins 3-63-6
(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Flexibility trainingFlexibility training
 Used to improve your jointUsed to improve your joint
and muscle flexibility. Thereand muscle flexibility. There
are 2 major types of flexibilityare 2 major types of flexibility
training.training.
 PNF (proprioceptivePNF (proprioceptive
neuromuscular facilitation)neuromuscular facilitation)
where you take a muscle towhere you take a muscle to
its maximum range, thenits maximum range, then
contract the muscle againstcontract the muscle against
an immovable resistance eg aan immovable resistance eg a
partner.partner.
 Static (passive) stretchingStatic (passive) stretching whichwhich
involves taking a muscle to itsinvolves taking a muscle to its
greatest range and holding it for atgreatest range and holding it for at
least 30 secs. Both types improveleast 30 secs. Both types improve
flexibilty and work the aerobicflexibilty and work the aerobic
glycolysis system.glycolysis system.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Interval-sprint trainingInterval-sprint training
 In this type of trainingIn this type of training
work intervals arework intervals are
followed by restfollowed by rest
intervals. I t isintervals. I t is
designed to improvedesigned to improve
speed, power andspeed, power and
agility. Short intervalagility. Short interval
training works thetraining works the
ATP/CP system andATP/CP system and
long interval traininglong interval training
works the anaerobicworks the anaerobic
glycolysis system.glycolysis system.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Aerobic floor classesAerobic floor classes
 Aerobic floor classesAerobic floor classes
are a type ofare a type of
continuous training,continuous training,
but also includebut also include
callisthenic exercisescallisthenic exercises
usually found in circuitusually found in circuit
training it workstraining it works
cardio –respiratorycardio –respiratory
endurance, strength,endurance, strength,
muscular endurance,muscular endurance,
flexibility and agilityflexibility and agility
and predominantlyand predominantly
uses the aerobicuses the aerobic
glycolysis system.glycolysis system.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Training principles,Training principles,
methods of training andmethods of training and
exercise physiology.exercise physiology.
 All of these topics interrelate and shouldAll of these topics interrelate and should
be considered carefully when planning orbe considered carefully when planning or
evaluating a programme. This is relevantevaluating a programme. This is relevant
whether you are designing or have beenwhether you are designing or have been
supplied with a programme. Looksupplied with a programme. Look
carefully at the focus and intendedcarefully at the focus and intended
outcomes of the programme in relation tooutcomes of the programme in relation to
the specific activity sport or componentsthe specific activity sport or components
that are being trained for.that are being trained for.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
ApplicationApplication
 In using the knowledge from this moduleIn using the knowledge from this module
the application is just as important as thethe application is just as important as the
knowledge. Examples of use of trainingknowledge. Examples of use of training
principles, methods of training andprinciples, methods of training and
exercise physiology knowledge is howexercise physiology knowledge is how
these are all applied to your specificthese are all applied to your specific
situation/sport/activity or component.situation/sport/activity or component.
There is a separate power point onThere is a separate power point on
application to physical activity.application to physical activity.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Critical thinking onCritical thinking on
programmes.programmes.
We must consider theWe must consider the
limitations of thelimitations of the
knowledge in thisknowledge in this
module. Thismodule. This
includes ideologiesincludes ideologies
such as “healthism”.such as “healthism”.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
HealthismHealthism
 Healthism is a set ofHealthism is a set of
assumptions basedassumptions based
on the belief thaton the belief that
health is solely anhealth is solely an
individualindividual
responsibility. Itresponsibility. It
includes the conceptincludes the concept
of the body as aof the body as a
machine that ismachine that is
influenced only byinfluenced only by
physical factors.physical factors.
 (Health and Physical(Health and Physical
Education. The curriculum inEducation. The curriculum in
action. Making meaning:action. Making meaning:
Making a difference. (2004)Making a difference. (2004)
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
Biophysical focus.Biophysical focus.
 This module has focused on theThis module has focused on the
biophysical aspects of training forbiophysical aspects of training for
performance improvement.performance improvement.
 It should be considered that all of thisIt should be considered that all of this
does consider the body as a machinedoes consider the body as a machine
and has not focused on theand has not focused on the
environmental and social effects thatenvironmental and social effects that
have influence on an individual.have influence on an individual.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
LimitationsLimitations
 Contained within what has come to beContained within what has come to be
called the ideology of “healthism” is acalled the ideology of “healthism” is a
system of beliefs that defines health-system of beliefs that defines health-
promoting activities, such as involvementpromoting activities, such as involvement
in some form of physical fitness program,in some form of physical fitness program,
as aas a moralmoral obligation (Crawford, 1980).obligation (Crawford, 1980).
http://www.rcscs.uottawa.ca/Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
LimitationsLimitations
 Perceptions of health and the body are aPerceptions of health and the body are a
social construction. In contemporarysocial construction. In contemporary
Western culture, physical and healthWestern culture, physical and health
ideals are congruent and emphasize bothideals are congruent and emphasize both
slimness and muscularity, but do soslimness and muscularity, but do so
differently for men and women.differently for men and women.
http://www.rcscs.uottawa.ca/Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
LimitationsLimitations
 For women, slimness is believed to be anFor women, slimness is believed to be an
unmistakable sign of self-restraint, andunmistakable sign of self-restraint, and
discipline. The thin person is andiscipline. The thin person is an
exemplar of mastery of mind over bodyexemplar of mastery of mind over body
and virtuous self-denial (Crawford, 1984).and virtuous self-denial (Crawford, 1984).
For men, muscular bulk carriesFor men, muscular bulk carries
significant social value, so long as it issignificant social value, so long as it is
not accompanied by visible fat. Fatnot accompanied by visible fat. Fat
signified the loss of control, a moralsignified the loss of control, a moral
failure, a sign of impulsiveness, self-failure, a sign of impulsiveness, self-
indulgence and sloth.indulgence and sloth.http://www.rcscs.uottawa.ca/Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
LimitationsLimitations
 The real champions of the ideology ofThe real champions of the ideology of
healthism have been the educatedhealthism have been the educated
middle-class. Fitness and fitnessmiddle-class. Fitness and fitness
education are geared towards theeducation are geared towards the
middle-class who are predisposed tomiddle-class who are predisposed to
regarding the body as a project to beregarding the body as a project to be
managed and improved through self-managed and improved through self-
improvement as an integral means toimprovement as an integral means to
structure identity and social mobilitystructure identity and social mobility
(Bourdieu, 1984; Crawford, 1984).(Bourdieu, 1984; Crawford, 1984).
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
LimitationsLimitations
 Programs have becomePrograms have become
an exercise in humanan exercise in human
engineering aimed atengineering aimed at
transforming the humantransforming the human
body into an efficient,body into an efficient,
inexhaustible machine.inexhaustible machine.
Like any finely tunedLike any finely tuned
machine, it must bemachine, it must be
managed, maintained,managed, maintained,
conditioned, and fueled.conditioned, and fueled.
http://www.rcscs.uottawa.ca/Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
How can we use theHow can we use the
limitations in ourlimitations in our
application.application.
 In writing our programmes we can useIn writing our programmes we can use
different dimensions of hauora to developdifferent dimensions of hauora to develop
our goals and outcomes. If we take intoour goals and outcomes. If we take into
consideration Taha whanauconsideration Taha whanau
(social/family), Taha hinengaro(social/family), Taha hinengaro
(mental/emotional), Taha wairua(mental/emotional), Taha wairua
(spiritual), as well as Taha tinana(spiritual), as well as Taha tinana
(physical) and what these mean to us(physical) and what these mean to us
individually then we are looking beyondindividually then we are looking beyond
the body as a machine.the body as a machine.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
How can we use theHow can we use the
limitations in ourlimitations in our
application.application.
 We can also considerWe can also consider
the barriers andthe barriers and
enablers that mayenablers that may
effect oureffect our
programme. Theseprogramme. These
will also be beyondwill also be beyond
just the physical andjust the physical and
will consider social,will consider social,
environmental, andenvironmental, and
cultural influences.cultural influences.
Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
BibliographyBibliography
 WebsitesWebsites
 http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htmhttp://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htm
 BooksBooks
http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/articles/scni19a2.htm
http://www.rcscs.uottawa.ca/Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
http://www.tki.org.nz/r/health/curriculum/statement/page8_e.phphttp://www.tki.org.nz/r/health/curriculum/statement/page8_e.php
VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999)VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999)

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POTS

  • 1. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training principles,Training principles, methods of trainingmethods of training and exerciseand exercise physiology knowledgephysiology knowledge for application infor application in physical activity.physical activity.
  • 2. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Improving performanceImproving performance in a physical activityin a physical activity  To improve performance in a physicalTo improve performance in a physical activity an effective training program isactivity an effective training program is required.required.  There are many components that mustThere are many components that must be considered in the planning of abe considered in the planning of a program if improvement is to occur.program if improvement is to occur.
  • 3. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited What is our focus inWhat is our focus in this modulethis module  Training principlesTraining principles  Methods of trainingMethods of training  Exercise physiologyExercise physiology  Note: there are many more relevant components e.gNote: there are many more relevant components e.g biophysical aspects such as skill acquisition, anatomy,biophysical aspects such as skill acquisition, anatomy, biomechanics, sports psychology as well as sociobiomechanics, sports psychology as well as socio cultural such as barriers, enablers etc…However, thesecultural such as barriers, enablers etc…However, these three are the focus of this module.three are the focus of this module.
  • 4. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training PrinciplesTraining Principles  Training is a systematic process in whichTraining is a systematic process in which athletes improve their fitness to meet theathletes improve their fitness to meet the demands of their sport/activity. Training isdemands of their sport/activity. Training is a long-term process that is progressivea long-term process that is progressive and meets the individual at their level ofand meets the individual at their level of fitness and conditioning. Training usesfitness and conditioning. Training uses both general and event-specificboth general and event-specific exercises to develop individuals for theirexercises to develop individuals for their sport. Training is a cyclical process: tearsport. Training is a cyclical process: tear down, recovery, super-compensation anddown, recovery, super-compensation and buildup (adaptation).buildup (adaptation).
  • 5. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training PrinciplesTraining Principles  When we train, we do specific damage toWhen we train, we do specific damage to some cells, and use up cellular resourcessome cells, and use up cellular resources (fuel, water, salts). When you finish your(fuel, water, salts). When you finish your workout, you are weaker, not stronger.workout, you are weaker, not stronger. How much weaker depends on theHow much weaker depends on the amount and intensity of the exercise.amount and intensity of the exercise. After the training session, if the body isAfter the training session, if the body is given proper rest and food, the body willgiven proper rest and food, the body will adjust to super-compensate and prepareadjust to super-compensate and prepare for the next stress/session.for the next stress/session.
  • 6. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited SpecificitySpecificity  The specific nature of a training producesThe specific nature of a training produces its own specific response andits own specific response and adaptations.adaptations.  The training must be specific to both theThe training must be specific to both the individual and the demands of theirindividual and the demands of their sport/activity.sport/activity.  Training should use specific patterns ofTraining should use specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination that arejoint and muscle coordination that are used in the sport/activity.used in the sport/activity.
  • 7. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited SpecificitySpecificity  Specific components of fitness that areSpecific components of fitness that are used in the sport/activity should beused in the sport/activity should be trained.trained.  The programme should also use theThe programme should also use the specific energy system/s that are used inspecific energy system/s that are used in the sport/activity.the sport/activity.
  • 8. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Health related fitnessHealth related fitness componentscomponents     Body CompositionBody Composition  Cardio-respiratory EnduranceCardio-respiratory Endurance  Muscular StrengthMuscular Strength  Muscular EnduranceMuscular Endurance  FlexibilityFlexibility
  • 9. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Body CompositionBody Composition  Relative amounts of Relative amounts of  muscle, fat, bone, muscle, fat, bone,  and other vital parts and other vital parts  of the body.of the body. ThereThere are three generalare three general classifications ofclassifications of body type.body type.
  • 10. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited EndomorphsEndomorphs::  EndomorphsEndomorphs: A predominantly: A predominantly endomorphic individual typically hasendomorphic individual typically has short arms and legs, as well as a largeshort arms and legs, as well as a large amount of mass on their shorter thanamount of mass on their shorter than normal frame. This hampers their abilitynormal frame. This hampers their ability to compete in sports requiring high levelsto compete in sports requiring high levels of agility or speed. Sports of pureof agility or speed. Sports of pure strength, like power lifting, are perfect forstrength, like power lifting, are perfect for an endomorph.an endomorph. http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htmhttp://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htm
  • 11. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited MesomorphsMesomorphs  Mesomorphs:Mesomorphs: A predominantlyA predominantly mesomorphic individual excels inmesomorphic individual excels in strength, agility, and speed sports. Theirstrength, agility, and speed sports. Their medium structure and height, along withmedium structure and height, along with their tendency to gain muscle andtheir tendency to gain muscle and strength easily makes them a strongstrength easily makes them a strong candidate for a top athlete in any sport.candidate for a top athlete in any sport. http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htm
  • 12. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited EctomorphsEctomorphs  EctomorphsEctomorphs: A predominantly: A predominantly endomorphic individual is long, slenderendomorphic individual is long, slender and thin, and therefore power andand thin, and therefore power and strength sports are almost totally out ofstrength sports are almost totally out of the question. Their slight build alsothe question. Their slight build also leaves them susceptible to injuries. Whileleaves them susceptible to injuries. While they can easily get lean and hard, theirthey can easily get lean and hard, their lack of musculature severely limits theirlack of musculature severely limits their chances in sports requiring mass.chances in sports requiring mass. Typically, Ectomorphs dominateTypically, Ectomorphs dominate endurance sports.endurance sports.  http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htmhttp://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htm
  • 13. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Cardio-respiratoryCardio-respiratory EnduranceEndurance  The ability of the The ability of the  circulatory and circulatory and  respiratory systems respiratory systems  to supply fuel to supply fuel  during sustained during sustained  physical activity physical activity  and to eliminate and to eliminate  fatigue products fatigue products  after supplying fuel. after supplying fuel. 
  • 14. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Muscular StrengthMuscular Strength  Muscular strength Muscular strength  is the ability of a is the ability of a  muscle to exert muscle to exert  force. Strength is force. Strength is  measured by the measured by the  maximal amount of maximal amount of  resistance or force resistance or force  that can be that can be  sustained in one sustained in one  single effort.single effort.
  • 15. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Muscular EnduranceMuscular Endurance  Muscular Muscular  Endurance is the Endurance is the  amount of external amount of external  force that a muscle force that a muscle  can exert over an can exert over an  extended period of extended period of  time.time.
  • 16. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited FlexibilityFlexibility  The absolute rangeThe absolute range of movement in aof movement in a joint or series ofjoint or series of joints that isjoints that is attainable in aattainable in a momentary effortmomentary effort with the help of awith the help of a partner or a piece ofpartner or a piece of equipment. Flexibilityequipment. Flexibility is either staticis either static (stationary) or(stationary) or dynamic (moving).dynamic (moving).
  • 17. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Skill related fitnessSkill related fitness componentscomponents  PowerPower  SpeedSpeed  AgilityAgility  BalanceBalance  Co-ordinationCo-ordination  Reaction TimeReaction Time
  • 18. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited PowerPower  Power is the amountPower is the amount of work done orof work done or energy transferredenergy transferred per unit of time.per unit of time. Muscular power isMuscular power is the ability to usethe ability to use strength quickly tostrength quickly to produce an explosiveproduce an explosive effort.effort.
  • 19. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited SpeedSpeed  Speed relates to the Speed relates to the  ability to perform a ability to perform a  movement within a movement within a  short time period. short time period. 
  • 20. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited AgilityAgility  Agility is the ability Agility is the ability  to rapidly change to rapidly change  the position of the the position of the  entire body in entire body in  space with speed space with speed  and accuracy.and accuracy.
  • 21. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited BalanceBalance  Balance is the abilityBalance is the ability to maintainto maintain equilibrium whileequilibrium while static (stationary) orstatic (stationary) or dynamic (moving).dynamic (moving).
  • 22. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Co-ordinationCo-ordination  Co-ordination is theCo-ordination is the ability for the body’sability for the body’s senses, the nervoussenses, the nervous system and musclessystem and muscles to work together soto work together so that specificthat specific movements can bemovements can be performed smoothlyperformed smoothly and accurately.and accurately.
  • 23. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Reaction timeReaction time  The time it takes forThe time it takes for the body to react to athe body to react to a stimulus.stimulus.
  • 24. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ENERGY SYSTEMSENERGY SYSTEMS  During exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy System During exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy System  being used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration of being used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration of  the exercise:the exercise: ANAEROBIC / ATP-CPANAEROBIC / ATP-CP ANAEROBIC / LACTIC ACIDANAEROBIC / LACTIC ACID AEROBICAEROBIC (Anaerobic Glycolysis)(Anaerobic Glycolysis) (Aerobic Glycolysis)(Aerobic Glycolysis) Very rapidVery rapid RapidRapid SlowSlow Chemical fuel: PCChemical fuel: PC Food fuel: glycogenFood fuel: glycogen FoodFood fuels:fuels:glycogen,glycogen, fats,fats, and proteinand protein Very limited ATPVery limited ATP Limited ATP productionLimited ATP production Unlimited ATPUnlimited ATP Prod.Prod. ProductionProduction Muscular stores limitedMuscular stores limited By-product, lactic acid,By-product, lactic acid, No fatiguingNo fatiguing by-prod.by-prod. causes muscular fatigue Produces H20,causes muscular fatigue Produces H20, CO2, heatCO2, heat Used with sprint or anyUsed with sprint or any Used with activities ofUsed with activities of Used withUsed withAdapted from (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)Adapted from (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)
  • 25. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ATPATP
  • 26. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Anaerobic glycolysisAnaerobic glycolysis
  • 27. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Aerobic GlycolysisAerobic Glycolysis
  • 28. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Energy systemsEnergy systems  There is a relationship between theThere is a relationship between the energy systems and the graph on theenergy systems and the graph on the next slide shows the overlap between thenext slide shows the overlap between the systems. Highly trained athletes havesystems. Highly trained athletes have increased efficiency of each of theincreased efficiency of each of the energy systems and this enables a fasterenergy systems and this enables a faster transition between each energy system.transition between each energy system.
  • 29. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Oxygen consumptionOxygen consumption
  • 30. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Examples of theExamples of the overlap of energyoverlap of energy systemssystems ATP- CP ANAEROBICATP- CP ANAEROBIC AEROBICAEROBIC EXAMPLESEXAMPLES 100%100% 0%0% 0%0% Diving, jumps, throwsDiving, jumps, throws 80%80% 20%20% 0%0% Basketball, baseball, fencing, judoBasketball, baseball, fencing, judo 60%60% 20%20% 20%20% Figure skating, soccer, tennisFigure skating, soccer, tennis 0%0% 20%20% 80%80% Slalom skiing, 1500m run, 500m kayakSlalom skiing, 1500m run, 500m kayak 0%0% 10%10% 90%90% 3000m run, 800m swim, 5000m skate3000m run, 800m swim, 5000m skate 0%0% 5%5% 95%95% 10,000M skate, 10,000 run10,000M skate, 10,000 run 0%0% 1%1% 99%99% Road cycling, biathlon, marathonRoad cycling, biathlon, marathon 0%0% 0%0% 10%10% shooting, bowls, drivingshooting, bowls, driving
  • 31. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited SpecificitySpecificity  Therefore when trying to improveTherefore when trying to improve performance it is important to considerperformance it is important to consider training the relevant components oftraining the relevant components of fitness and energy systems. This willfitness and energy systems. This will differ according to the sport/physicaldiffer according to the sport/physical activity that you are training in youractivity that you are training in your programme.programme.
  • 32. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited AdaptationAdaptation  One important consideration inOne important consideration in planning an exercise program is thatplanning an exercise program is that conditioning will occur only withconditioning will occur only with regular exercise (frequency). Thisregular exercise (frequency). This principal is referred to as the principleprincipal is referred to as the principle of adaptation which means that onlyof adaptation which means that only regular exercise produces physicalregular exercise produces physical gains. Adaptation depends ongains. Adaptation depends on challenging the physical capabilitychallenging the physical capability beyond a minimum threshold level.beyond a minimum threshold level.
  • 33. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited OverloadOverload  If the appropriate type and amount ofIf the appropriate type and amount of activity is in excess of this thresholdactivity is in excess of this threshold level, a training overload is incurredlevel, a training overload is incurred and physiological gain usually occurs.and physiological gain usually occurs. Regular overloading can lead toRegular overloading can lead to increased function and the trainingincreased function and the training workload needs to be increased toworkload needs to be increased to ensure overload and progress whenensure overload and progress when the fitness level improves.the fitness level improves.
  • 34. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Progressive overloadProgressive overload  The progression rate at the start of anThe progression rate at the start of an exercise program needs to be gradualexercise program needs to be gradual to best ensure fitness benefits. Fitnessto best ensure fitness benefits. Fitness should improve only when theshould improve only when the appropriate amount of overload isappropriate amount of overload is progressively increased. This principleprogressively increased. This principle is referred to as the principle ofis referred to as the principle of progressive overload. Overload can beprogressive overload. Overload can be an increase in Frequency, Intensity,an increase in Frequency, Intensity, Distance or Time (duration). To ensureDistance or Time (duration). To ensure efficiency only one variable should beefficiency only one variable should be changed at a time.changed at a time.
  • 35. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ReversibilityReversibility (detraining)(detraining)  When exercise stops the physicalWhen exercise stops the physical gains can regress to pre-traininggains can regress to pre-training levels (regression/reversibility).levels (regression/reversibility). Aerobic endurance losses are quickerAerobic endurance losses are quicker than strength (power) losses.than strength (power) losses. Basically,Basically,  ““If you don’t use it you lose it”.If you don’t use it you lose it”.
  • 36. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Overtraining/RetrogressiOvertraining/Retrogressi onon  Retrogression refers to an excessiveRetrogression refers to an excessive training overload wheretraining overload where improvements have slowed.improvements have slowed. Retrogression can occur with highlyRetrogression can occur with highly intense single exercise bouts (acuteintense single exercise bouts (acute overload) over extended time periods.overload) over extended time periods. Excessive overload over time isExcessive overload over time is commonly referred to as chroniccommonly referred to as chronic overload.overload.
  • 37. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited
  • 38. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Periodisation/trainingPeriodisation/training yearyear  The year can be divided into 12 monthsThe year can be divided into 12 months of training. Obviously if the season isof training. Obviously if the season is shorter, the following principles areshorter, the following principles are applied but over a shorter time period.applied but over a shorter time period. The first month is the month immediatelyThe first month is the month immediately after the end of the season. Usually theafter the end of the season. Usually the targeted or peak competition concludestargeted or peak competition concludes the sports season. Therefore, month 12the sports season. Therefore, month 12 should be the peak competition, theshould be the peak competition, the national championships, the regionalnational championships, the regional championship or the Worldchampionship or the World Championships.Championships.
  • 39. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Periodisation/trainingPeriodisation/training yearyear  The coach should decide on the peakThe coach should decide on the peak competition for each athlete and countcompetition for each athlete and count backwards to establish the number of thebackwards to establish the number of the relevant months of training. If the nationalrelevant months of training. If the national or world championships is the peakor world championships is the peak competition and it is in September, thencompetition and it is in September, then October is month one. This programOctober is month one. This program divides the year into six main phases.divides the year into six main phases.
  • 40. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Periodisation-examplePeriodisation-example PhasePhase AimAim MonthMonth Recovery periodRecovery period Active recoveryActive recovery Month 1Month 1 Early preparationEarly preparation periodperiod General strength andGeneral strength and enduranceendurance Months 2 and 3Months 2 and 3 Preparation periodPreparation period Maximum strength andMaximum strength and general endurancegeneral endurance Months 4 and 5Months 4 and 5 Pre-CompetitionPre-Competition periodperiod Maximum strength andMaximum strength and specific endurancespecific endurance Months 6 and 7Months 6 and 7 Early competitionEarly competition periodperiod Specific endurance andSpecific endurance and sport techniquesport technique Months 8 and 9Months 8 and 9 Peak competitionPeak competition periodperiod Race/match prep andRace/match prep and peak performancepeak performance Months 10 through 12Months 10 through 12 http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/articles/scni19a2.htm
  • 41. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited F.I.T.T PrincipleF.I.T.T Principle  FrequencyFrequency  IntensityIntensity  Time (duration)Time (duration)  Type (methods of training)Type (methods of training)
  • 42. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited FrequencyFrequency  FrequencyFrequency.. The minimum number ofThe minimum number of workouts for cardio respiratoryworkouts for cardio respiratory improvement is 3 times weekly with noimprovement is 3 times weekly with no more than two days between exercisemore than two days between exercise sessions. You should graduallysessions. You should gradually progress to 5 days per week as yourprogress to 5 days per week as your fitness level improves. The benefits offitness level improves. The benefits of exercising beyond 5 days per week canexercising beyond 5 days per week can be negated by an increased injury risk.be negated by an increased injury risk. If you should exercise five days perIf you should exercise five days per week, it is important to lower exerciseweek, it is important to lower exercise intensity.intensity.
  • 43. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited FrequencyFrequency  To improve strength, power and speedTo improve strength, power and speed has an ideal frequency of 3-5 days perhas an ideal frequency of 3-5 days per week. Therefore it is important inweek. Therefore it is important in planning programmes to ensure youplanning programmes to ensure you know which components of fitness areknow which components of fitness are your focus to ensure gains can be made.your focus to ensure gains can be made.
  • 44. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited IntensityIntensity  Training intensity refers to how hard eachTraining intensity refers to how hard each training session will be. Intensitytraining session will be. Intensity measurement is dependant on the typemeasurement is dependant on the type of training used. It can be measured byof training used. It can be measured by heart rate or by resistance levels. We willheart rate or by resistance levels. We will look at both of these separately.look at both of these separately.
  • 45. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Time (duration)Time (duration)  Duration can be used for the length of aDuration can be used for the length of a training session or the length of a trainingtraining session or the length of a training programme. The minimum length of aprogramme. The minimum length of a training programme for improvement is 6training programme for improvement is 6 weeks. However, for real benefits to beweeks. However, for real benefits to be seen aerobic programmes should last forseen aerobic programmes should last for 12 weeks and anaerobic programmes12 weeks and anaerobic programmes should last 8-10 weeks.should last 8-10 weeks.
  • 46. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Time (duration)Time (duration)  In terms of the length of sessions thisIn terms of the length of sessions this should be taken into consideration whenshould be taken into consideration when using the principle of progressiveusing the principle of progressive overload. Therefore duration ofoverload. Therefore duration of individuals sessions can increase over aindividuals sessions can increase over a programme (particularly with aerobicprogramme (particularly with aerobic training).training).
  • 47. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Type of trainingType of training  This refers to the methods of trainingThis refers to the methods of training being implemented in a trainingbeing implemented in a training programme eg continuous training, circuitprogramme eg continuous training, circuit training etc… We will look at thesetraining etc… We will look at these separately. It can also refer to actual typeseparately. It can also refer to actual type of activity eg running, cycling, swimmingof activity eg running, cycling, swimming etc…etc…
  • 48. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Intensity by HeartIntensity by Heart RateRate  Intensity of training can be measured byIntensity of training can be measured by a % of MHR (maximum heart rate).a % of MHR (maximum heart rate).  For training the aerobic systems theFor training the aerobic systems the target heart rate is approx 70-85% oftarget heart rate is approx 70-85% of MHR.MHR.  For training the anaerobic systems theFor training the anaerobic systems the target heart rate is approx 85-100%target heart rate is approx 85-100% MHR.MHR.
  • 49. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Putting it all together-Putting it all together- by heart rateby heart rate Training AspectTraining Aspect Endurance (aerobic)Endurance (aerobic) trainingtraining Sprint (anaerobic)Sprint (anaerobic) trainingtraining FrequencyFrequency 4-7 days/week4-7 days/week 3-5 days/week3-5 days/week IntensityIntensity Heart Rate: 70-85%Heart Rate: 70-85% MHRMHR Heart rate:85-100%Heart rate:85-100% MHRMHR Sessions per daySessions per day 11 11 DurationDuration 12-16 weeks or12-16 weeks or longerlonger 8-10 weeks8-10 weeks Distance/workoutDistance/workout 5-8km5-8km 3-4km3-4km (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)
  • 50. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Intensity byIntensity by resistance.resistance.  Intensity can also be measured byIntensity can also be measured by resistance. It is measured against yourresistance. It is measured against your repetition maximum (RM). Eg 1RM is therepetition maximum (RM). Eg 1RM is the maximum you can lift in one rep. 10RM ismaximum you can lift in one rep. 10RM is the maximum you can lift in 10 reps. Thisthe maximum you can lift in 10 reps. This differs depending on what you arediffers depending on what you are training eg strength, power etc…training eg strength, power etc…
  • 51. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Putting it all together-Putting it all together- by resistance.by resistance. FitnessFitness ComponentComponent WeightWeight 1RM or1RM or RMRM RepsReps SetsSets SpeedSpeed RestRest betweenbetween SetsSets FrequencyFrequency per weekper week StrengthStrength VeryVery Heavy 80-Heavy 80- 95% or 2-95% or 2- 6 RM6 RM 2-62-6 5-125-12 SlowSlow 3-5mins3-5mins 3-43-4 HypertrophyHypertrophy (bulk)(bulk) Heavy 70-Heavy 70- 80% or 6-80% or 6- 12 RM12 RM 6-126-12 3-103-10 SlowSlow 1-3mins1-3mins 3-63-6 PowerPower MediumMedium 60-80%60-80% or 8-20or 8-20 RMRM 2-102-10 3-83-8 FastFast 3-5mins3-5mins 3-43-4 EnduranceEndurance Light 40-Light 40- 60% or60% or 20-40 RM20-40 RM 15-4015-40 2-52-5 FastFast 1-3mins1-3mins 3-63-6 (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)
  • 52. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited VarietyVariety  Variety adds spice to your programme,Variety adds spice to your programme, and helps you to stay motivated. You caand helps you to stay motivated. You ca do this by varying…do this by varying…  How you train (Methods)How you train (Methods)  Where you trainWhere you train  How hard you train (Intensity)How hard you train (Intensity)  Who you train withWho you train with
  • 53. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Acute and chronicAcute and chronic effects of exercise.effects of exercise.  These are physiological changes thatThese are physiological changes that occur in response to the demands ofoccur in response to the demands of exercise. Acute effects are thoseexercise. Acute effects are those responses that occur while you areresponses that occur while you are exercising and in the recovery period.exercising and in the recovery period. Chronic effects are long term adaptationsChronic effects are long term adaptations that take at least 6 weeks to occur.that take at least 6 weeks to occur.
  • 54. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Acute effects of exerciseAcute effects of exercise on the bodyon the body (Immediate)(Immediate)
  • 55. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Heart RateIncreased Heart Rate  When you exerciseWhen you exercise your heart rate (beatsyour heart rate (beats per minute)per minute) increases to increaseincreases to increase the supply of oxygenthe supply of oxygen to your workingto your working muscles.muscles.
  • 56. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased RespirationIncreased Respiration RateRate  Respiratory rate is theRespiratory rate is the number of breathsnumber of breaths taken in one minute.taken in one minute. During exerciseDuring exercise amounts of carbonamounts of carbon dioxide increases as itdioxide increases as it is a waste productis a waste product and the respiratoryand the respiratory rate increases torate increases to increase oxygen andincrease oxygen and decrease carbondecrease carbon dioxide.dioxide.
  • 57. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased StrokeIncreased Stroke VolumeVolume  Stroke volume is theStroke volume is the amount of bloodamount of blood pumped out of yourpumped out of your left ventricle withleft ventricle with each beat of theeach beat of the heart. This increasesheart. This increases to increase oxygento increase oxygen supply to workingsupply to working muscles.muscles.
  • 58. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased CardiacIncreased Cardiac Output-QOutput-Q  Cardiac output is theCardiac output is the amount of bloodamount of blood pumped out of thepumped out of the left ventricle in 1left ventricle in 1 minute.minute.  Q=stroke volume xQ=stroke volume x heart rate.heart rate.  Q=SV x HRQ=SV x HR
  • 59. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased VOIncreased VO22  Oxygen uptake (VOOxygen uptake (VO22)) is the amount ofis the amount of oxygen that is takenoxygen that is taken up and used by theup and used by the body to producebody to produce energy.energy.
  • 60. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased TidalIncreased Tidal VolumeVolume  Tidal volume is theTidal volume is the size of each breathsize of each breath and this increasesand this increases with exercise as thewith exercise as the body tries to increasebody tries to increase oxygen flow to theoxygen flow to the blood.blood.
  • 61. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased SystolicIncreased Systolic Blood PressureBlood Pressure  Systolic bloodSystolic blood pressure is thepressure is the pressure as the leftpressure as the left ventricle ejects bloodventricle ejects blood into the aorta. Diastolicinto the aorta. Diastolic is the pressure in theis the pressure in the arteries. Only thearteries. Only the systolic pressuresystolic pressure increases duringincreases during exercise.exercise.
  • 62. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Arterio-Increased Arterio- venous Ovenous O22 differencedifference  This is the differenceThis is the difference between the Obetween the O22 concentration in theconcentration in the arteries and in thearteries and in the veins. As more Oveins. As more O22 isis used during exerciseused during exercise this differencethis difference increases.increases.
  • 63. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased Blood toIncreased Blood to working musclesworking muscles  Due to increasedDue to increased need for O2 duringneed for O2 during exercise blood isexercise blood is distributed moredistributed more where it is required inwhere it is required in working muscles.working muscles.
  • 64. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Decreased muscleDecreased muscle Glycogen storesGlycogen stores  Muscle glycogenMuscle glycogen stores are decreasedstores are decreased while exercising aswhile exercising as they are being usedthey are being used by the body forby the body for energy production.energy production.
  • 65. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Decreased bloodDecreased blood plasma volumeplasma volume  Due to increasedDue to increased sweating, the bloodsweating, the blood plasma volumeplasma volume usually decreasesusually decreases during strenuousduring strenuous exercise and hotexercise and hot weather.weather.
  • 66. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Chronic Effects ofChronic Effects of exercise on the bodyexercise on the body (Long Term)(Long Term)
  • 67. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited More efficient use ofMore efficient use of OO22 because…because…
  • 68. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased BloodIncreased Blood Volume andVolume and haemoglobin levelshaemoglobin levels  Training stimulatesTraining stimulates an increase inan increase in plasma volume asplasma volume as well as in the numberwell as in the number of red blood cellsof red blood cells (and therefore(and therefore haemoglobin thathaemoglobin that carries Ocarries O2.2.
  • 69. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased OIncreased O22 carryingcarrying capacity of bloodcapacity of blood  This is due to theThis is due to the increase in plasma,increase in plasma, haemoglobin as wellhaemoglobin as well as increases in bloodas increases in blood vessels etc…andvessels etc…and overall greateroverall greater efficiency.efficiency.
  • 70. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Lungs can take in andLungs can take in and distribute more Odistribute more O22  Increased VOIncreased VO22 Max.Max. This occurs due toThis occurs due to increased tidalincreased tidal volume as well asvolume as well as improved ability toimproved ability to attract Oattract O22 from thefrom the alveoli onto the redalveoli onto the red blood cells.blood cells.
  • 71. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased number ofIncreased number of blood vesselsblood vessels  Efficiency is alsoEfficiency is also improved as theimproved as the number of bloodnumber of blood vessels is increased.vessels is increased. Particularly theParticularly the capillaries wherecapillaries where gaseous exchangegaseous exchange takes place.takes place.
  • 72. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased blood supplyIncreased blood supply as increasedas increased capillariescapillaries
  • 73. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Cardiac HypertrophyCardiac Hypertrophy  The size of the heartThe size of the heart increases. Forincreases. For endurance theendurance the chambers get largerchambers get larger (particularly the left(particularly the left ventricle) and for nonventricle) and for non endurance theendurance the thickness of thethickness of the ventricle wallsventricle walls increases.increases.
  • 74. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Decreased restingDecreased resting heart rateheart rate  Your resting heartYour resting heart rate decreases withrate decreases with fitness due to greaterfitness due to greater efficiency of systems.efficiency of systems.
  • 75. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased StrokeIncreased Stroke volume at restvolume at rest  The heart developsThe heart develops larger chamberslarger chambers and/or thicker wallsand/or thicker walls and improvedand improved efficiency. Thereforeefficiency. Therefore the stroke volumethe stroke volume increases and thisincreases and this relates to therelates to the decrease in restingdecrease in resting heart rate.heart rate.
  • 76. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited More glycogen storedMore glycogen stored in musclein muscle  Greater amounts ofGreater amounts of fuel are stored forfuel are stored for use in enduranceuse in endurance events. (For non-events. (For non- endurance ATP andendurance ATP and CP stores areCP stores are increased.increased.
  • 77. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased size ofIncreased size of musclemuscle  In non-enduranceIn non-endurance athletes the size ofathletes the size of the muscle isthe muscle is increased due toincreased due to hypertrophy of fasthypertrophy of fast twitch fibres, intwitch fibres, in endurance twitchendurance twitch fibres, increasedfibres, increased numbers ofnumbers of capillaries, increasedcapillaries, increased strength in connectivestrength in connective tissues eg tendons,tissues eg tendons, ligaments.ligaments.
  • 78. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Increased strength ofIncreased strength of musclemuscle  In non-enduranceIn non-endurance athletes the size ofathletes the size of the muscle isthe muscle is increased due toincreased due to hypertrophy of fasthypertrophy of fast twitch fibres,twitch fibres, increased numbersincreased numbers of capillaries,of capillaries, increased strength inincreased strength in connective tissuesconnective tissues eg tendons,eg tendons, ligaments.ligaments.
  • 79. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Effects of exerciseEffects of exercise  When completing a training programmeWhen completing a training programme both acute and chronic effects ofboth acute and chronic effects of exercise should be monitored this is partexercise should be monitored this is part of ensuring that improvements areof ensuring that improvements are measurable. This can occur through goalmeasurable. This can occur through goal setting. Goal setting for programmessetting. Goal setting for programmes should follow the S.M.A.R.T principle.should follow the S.M.A.R.T principle.
  • 80. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited S.M.A.R.T GOALSS.M.A.R.T GOALS
  • 81. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited S.M.A.R.T GoalsS.M.A.R.T Goals  These may relate to acute and chronicThese may relate to acute and chronic effects of exercise and what you areeffects of exercise and what you are trying to improve or it may relate to whattrying to improve or it may relate to what fitness components you are trying tofitness components you are trying to improve. They could also involve longimprove. They could also involve long term achievement. However, these goalsterm achievement. However, these goals should be measurable. These goals willshould be measurable. These goals will only be achievable if the trainingonly be achievable if the training principles and methods of training areprinciples and methods of training are carefully considered.carefully considered.
  • 82. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training Methods.Training Methods.  There are various types of training thatThere are various types of training that can be used in a training programme.can be used in a training programme. These again will relate back to whatThese again will relate back to what components of fitness you have chosen/orcomponents of fitness you have chosen/or been given to develop. They will alsobeen given to develop. They will also depend on what energy systems you aredepend on what energy systems you are trying to develop. The following examplestrying to develop. The following examples are brief and research will need to occurare brief and research will need to occur into developing relevant exercises withininto developing relevant exercises within these methods.these methods.
  • 83. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Continuous TrainingContinuous Training  Continuous exerciseContinuous exercise for minimum offor minimum of 20mins. Particularly20mins. Particularly for cardio-respiratoryfor cardio-respiratory endurance andendurance and muscular endurance.muscular endurance. Energy systemEnergy system predominantlypredominantly aerobic glycolysis.aerobic glycolysis.
  • 84. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Fartlek trainingFartlek training  This is a type ofThis is a type of continuous trainingcontinuous training that includes bursts ofthat includes bursts of speed so that relevantspeed so that relevant energy systems areenergy systems are worked. Thereforeworked. Therefore cardio-respiratorycardio-respiratory endurance, muscularendurance, muscular endurance and speedendurance and speed are all developed.are all developed. This increases theThis increases the use of the anaerobicuse of the anaerobic glycolysis system asglycolysis system as well as aerobicwell as aerobic glycolysis.glycolysis.
  • 85. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Circuit trainingCircuit training  A combination ofA combination of continuous and resistancecontinuous and resistance training. It can train atraining. It can train a variety of fitnessvariety of fitness components such ascomponents such as cardio-respiratorycardio-respiratory endurance, muscularendurance, muscular endurance, speed agilityendurance, speed agility etc… Therefore dependingetc… Therefore depending on how the circuit is set iton how the circuit is set it can work the aerobiccan work the aerobic glycolysis and anaerobicglycolysis and anaerobic glycolysis systems. It canglycolysis systems. It can be set up specifically tobe set up specifically to include sports skills andinclude sports skills and use of relevant muscleuse of relevant muscle groups etc…groups etc…
  • 86. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Plyometric trainingPlyometric training  Involves exercises suchInvolves exercises such as bounding, hopping,as bounding, hopping, jumping and medicinejumping and medicine ball passing.ball passing. Plyometrics helpsPlyometrics helps improve power andimprove power and explosiveness for sportsexplosiveness for sports especially sports thatespecially sports that involve jumping,involve jumping, throwing and speed. Itthrowing and speed. It can train the ATP/CPcan train the ATP/CP system and thesystem and the anaerobic glycolysisanaerobic glycolysis sytems.sytems.
  • 87. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Swiss ball trainingSwiss ball training  Was used at one stageWas used at one stage for rehabilitation.for rehabilitation. However benefits suchHowever benefits such as improved coreas improved core stability, prime moverstability, prime mover strength, balance,strength, balance, dynamic flexibility anddynamic flexibility and co-ordination haveco-ordination have increased use inincreased use in training programmes.training programmes. Depending on howDepending on how these exercises arethese exercises are used all three energyused all three energy systems can besystems can be trained.trained.
  • 88. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Resistance trainingResistance training  Depending on use inDepending on use in a programme thisa programme this type of training cantype of training can develop, musculardevelop, muscular strength, power andstrength, power and endurance. See recapendurance. See recap on following slide.on following slide. Muscular enduranceMuscular endurance works the aerobicworks the aerobic glycolysis sytem whileglycolysis sytem while the other two work thethe other two work the ATP/CP andATP/CP and anaerobic glycolysisanaerobic glycolysis systems.systems.
  • 89. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Putting it all together-byPutting it all together-by resistance.resistance. FitnessFitness ComponentComponent WeightWeight 1RM or1RM or RMRM RepsReps SetsSets SpeedSpeed RestRest betweenbetween SetsSets FrequencyFrequency per weekper week StrengthStrength VeryVery Heavy 80-Heavy 80- 95% or 2-95% or 2- 6 RM6 RM 2-62-6 5-125-12 SlowSlow 3-5mins3-5mins 3-43-4 HypertrophyHypertrophy (bulk)(bulk) Heavy 70-Heavy 70- 80% or 6-80% or 6- 12 RM12 RM 6-126-12 3-103-10 SlowSlow 1-3mins1-3mins 3-63-6 PowerPower MediumMedium 60-80%60-80% or 8-20or 8-20 RMRM 2-102-10 3-83-8 FastFast 3-5mins3-5mins 3-43-4 EnduranceEndurance Light 40-Light 40- 60% or60% or 20-40 RM20-40 RM 15-4015-40 2-52-5 FastFast 1-3mins1-3mins 3-63-6 (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999)
  • 90. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Flexibility trainingFlexibility training  Used to improve your jointUsed to improve your joint and muscle flexibility. Thereand muscle flexibility. There are 2 major types of flexibilityare 2 major types of flexibility training.training.  PNF (proprioceptivePNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation)neuromuscular facilitation) where you take a muscle towhere you take a muscle to its maximum range, thenits maximum range, then contract the muscle againstcontract the muscle against an immovable resistance eg aan immovable resistance eg a partner.partner.  Static (passive) stretchingStatic (passive) stretching whichwhich involves taking a muscle to itsinvolves taking a muscle to its greatest range and holding it for atgreatest range and holding it for at least 30 secs. Both types improveleast 30 secs. Both types improve flexibilty and work the aerobicflexibilty and work the aerobic glycolysis system.glycolysis system.
  • 91. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Interval-sprint trainingInterval-sprint training  In this type of trainingIn this type of training work intervals arework intervals are followed by restfollowed by rest intervals. I t isintervals. I t is designed to improvedesigned to improve speed, power andspeed, power and agility. Short intervalagility. Short interval training works thetraining works the ATP/CP system andATP/CP system and long interval traininglong interval training works the anaerobicworks the anaerobic glycolysis system.glycolysis system.
  • 92. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Aerobic floor classesAerobic floor classes  Aerobic floor classesAerobic floor classes are a type ofare a type of continuous training,continuous training, but also includebut also include callisthenic exercisescallisthenic exercises usually found in circuitusually found in circuit training it workstraining it works cardio –respiratorycardio –respiratory endurance, strength,endurance, strength, muscular endurance,muscular endurance, flexibility and agilityflexibility and agility and predominantlyand predominantly uses the aerobicuses the aerobic glycolysis system.glycolysis system.
  • 93. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Training principles,Training principles, methods of training andmethods of training and exercise physiology.exercise physiology.  All of these topics interrelate and shouldAll of these topics interrelate and should be considered carefully when planning orbe considered carefully when planning or evaluating a programme. This is relevantevaluating a programme. This is relevant whether you are designing or have beenwhether you are designing or have been supplied with a programme. Looksupplied with a programme. Look carefully at the focus and intendedcarefully at the focus and intended outcomes of the programme in relation tooutcomes of the programme in relation to the specific activity sport or componentsthe specific activity sport or components that are being trained for.that are being trained for.
  • 94. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited ApplicationApplication  In using the knowledge from this moduleIn using the knowledge from this module the application is just as important as thethe application is just as important as the knowledge. Examples of use of trainingknowledge. Examples of use of training principles, methods of training andprinciples, methods of training and exercise physiology knowledge is howexercise physiology knowledge is how these are all applied to your specificthese are all applied to your specific situation/sport/activity or component.situation/sport/activity or component. There is a separate power point onThere is a separate power point on application to physical activity.application to physical activity.
  • 95. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Critical thinking onCritical thinking on programmes.programmes. We must consider theWe must consider the limitations of thelimitations of the knowledge in thisknowledge in this module. Thismodule. This includes ideologiesincludes ideologies such as “healthism”.such as “healthism”.
  • 96. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited HealthismHealthism  Healthism is a set ofHealthism is a set of assumptions basedassumptions based on the belief thaton the belief that health is solely anhealth is solely an individualindividual responsibility. Itresponsibility. It includes the conceptincludes the concept of the body as aof the body as a machine that ismachine that is influenced only byinfluenced only by physical factors.physical factors.  (Health and Physical(Health and Physical Education. The curriculum inEducation. The curriculum in action. Making meaning:action. Making meaning: Making a difference. (2004)Making a difference. (2004)
  • 97. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited Biophysical focus.Biophysical focus.  This module has focused on theThis module has focused on the biophysical aspects of training forbiophysical aspects of training for performance improvement.performance improvement.  It should be considered that all of thisIt should be considered that all of this does consider the body as a machinedoes consider the body as a machine and has not focused on theand has not focused on the environmental and social effects thatenvironmental and social effects that have influence on an individual.have influence on an individual.
  • 98. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited LimitationsLimitations  Contained within what has come to beContained within what has come to be called the ideology of “healthism” is acalled the ideology of “healthism” is a system of beliefs that defines health-system of beliefs that defines health- promoting activities, such as involvementpromoting activities, such as involvement in some form of physical fitness program,in some form of physical fitness program, as aas a moralmoral obligation (Crawford, 1980).obligation (Crawford, 1980). http://www.rcscs.uottawa.ca/Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
  • 99. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited LimitationsLimitations  Perceptions of health and the body are aPerceptions of health and the body are a social construction. In contemporarysocial construction. In contemporary Western culture, physical and healthWestern culture, physical and health ideals are congruent and emphasize bothideals are congruent and emphasize both slimness and muscularity, but do soslimness and muscularity, but do so differently for men and women.differently for men and women. http://www.rcscs.uottawa.ca/Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
  • 100. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited LimitationsLimitations  For women, slimness is believed to be anFor women, slimness is believed to be an unmistakable sign of self-restraint, andunmistakable sign of self-restraint, and discipline. The thin person is andiscipline. The thin person is an exemplar of mastery of mind over bodyexemplar of mastery of mind over body and virtuous self-denial (Crawford, 1984).and virtuous self-denial (Crawford, 1984). For men, muscular bulk carriesFor men, muscular bulk carries significant social value, so long as it issignificant social value, so long as it is not accompanied by visible fat. Fatnot accompanied by visible fat. Fat signified the loss of control, a moralsignified the loss of control, a moral failure, a sign of impulsiveness, self-failure, a sign of impulsiveness, self- indulgence and sloth.indulgence and sloth.http://www.rcscs.uottawa.ca/Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
  • 101. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited LimitationsLimitations  The real champions of the ideology ofThe real champions of the ideology of healthism have been the educatedhealthism have been the educated middle-class. Fitness and fitnessmiddle-class. Fitness and fitness education are geared towards theeducation are geared towards the middle-class who are predisposed tomiddle-class who are predisposed to regarding the body as a project to beregarding the body as a project to be managed and improved through self-managed and improved through self- improvement as an integral means toimprovement as an integral means to structure identity and social mobilitystructure identity and social mobility (Bourdieu, 1984; Crawford, 1984).(Bourdieu, 1984; Crawford, 1984).
  • 102. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited LimitationsLimitations  Programs have becomePrograms have become an exercise in humanan exercise in human engineering aimed atengineering aimed at transforming the humantransforming the human body into an efficient,body into an efficient, inexhaustible machine.inexhaustible machine. Like any finely tunedLike any finely tuned machine, it must bemachine, it must be managed, maintained,managed, maintained, conditioned, and fueled.conditioned, and fueled. http://www.rcscs.uottawa.ca/Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
  • 103. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited How can we use theHow can we use the limitations in ourlimitations in our application.application.  In writing our programmes we can useIn writing our programmes we can use different dimensions of hauora to developdifferent dimensions of hauora to develop our goals and outcomes. If we take intoour goals and outcomes. If we take into consideration Taha whanauconsideration Taha whanau (social/family), Taha hinengaro(social/family), Taha hinengaro (mental/emotional), Taha wairua(mental/emotional), Taha wairua (spiritual), as well as Taha tinana(spiritual), as well as Taha tinana (physical) and what these mean to us(physical) and what these mean to us individually then we are looking beyondindividually then we are looking beyond the body as a machine.the body as a machine.
  • 104. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited How can we use theHow can we use the limitations in ourlimitations in our application.application.  We can also considerWe can also consider the barriers andthe barriers and enablers that mayenablers that may effect oureffect our programme. Theseprogramme. These will also be beyondwill also be beyond just the physical andjust the physical and will consider social,will consider social, environmental, andenvironmental, and cultural influences.cultural influences.
  • 105. Copyright © 2006 PE Resources LimitedCopyright © 2006 PE Resources Limited BibliographyBibliography  WebsitesWebsites  http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htmhttp://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/bodytype.htm  BooksBooks http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/articles/scni19a2.htm http://www.rcscs.uottawa.ca/Employee Fitness Programs.pdf http://www.tki.org.nz/r/health/curriculum/statement/page8_e.phphttp://www.tki.org.nz/r/health/curriculum/statement/page8_e.php VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999)VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999)